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1.  Oncogenic signaling by tyrosine kinases of the SRC family in advanced colorectal cancer 
The non-receptor tyrosine kinases of the SRC family (SFK) play important roles in signal transduction induced by a large variety of extracellular stimuli, including growth factors and Integrins. When deregulated, SFKs show oncogenic activity, as originally reported for v-Src, the transforming product of the avian retrovirus RSV, and then, in many human cancers, particularly colorectal cancer (CRC). In CRC, SFK deregulation largely occurs in the absence of mutations of the corresponding genes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms involved are still unclear. In addition to a role in early tumor progression, SFK deregulation may also be important in advanced CRC, as suggested by the association between increased SFK activity and poor clinical outcome. However, SFK contribution to CRC metastasis formation is still poorly documented. Here, we will review recent findings that broaden our understanding of the mechanisms underlying SFK deregulation and signaling in advanced CRC. We will also discuss the implication of these observations for SFK-based therapy in metastatic CRC.
PMCID: PMC3410585  PMID: 22860228
Non-receptor tyrosine kinases; signal transduction; colorectal cancer (CRC); early tumor progression; advanced CRC
2.  Specific Oncogenic Activity of the Src-Family Tyrosine Kinase c-Yes in Colon Carcinoma Cells 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(2):e17237.
c-Yes, a member of the Src tyrosine kinase family, is found highly activated in colon carcinoma but its importance relative to c-Src has remained unclear. Here we show that, in HT29 colon carcinoma cells, silencing of c-Yes, but not of c-Src, selectively leads to an increase of cell clustering associated with a localisation of β-catenin at cell membranes and a reduction of expression of β-catenin target genes. c-Yes silencing induced an increase in apoptosis, inhibition of growth in soft-agar and in mouse xenografts, inhibition of cell migration and loss of the capacity to generate liver metastases in mice. Re-introduction of c-Yes, but not c -Src, restores transforming properties of c-Yes depleted cells. Moreover, we found that c-Yes kinase activity is required for its role in β-catenin localisation and growth in soft agar, whereas kinase activity is dispensable for its role in cell migration. We conclude that c-Yes regulates specific oncogenic signalling pathways important for colon cancer progression that is not shared with c-Src.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017237
PMCID: PMC3044743  PMID: 21390316
3.  The Csk-binding protein PAG regulates PDGF-induced Src mitogenic signaling via GM1 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2008;182(3):603-614.
Spatial regulation is an important feature of signal specificity elicited by cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases of the Src family (SRC family protein tyrosine kinases [SFK]). Cholesterol-enriched membrane domains, such as caveolae, regulate association of SFK with the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), which is needed for kinase activation and mitogenic signaling. PAG, a ubiquitously expressed member of the transmembrane adaptor protein family, is known to negatively regulate SFK signaling though binding to Csk. We report that PAG modulates PDGFR levels in caveolae and SFK mitogenic signaling through a Csk-independent mechanism. Regulation of SFK mitogenic activity by PAG requires the first N-terminal 97 aa (PAG-N), which include the extracellular and transmembrane domains, palmitoylation sites, and a short cytoplasmic sequence. We also show that PAG-N increases ganglioside GM1 levels at the cell surface and, thus, displaces PDGFR from caveolae, a process that requires the ganglioside-specific sialidase Neu-3. In conclusion, PAG regulates PDGFR membrane partitioning and SFK mitogenic signaling by modulating GM1 levels within caveolae independently from Csk.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200705102
PMCID: PMC2500143  PMID: 18695048
4.  The Tom1L1-clathrin heavy chain complex regulates membrane partitioning of the tyrosine kinase Src required for mitogenic and transforming activities 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2007;27(21):7631-7640.
Compartmentalization of Src tyrosine kinases (SFK) plays an important role for signal transduction induced by a number of extracellular stimuli. For example, Src mitogenic signaling induced by the growth factor Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is initiated in cholesterol-enriched microdomains caveolae. How this Src sub-cellular localization is regulated is largely unknown. Here we show that the Tom1L1-Clathrin Heavy Chain (CHC) complex negatively regulates the level of SFK in caveolae needed for the induction of DNA synthesis. Tom1L1 is both an interactor and a substrate of SFK. Intriguingly, it stimulates Src activity without promoting mitogenic signaling. We found that, upon association with CHC, Tom1L1 reduced the level of SFK in caveolae, thereby preventing its association with the PDGF receptor, which is required for the induction of mitogenesis. Similarly, the Tom1L1-CHC complex reduced also the level of oncogenic Src in cholesterol-enriched microdomains, thus affecting both its capacity to induce DNA synthesis and cell transformation. Conversely, Tom1L1, when not associated with CHC, accumulated in caveolae and promoted Src-driven DNA synthesis. We concluded that the Tom1L1-CHC complex defines a novel mechanism involved in negative regulation of mitogenic and transforming signals, by modulating SFK partitioning at the plasma membrane.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00543-07
PMCID: PMC2169060  PMID: 17785434
Animals; Caveolae; enzymology; Cell Membrane; enzymology; Cell Transformation; Neoplastic; Clathrin Heavy Chains; metabolism; DNA; biosynthesis; Hela Cells; Humans; Mice; Multiprotein Complexes; metabolism; NIH 3T3 Cells; Protein Transport; Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src); metabolism; Receptors; Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; metabolism; src-Family Kinases; chemistry; metabolism
5.  The Tom1L1-Clathrin Heavy Chain Complex Regulates Membrane Partitioning of the Tyrosine Kinase Src Required for Mitogenic and Transforming Activities▿  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2007;27(21):7631-7640.
Compartmentalization of Src tyrosine kinases (SFK) plays an important role in signal transduction induced by a number of extracellular stimuli. For example, Src mitogenic signaling induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is initiated in cholesterol-enriched microdomain caveolae. How this Src subcellular localization is regulated is largely unknown. Here we show that the Tom1L1-clathrin heavy chain (CHC) complex negatively regulates the level of SFK in caveolae needed for the induction of DNA synthesis. Tom1L1 is both an interactor and a substrate of SFK. Intriguingly, it stimulates Src activity without promoting mitogenic signaling. We found that, upon association with CHC, Tom1L1 reduced the level of SFK in caveolae, thereby preventing its association with the PDGF receptor, which is required for the induction of mitogenesis. Similarly, the Tom1L1-CHC complex reduced also the level of oncogenic Src in cholesterol-enriched microdomains, thus affecting both its capacity to induce DNA synthesis and cell transformation. Conversely, Tom1L1, when not associated with CHC, accumulated in caveolae and promoted Src-driven DNA synthesis. We concluded that the Tom1L1-CHC complex defines a novel mechanism involved in negative regulation of mitogenic and transforming signals, by modulating SFK partitioning at the plasma membrane.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00543-07
PMCID: PMC2169060  PMID: 17785434
6.  The Adaptor Protein Tom1L1 Is a Negative Regulator of Src Mitogenic Signaling Induced by Growth Factors 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2006;26(5):1932-1947.
The Src family of protein-tyrosine kinases (SFK) play important roles in mitogenesis and morphological changes induced by growth factors. The involved substrates are, however, ill defined. Using an antiphosphotyrosine antibody to screen tyrosine-phosphorylated cDNA expression library, we have identified Tom1L1, an adaptor protein of the Tom1 family and a novel substrate and activator of the SFK. Surprisingly, we found that Tom1L1 does not promote DNA synthesis induced by Src. Furthermore, we report that Tom1L1 negatively regulates SFK mitogenic signaling induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) through modulation of SFK-receptor association: (i) Tom1L1 inhibits DNA synthesis induced by PDGF; (ii) inhibition is overcome by c-myc expression or p53 inactivation, two regulators of SFK mitogenic function; (iii) Src or Fyn coexpression overrides Tom1L1 mitogenic activity; (iv) overexpression of the adaptor reduces Src association with the receptor; and (v) protein inactivation potentiates receptor complex formation, allowing increased SFK activation and DNA synthesis. However, Tom1L1 affects neither DNA synthesis induced by the constitutively active allele SrcY527F nor SFK-regulated actin assembly induced by PDGF. Finally, overexpressed Tom1 and Tom1L2 also associate with Src and affected mitogenic signaling in agreement with some redundancy among members of the Tom1 family. We concluded that Tom1L1 defines a novel mechanism for regulation of SFK mitogenic signaling induced by growth factors.
doi:10.1128/MCB.26.5.1932-1947.2006
PMCID: PMC1430241  PMID: 16479011
7.  A Specific Role of Phosphatidylinositol 3–Kinase γ 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2001;152(4):717-728.
Purinergic stimulation of cardiomyocytes turns on a Src family tyrosine kinase–dependent pathway that stimulates PLCγ and generates IP3, a breakdown product of phosphatidylinositol 4,5–bisphosphate (PIP2). This signaling pathway closely regulates cardiac cell autonomic activity (i.e., spontaneous cell Ca2+ spiking). PIP2 is phosphorylated on 3′ by phosphoinositide 3–kinases (PI3Ks) that belong to a broad family of kinase isoforms. The product of PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5–trisphosphate, regulates activity of PLCγ. PI3Ks have emerged as crucial regulators of many cell functions including cell division, cell migration, cell secretion, and, via PLCγ, Ca2+ homeostasis. However, although PI3Kα and -β have been shown to mediate specific cell functions in nonhematopoietic cells, such a role has not been found yet for PI3Kγ.
We report that neonatal rat cardiac cells in culture express PI3Kα, -β, and -γ. The purinergic agonist predominantly activates PI3Kγ. Both wortmannin and LY294002 prevent tyrosine phosphorylation, and membrane translocation of PLCγ as well as IP3 generation in ATP-stimulated cells. Furthermore, an anti-PI3Kγ, but not an anti-PI3Kβ, injected in the cells prevents the effect of ATP on cell Ca2+ spiking. A dominant negative mutant of PI3Kγ transfected in the cells also exerts the same action. The effect of ATP was observed on spontaneous Ca2+ spiking of wild-type but not of PI3Kγ2/2 embryonic stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes. ATP activates the Btk tyrosine kinase, Tec, and induces its association with PLCγ. A dominant negative mutant of Tec blocks the purinergic effect on cell Ca2+ spiking. Tec is translocated to the T-tubes upon ATP stimulation of cardiac cells. Both an anti-PI3Kγ antibody and a dominant negative mutant of PI3Kγ injected or transfected into cells prevent the latter event.
We conclude that PI3Kγ activation is a crucial step in the purinergic regulation of cardiac cell spontaneous Ca2+ spiking. Our data further suggest that Tec works in concert with a Src family kinase and PI3Kγ to fully activate PLCγ in ATP-stimulated cardiac cells. This cluster of kinases provides the cardiomyocyte with a tight regulation of IP3 generation and thus cardiac autonomic activity.
PMCID: PMC2195768  PMID: 11266463
phosphoinositide kinase; calcium; tyrosine kinase; heart; automaticity
8.  Slap Negatively Regulates Src Mitogenic Function but Does Not Revert Src-Induced Cell Morphology Changes 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2000;20(10):3396-3406.
Src-like adapter protein (Slap) is a recently identified protein that negatively regulates mitogenesis in murine fibroblasts (S. Roche, G. Alonso, A. Kazlausakas, V. M. Dixit, S. A. Courtneidge, and A. Pandey, Curr. Biol. 8:975–978, 1998) and comprises an SH3 and SH2 domain with striking identity to the corresponding Src domains. In light of this, we sought to investigate whether Slap could be an antagonist of all Src functions. Like Src, Slap was found to be myristylated in vivo and largely colocalized with Src when coexpressed in Cos7 cells. Microinjection of a Slap-expressing construct into quiescent NIH 3T3 cells inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced DNA synthesis, and the inhibition was rescued by the transcription factor c-Myc but not by c-Jun/c-Fos expression. Fyn (or Src) overexpression overrides the G1/S block induced by both SrcK− and a Slap mutant with a deletion of its C terminus (SlapΔC), but not the block induced by Slap or SlapΔSH3, implying that the C terminus is a noncompetitive inhibitor of Src mitogenic function. Furthermore, a chimeric adapter comprising SrcΔK fused to the Slap C terminus (Src/SlapC) also inhibited Src function during the PDGF response in a noncompetitive manner, as Src coexpression could not rescue PDGF signaling. Slap, however, did not reverse deregulated Src-induced cell transformation, as it was unable to inhibit depolymerization of actin stress fibers while still being able to inhibit SrcY527F-induced DNA synthesis. This was attributed to a distinct Slap SH3 binding specificity, since the chimeric Slap/SrcSH3 molecule, in which the Slap SH3 was replaced by the Src SH3 sequence, substantially restored stress fiber formation. Indeed, three amino acids important for ligand binding in Src SH3 were replaced in the Slap SH3 sequence; Slap SH3 did not bind to the Src SH3 partners p85α, Shc, and Sam68 in vitro, and the chimeric tyrosine kinase Slap/SrcK, composed of SlapΔC fused to the SH2 linker kinase sequence of Src, was not regulated in vivo. Furthermore, the Src SH3 domain is required for signaling during mitogenesis and since Slap/SrcK behaved as a dominant negative in the PDGF mitogenic response when microinjected into quiescent fibroblasts. We conclude that Slap is a negative regulator of Src during mitogenesis involving both the SH2 and the C terminus domains in a noncompetitive manner, but it does not regulate all Src function due to specific SH3 binding substrates.
PMCID: PMC85632  PMID: 10779329
9.  Src Family Tyrosine Kinase Regulates Intracellular pH in Cardiomyocytes  
The Journal of Cell Biology  1998;141(7):1637-1646.
The Anion Cl−/HCO3− Exchangers AE1, AE2, and AE3 are membrane pH regulatory ion transporters ubiquitously expressed in vertebrate tissues. Besides relieving intracellular alkaline and CO2 loads, the AEs have an important function during development and cell death and play a central role in such cellular properties as cell shape, metabolism, and contractility. The activity of AE(s) are regulated by neurohormones. However, little is known as to the intracellular signal transduction pathways that underlie this modulation. We show here that, in cardiomyocytes that express both AE1 and AE3, the purinergic agonist, ATP, triggers activation of anion exchange. The AE activation is observed in cells in which AE3 expression was blocked but not in cells microinjected with neutralizing anti-AE1 antibodies. ATP induces tyrosine phosphorylation of AE1, activation of the tyrosine kinase Fyn, and association of both Fyn and FAK with AE1. Inhibition of Src family kinases in vivo by genistein, herbimycin A, or ST638 prevents purinergic activation of AE1. Microinjection of either anti-Cst.1 antibody or recombinant CSK, both of which prevent activation of Src family kinase, significantly decreases ATP-induced activation of AE. Microinjection of an anti-FAK antibody as well as expression in cardiomyocytes of Phe397 FAK dominant negative mutant, also prevents purinergic activation of AE. Therefore, tyrosine kinases play a key role in acute regulation of intracellular pH and thus in cell function including excitation–contraction coupling of the myocardium.
PMCID: PMC2133004  PMID: 9647655
10.  A Function for Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase β (p85α-p110β) in Fibroblasts during Mitogenesis: Requirement for Insulin- and Lysophosphatidic Acid-Mediated Signal Transduction 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1998;18(12):7119-7129.
We have previously shown that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase α (PI 3-Kα) (p85α-p110α) is required for DNA synthesis induced by various growth factors (S. Roche, M. Koegl, and S. A. Courtneidge, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:9185–9189, 1994) in fibroblasts. In the present study, we have investigated the function of PI 3-Kβ (p85α-p110β) during mitogenesis. By using antibodies specific to p110β we showed that PI 3-Kβ is expressed in NIH 3T3 cells. PI 3-Kβ and PI 3-Kα have common features: PI 3-Kβ is tightly associated with a protein serine kinase that phosphorylates p85α, it interacts with the Src-middle T antigen complex and the activated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor in fibroblasts in vivo, and it becomes tyrosine phosphorylated after PDGF stimulation. PI 3-Kβ was also activated in Swiss 3T3 and Cos7 cells stimulated with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a mitogen that interacts with a heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptor. In contrast PI 3-Kα was activated to a lesser extent in these cells. Microinjection of neutralizing antibodies specific for p110β into quiescent fibroblasts inhibited DNA synthesis induced by both insulin and LPA but poorly affected PDGF receptor signaling. Therefore, PI 3-Kβ plays an important role in transmitting the mitogenic response induced by some, but not all, growth factors. Finally, we show that while oncogenic V12Ras interacts with type I PI 3-Ks, it could induce DNA synthesis in the absence of active PI 3-Kα and PI 3-Kβ, suggesting that Ras uses other effectors for DNA synthesis.
PMCID: PMC109293  PMID: 9819398
11.  Calcium Release at Fertilization in Starfish Eggs Is Mediated by Phospholipase Cγ  
The Journal of Cell Biology  1997;138(6):1303-1311.
Although inositol trisphosphate (IP3) functions in releasing Ca2+ in eggs at fertilization, it is not known how fertilization activates the phospholipase C that produces IP3. To distinguish between a role for PLCγ, which is activated when its two src homology-2 (SH2) domains bind to an activated tyrosine kinase, and PLCβ, which is activated by a G protein, we injected starfish eggs with a PLCγ SH2 domain fusion protein that inhibits activation of PLCγ. In these eggs, Ca2+ release at fertilization was delayed, or with a high concentration of protein and a low concentration of sperm, completely inhibited. The PLCγSH2 protein is a specific inhibitor of PLCγ in the egg, since it did not inhibit PLCβ activation of Ca2+ release initiated by the serotonin 2c receptor, or activation of Ca2+ release by IP3 injection. Furthermore, injection of a PLCγ SH2 domain protein mutated at its phosphotyrosine binding site, or the SH2 domains of another protein (the phosphatase SHP2), did not inhibit Ca2+ release at fertilization. These results indicate that during fertilization of starfish eggs, activation of phospholipase Cγ by an SH2 domain-mediated process stimulates the production of IP3 that causes intracellular Ca2+ release.
PMCID: PMC2132564  PMID: 9298985

Results 1-11 (11)