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1.  Intratibial Injection of Human Multiple Myeloma Cells in NOD/SCID IL-2Rγ(Null) Mice Mimics Human Myeloma and Serves as a Valuable Tool for the Development of Anticancer Strategies 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79939.
Background
We systematically analyzed multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines and patient bone marrow cells for their engraftment capacity in immunodeficient mice and validated the response of the resulting xenografts to antimyeloma agents.
Design and Methods
Using flow cytometry and near infrared fluorescence in-vivo-imaging, growth kinetics of MM cell lines L363 and RPMI8226 and patient bone marrow cells were investigated with use of a murine subcutaneous bone implant, intratibial and intravenous approach in NOD/SCID, NOD/SCID treated with CD122 antibody and NOD/SCID IL-2Rγ(null) mice (NSG).
Results
Myeloma growth was significantly increased in the absence of natural killer cell activity (NSG or αCD122-treated NOD/SCID). Comparison of NSG and αCD122-treated NOD/SCID revealed enhanced growth kinetics in the former, especially with respect to metastatic tumor sites which were exclusively observed therein. In NSG, MM cells were more tumorigenic when injected intratibially than intravenously. In NOD/SCID in contrast, the use of juvenile long bone implants was superior to intratibial or intravenous cancer cell injection. Using the intratibial NSG model, mice developed typical disease symptoms exclusively when implanted with human MM cell lines or patient-derived bone marrow cells, but not with healthy bone marrow cells nor in mock-injected animals. Bortezomib and dexamethasone delayed myeloma progression in L363- as well as patient-derived MM cell bearing NSG. Antitumor activity could be quantified via flow cytometry and in vivo imaging analyses.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that the intratibial NSG MM model mimics the clinical situation of the disseminated disease and serves as a valuable tool in the development of novel anticancer strategies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079939
PMCID: PMC3819303  PMID: 24223204
2.  The 3' Untranslated Region of the Cyclin B mRNA Is Not Sufficient to Enhance the Synthesis of Cyclin B during a Mitotic Block in Human Cells 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74379.
Antimitotic agents are frequently used to treat solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. However, one major limitation of antimitotic approaches is mitotic slippage, which is driven by slow degradation of cyclin B during a mitotic block. The extent to which cyclin B levels decline is proposed to be governed by an equilibrium between cyclin B synthesis and degradation. It was recently shown that the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the murine cyclin B mRNA contributes to the synthesis of cyclin B during mitosis in murine cells. Using a novel live-cell imaging-based technique allowing us to study synthesis and degradation of cyclin B simultaneously at the single cell level, we tested here the role of the human cyclin B 3'UTR in regulating cyclin B synthesis during mitosis in human cells. We observed that the cyclin B 3'UTR was not sufficient to enhance cyclin B synthesis in human U2Os, HeLa or hTERT RPE-1 cells. A better understanding of how the equilibrium of cyclin B is regulated in mitosis may contribute to the development of improved therapeutic approaches to prevent mitotic slippage in cancer cells treated with antimitotic agents.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074379
PMCID: PMC3772928  PMID: 24058555
3.  Cell cycle control in acute myeloid leukemia 
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the result of a multistep transforming process of hematopoietic precursor cells (HPCs) which enables them to proceed through limitless numbers of cell cycles and to become resistant to cell death. Increased proliferation renders these cells vulnerable to acquiring mutations and may favor leukemic transformation. Here, we review how deregulated cell cycle control contributes to increased proliferation in AML and favors genomic instability, a prerequisite to confer selective advantages to particular clones in order to adapt and independently proliferate in the presence of a changing microenvironment. We discuss the connection between differentiation and proliferation with regard to leukemogenesis and outline the impact of specific alterations on response to therapy. Finally, we present examples, how a better understanding of cell cycle regulation and deregulation has already led to new promising therapeutic strategies.
PMCID: PMC3433102  PMID: 22957304
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML); cell cycle; genetic instability; proliferation; differentiation
4.  The emerging role of APC/CCdh1 in controlling differentiation, genomic stability and tumor suppression 
Oncogene  2009;29(1):1-10.
Summary
Deregulation of the G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle can lead to cancer. During G1, most cells commit alternatively to DNA replication and division, or to cell cycle exit and differentiation. The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) activated by Cdh1 coordinately eliminates positive cell cycle regulators and also inhibitors of differentiation, coupling cell cycle exit and differentiation. Misregulation of Cdh1 thus has the potential to promote both cell cycle re-entry and either perturbed differentiation or dedifferentiation. Additionally, APC/CCdh1 is required to maintain genomic stability. As a result, loss of Cdh1 can contribute to tumorigenesis in the form of proliferation of poorly differentiated and genetically unstable cells.
doi:10.1038/onc.2009.325
PMCID: PMC3102600  PMID: 19826416
anaphase-promoting complex; ubiquitin; proteasome; differentiation; genomic instability; tumor suppression
5.  Genetic and Biochemical Evaluation of the Importance of Cdc6 in Regulating Mitotic ExitD⃞ 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2003;14(11):4592-4604.
We evaluated the hypothesis that the N-terminal region of the replication control protein Cdc6 acts as an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity, promoting mitotic exit. Cdc6 accumulation is restricted to the period from mid-cell cycle until the succeeding G1, due to proteolytic control that requires the Cdc6 N-terminal region. During late mitosis, Cdc6 is present at levels comparable with Sic1 and binds specifically to the mitotic cyclin Clb2. Moderate overexpression of Cdc6 promotes viability of CLB2Δdb strains, which otherwise arrest at mitotic exit, and rescue is dependent on the N-terminal putative Cdk-inhibitory domain. These observations support the potential for Cdc6 to inhibit Clb2-Cdk, thus promoting mitotic exit. Consistent with this idea, we observed a cytokinesis defect in cdh1Δ sic1Δ cdc6Δ2–49 triple mutants. However, we were able to construct viable strains, in three different backgrounds, containing neither SIC1 nor the Cdc6 Cdk-inhibitory domain, in contradiction to previous work. We conclude, therefore, that although both Cdc6 and Sic1 have the potential to facilitate mitotic exit by inhibiting Clb2-Cdk, mitotic exit nevertheless does not require any identified stoichiometric inhibitor of Cdk activity.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-06-0384
PMCID: PMC313736  PMID: 12960422

Results 1-5 (5)