The cellular development of resistance to chemotherapy contributes to the high mortality noted in patients affected by ovarian cancer. Novel compounds that specifically target cellular drug resistance in ovarian cancer are therefore highly desired. Previous epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of green tea and cruciferous vegetables is inversely associated with occurrence of ovarian cancer. Therefore revealing the effects and mechanisms of major components of green tea (epigallocatechin gallate, EGCG) and cruciferous vegetables (sulforaphane, SFN) on ovarian cancer cells will provide necessary knowledge for developing potential novel treatments for the disease. In this study, EGCG or SFN was used to treat both paclitaxel-sensitive (SKOV3-ip1) and -resistant (SKOV3TR-ip2) ovarian cancer cell lines alone or in combination. We found that SFN inhibits cell viability of both ovarian cancer cell lines time- and dose-dependently and that EGCG potentiates the inhibiting effect of SFN on ovarian cancer cells. Cell cycle analysis indicates SFN can arrest ovarian cancer cells in G2/M phase, while EGCG and SFN co-treatment can arrest cells in both G2/M and S phase. Combined EGCG and SFN treatment increases apoptosis significantly in paclitaxel-resistant SKOV3TR-ip2 cells after 6 days of treatment, while reducing the expression of hTERT, the main regulatory subunit of telomerase. Western blotting also indicates that SFN can down-regulate Bcl-2 (a gene involved in anti-apoptosis) protein levels in both cell types. Cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) becomes up-regulated by 6 days of treatment with SFN and this is more pronounced for combination treatment indicating induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, phosphorylated H2AX is up-regulated after 6 days of treatment with SFN alone, and EGCG can potentiate this effect, suggesting that DNA damage is a potential cellular mechanism contributing to the inhibiting effect of EGCG and SFN combination treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that EGCG and SFN combination treatment can induce apoptosis by down-regulating of hTERT and Bcl-2 and promote DNA damage response specifically in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines and suggest the use of these compounds for overcoming paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer treatment.
ovarian cancer; SKOV3; epigallocatechin gallate; sulforaphane; paclitaxel
Advanced cases of epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, and primary tubal malignancies have a relatively poor prognosis and collectively remain the most deadly of all gynecologic malignancies. Although traditionally thought of as one disease process, ongoing research suggests that there is not 1 single site or cell type from which these cancers arise. A majority of the serous tumors appear to originate from dysplastic lesions in the distal fallopian tube. Therefore, what we have traditionally considered “ovarian” cancer may in fact be tubal in origin. In this article, we will review epithelial ovarian cancer classification and genetics, theories regarding cells of origin with a focus on tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, and implications for prevention and screening.
ovarian carcinogenesis; TP53 mutation; tubal intraepithelial carcinoma
Endoglin (ENG, CD105) is a membranous protein overexpressed in tumor-associated endothelial cells, chemoresistant populations of ovarian cancer cells, and potentially stem cells. Our objective was to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of targeting endoglin in ovarian cancer.
Global and membranous endoglin expression was evaluated in multiple ovarian cancer lines. In vitro, the effects of siRNA-mediated endoglin knockdown with and without chemotherapy were evaluated by MTT assay, cell-cycle analysis, alkaline comet assay, γ-H2AX foci formation, and qPCR. In an orthotopic mouse model, endoglin was targeted with chitosan-encapsulated siRNA with and without carboplatin.
Endoglin expression was surprisingly predominantly cytoplasmic, with a small population of surface-positive cells. Endoglin inhibition decreased cell viability, increased apoptosis, induced double-stranded DNA damage, and increased cisplatin sensitivity. Targeting endoglin downregulates expression of numerous DNA repair genes, including BARD1, H2AFX, NBN, NTHL1, and SIRT1. BARD1 was also associated with platinum resistance, and was induced by platinum exposure. In vivo, anti-endoglin treatment decreased tumor weight in both ES2 and HeyA8MDR models when compared to control (35-41% reduction, p<0.05). Endoglin inhibition with carboplatin was associated with even greater inhibitory effect when compared to control (58-62% reduction, p<0.001).
Endoglin downregulation promotes apoptosis, induces significant DNA damage through modulation of numerous DNA repair genes, and improves platinum sensitivity both in vivo and in vitro. Anti-endoglin therapy would allow dual treatment of both tumor angiogenesis and a subset of aggressive tumor cells expressing endoglin and is being actively pursued as therapy in ovarian cancer.
Endoglin; CD105; platinum resistance; ovarian cancer; siRNA; cancer stem cells
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) ranks first as the cause of death for gynecological cancers in the United States. SUZ12 is a component of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and is essential for PRC2-mediated gene silencing by generating trimethylation on lysine 27 residue of histone H3 (H3K27Me3). The role of SUZ12 in EOC has never been investigated. Here we show that SUZ12 is expressed at significantly higher levels in human EOC (n=117) compared with either normal human ovarian surface epithelium (n=35, p<0.001) or fallopian tube epithelium (n=15, p<0.001). There is a positive correlation between expression of SUZ12 and EZH2 in human EOC (p<0.001). In addition, expression of SUZ12 positively correlates with Ki67, a marker of cell proliferation (p<0.001), and predicts shorter overall survival (p=0.0078). Notably, knockdown of SUZ12 suppresses the growth of human EOC cells in vitro and in vivo in both orthotopic and subcutaneous xenograft EOC models. In addition, SUZ12 knockdown decreases the levels of H3K27Me3 and triggers apoptosis of human EOC cells. Mechanistically, we identified HRK, a pro-apoptotic gene, as a novel SUZ12 target gene, and demonstrated that HRK upregulation mediates apoptosis induced by SUZ12 knockdown in human EOC cells. In summary, we show that SUZ12 promotes the proliferation of human EOC cells by inhibiting apoptosis and HRK is a novel SUZ12 target gene whose upregulation contributes to apoptosis induced by SUZ12 knockdown.
epithelial ovarian cancer; SUZ12; EZH2; HRK; apoptosis
To develop a cost-minimization analysis of a multivariate index assay (MIA) used for women with complex pelvic masses.
A decision analysis model was used to evaluate 81,000 hypothetical patients with a complex pelvic mass requiring surgery. Three strategies were evaluated: (1) referral to a gynecologic oncologist (GO) based on clinical assessment including physical exam, ultrasonography, and CA125 (CLINICAL); (2) utilization of a multivariate index assay (MIA); or (3) referral of all patients to a GO (REFER ALL). Various reoperation rates were evaluated with sensitivity analyses. Actual payer costs were compared between each strategy.
The CLINICAL strategy cost $933.9 million (M) and resulted in 72% of patients receiving appropriate initial surgical staging. The REFER ALL strategy cost $939.7M and all patients were appropriately staged. The MIA strategy cost $976.7M and resulted in 91% of patients having appropriate initial staging. Using conservative reoperation rates (10-20%), 461 patients required reoperation using CLINICAL strategy compared to 142 patients in MIA strategy. Using aggressive reoperation rates (40-50%), 1715 patients required reoperation using CLINICAL strategy resulting in an incremental cost of $15.2M compared to 529 patients at $4.7M in MIA strategy. The increased costs associated with an aggressive reoperation rate resulted in the REFER ALL strategy being the least expensive alternative, with the highest rates of appropriate initial surgery.
Utilizing an MIA resulted in more ovarian cancer patients receiving appropriate initial surgery, but at increased costs. Referring all patients with complex masses avoids the most reoperations at reduced cost compared to using an MIA.
Ovarian cancer; decision analysis; pelvic mass; multivariate index assay
The hedgehog (HH) pathway has been implicated in the formation and maintenance of a variety of malignancies, including ovarian cancer; however, it is unknown whether HH signaling is involved in ovarian cancer chemoresistance. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of antagonizing the HH receptor, Smoothened (Smo), on chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer. Expression of HH pathway members was assessed in 3 pairs of parental and chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780ip2/A2780cp20, SKOV3ip1/SKOV3TRip2, HeyA8/HeyA8MDR) using qPCR and Western blot. Cell lines were exposed to increasing concentrations of two different Smo antagonists (cyclopamine, LDE225) alone and in combination with carboplatin or paclitaxel. Selective knockdown of Smo, Gli1 or Gli2 was achieved using siRNA constructs. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. A2780cp20 and SKOV3TRip2 orthotopic xenografts were treated with vehicle, LDE225, paclitaxel or combination therapy. Chemoresistant cell lines demonstrated higher expression (>2-fold, p<0.05) of HH signaling components compared to their respective parental lines. Smo antagonists sensitized chemotherapy-resistant cell lines to paclitaxel, but not to carboplatin. LDE225 treatment also increased sensitivity of ALDH-positive cells to paclitaxel. A2780cp20 and SKOV3TRip2 xenografts treated with combined LDE225 and paclitaxel had significantly less tumor burden than those treated with vehicle or either agent alone. Increased taxane sensitivity appeared to be mediated by a decrease in P-glycoprotein (MDR1) expression. Selective knockdown of Smo, Gli1 or Gli2 all increased taxane sensitivity. Smo antagonists reverse taxane resistance in chemoresistant ovarian cancer models, suggesting combined anti-HH and chemotherapies could provide a useful therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer.
Smoothened; LDE225; paclitaxel; chemotherapy resistance; ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of death due to cancer in women despite being the tenth in incidence. Unfortunately, the five-year survival rate is only 45%, which has not improved much in the past 30 years. Even though the majority of women have successful initial therapy, the low rate of survival is due to the eventual recurrence and succumbing to their disease. With the recent release of the Cancer Genome Atlas for ovarian cancer, it was shown that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was one of the most frequently mutated or altered pathways in patients’ tumors. Researching how the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway affects the progression and tumorigensis of ovarian cancer will hopefully lead to new therapies that will increase survival for women. This review focuses on recent research on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and its role in the progression and tumorigensis of ovarian cancer.
ovarian cancer; PI3K; mTOR; AKT
Advanced-stage ovarian cancer is characterized by high mortality due to development of resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Novel compounds that can enhance the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy in ovarian cancer may overcome this drug resistance. Consumption of green tea (epigallocatechin gallate, EGCG) and cruciferous vegetables (sulforaphane, SFN) is inversely associated with occurrence of ovarian cancer and has anticancer effects through targeting multiple molecules in cancer cells. However, the effects of EGCG and SFN combinational treatment on ovarian cancer cells and on efficacy of cisplatin to these cells are unknown. In this study, EGCG or SFN was used to treat both cisplatin-sensitive (A2780) and cisplatin-resistant (A2780/CP20) ovarian cancer cells alone or in combination with cisplatin. We found that EGCG and SFN combinational treatment can reduce cell viability of both ovarian cancer cell lines time- and dose-dependently. Furthermore, EGCG and SFN combinational treatment can enhance cisplatin-induced apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest, thereby enhancing the efficacy of cisplatin on both cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. EGCG and SFN combinational treatment upregulated p21 expression induced by cisplatin in cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cells, while p27 expression was not regulated by these treatments. Collectively, these studies provide novel approaches to overcoming cisplatin chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer.
Within heterogeneous tumors, subpopulations often labeled cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified that have enhanced tumorigenicity and chemoresistance in ex vivo models. However, whether these populations are more capable of surviving chemotherapy in de novo tumors is unknown.
We examined 45 matched primary/recurrent tumor pairs of high grade ovarian adenocarcinomas for expression of CSC markers ALDH1A1, CD44 and CD133 using immunohistochemistry. Tumors collected immediately after completion of primary therapy were then laser-capture microdissected and subjected to a quantitative PCR array examining stem cell biology pathways (Hedgehog, Notch, TGF-β and Wnt). Select genes of interest were validated as important targets using siRNA-mediated downregulation.
Primary samples were composed of low densities of ALDH1A1, CD44 and CD133. Tumors collected immediately after primary therapy were more densely composed of each marker, while samples collected at first recurrence, before initiating secondary therapy, were composed of similar percentages of each marker as their primary tumor. In tumors collected from recurrent platinum-resistant patients, only CD133 was significantly increased. Of stem cell pathway members examined, 14% were significantly overexpressed in recurrent compared to matched primary tumors. Knockdown of genes of interest, including endoglin/CD105 and the hedgehog mediators Gli1 and Gli2, led to decreased ovarian cancer cell viability, with Gli2 demonstrating a novel contribution to cisplatin resistance.
These data indicate that ovarian tumors are enriched with CSCs and stem cell pathway mediators, especially at the completion of primary therapy. This suggests that stem cell subpopulations contribute to tumor chemoresistance and ultimately recurrent disease.
CD133; CD44; aldehyde dehydrogenase; ALDH1A1; endoglin; CD105; gli1; gli2; cancer stem cell; ovarian cancer
Despite several advances in the understanding of ovarian cancer pathobiology, in terms of driver genetic alterations in high-grade serous cancer, histologic heterogeneity of epithelial ovarian cancer, cell-of-origin for ovarian cancer, the survival rate from ovarian cancer is disappointingly low when compared to that of breast or prostate cancer. One of the factors contributing to the poor survival rate from ovarian cancer is the development of chemotherapy resistance following several rounds of chemotherapy. Although unicellular drug resistance mechanisms contribute to chemotherapy resistance, tumor microenvironment and the extracellular matrix (ECM), in particular, is emerging as a significant determinant of a tumor’s response to chemotherapy. In this review, we discuss the potential role of the tumor microenvironment in ovarian cancer recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy. Finally, we propose an alternative view of platinum-sensitive recurrence to describe a potential role of the ECM in the process.
ovarian cancer; extracellular matrix; platinum-sensitive recurrence; platinum resistance; cancer stem cell
We investigated the clinical and biological significance of p130cas, an important cell signaling molecule, in ovarian carcinoma.
Expression of p130cas in ovarian tumors, as assessed by immunohistochemistry, was associated with tumor characteristics and patient survival. The effects of p130cas gene silencing with small interfering RNAs incorporated into neutral nanoliposomes (siRNA-DOPC), alone and in combination with docetaxel, on in vivo tumor growth and on tumor cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling) were examined in mice bearing orthotopic taxane-sensitive (HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1) or taxane-resistant (HeyA8-MDR) ovarian tumors (n = 10 per group). To determine the specific mechanisms by which p130cas gene silencing abrogates tumor growth, we measured cell viability (MTT assay), apoptosis (fluorescence-activated cell sorting), autophagy (immunoblotting, fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy), and cell signaling (immunoblotting) in vitro. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Of 91 ovarian cancer specimens, 70 (76%) had high p130cas expression; and 21 (24%) had low p130cas expression. High p130cas expression was associated with advanced tumor stage (P < .001) and higher residual disease (>1 cm) following primary cytoreduction surgery (P = .007) and inversely associated with overall survival and progression-free survival (median overall survival: high p130cas expression vs low expression, 2.14 vs 9.1 years, difference = 6.96 years, 95% confidence interval = 1.69 to 9.48 years, P < .001; median progression-free survival: high p130cas expression vs low expression, 1.04 vs 2.13 years, difference = 1.09 years, 95% confidence interval = 0.47 to 2.60 years, P = .01). In mice bearing orthotopically implanted HeyA8 or SKOV3ip1 ovarian tumors, treatment with p130cas siRNA-DOPC in combination with docetaxel chemotherapy resulted in the greatest reduction in tumor growth compared with control siRNA therapy (92%–95% reduction in tumor growth; P < .001 for all). Compared with control siRNA therapy, p130cas siRNA-DOPC reduced SKOV3ip1 cell proliferation (31% reduction, P < .001) and increased apoptosis (143% increase, P < .001) in vivo. Increased tumor cell apoptosis may have persisted despite pan-caspase inhibition by the induction of autophagy and related signaling pathways.
Increased p130cas expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in human ovarian carcinoma, and p130cas gene silencing decreases tumor growth through stimulation of apoptotic and autophagic cell death.
Jagged1, a Notch ligand, is expressed on both tumor epithelial and endothelial cells, and therefore may be amenable to dual targeting of the tumor stroma and malignant cell compartments of the tumor microenvironment.
We describe in vitro effects of targeting of Jagged1 on ovarian cancer cells and in vivo effects of independent targeting of stromal and malignant cell Jagged1 using species-specific human or murine siRNA constructs incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles (CH) and delivered intravenously in an orthotopic mouse model.
Jagged1 expression was prominent in SKOV3ip1, and IGROV-AF1, and significantly overexpressed in SKOV3TRip2, a taxane-resistant SKOV3 subclone. Jagged1 silencing with siRNA decreased cell viability and reversed taxane chemoresistance. In two different orthotopic ovarian cancer models, treatment with anti-human Jagged1 siRNA-CH reduced growth by 54.4-58.3%, and with anti-murine Jagged1 siRNA-CH reduced growth by 41.7-48.8%. The combination of both species-specific constructs reduced tumor weight by 87.5-93.1% and sensitized SKOV3TRip2 tumors to docetaxel in vivo. Tumors demonstrated reduced microvessel density with anti-murine Jagged1 constructs, and decreased proliferation with anti-human Jagged1 siRNAs-CH. In addition, we show that Jagged1 downregulation does not sensitize cells to taxanes through a reduction in MDR1 expression, but at least in part by crosstalk with the GLI2 mediator of the Hedgehog pathway.
Jagged1 plays dual roles in cancer progression, through an angiogenic function in tumor endothelial cells, and through proliferation and chemoresistance in tumor cells. Dual inhibition represents an attractive therapeutic strategy for ovarian and potentially other malignancies.
Jagged1; chemoresistance; small interfering RNA; ovarian cancer
Defects in the antigen processing machinery (APM) may provide tumor cells with a mechanism to escape immune recognition. The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical significance of APM component down-regulation and tumor-infiltrating T cells in ovarian carcinoma.
After institutional review board approval, tumor samples from 150 patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were examined for TAP1, TAP2, tapasin, HLA class I heavy chain (HLA-HC), β2 microglobulin, and T-cell (CD3+ and CD8+) tumor infiltration using immunohistochemistry.
The majority of tumors had either heterogeneous or positive expression of TAP1, TAP2, HLA-HC, and β2 microglobulin (66.7%, 73.3%, 70.7%, and 63.3%, respectively), except tapasin for which 58% of the tumors lacked expression. Furthermore, 67% and 88% of the lesions possessed intratumoral and peritumoral CD3+ or CD8+ cells, respectively. The majority of APM component expression examined was significantly associated with both intratumoral and peritumoral T-cell infiltration (P < 0.05). The expression of APM components and the presence of intratumoral T-cell infiltrates were significantly associated with improved survival (all P ≤ 0.01); however, peritumoral T-cell infiltrates did not significantly affect survival (P = 0.33). APM component down-regulation (P < 0.001), lack of intratumoral T-cell infiltrates (P = 0.03), and suboptimal cytoreduction (P < 0.001) were independent prognostic markers for death from ovarian carcinoma.
The negative effectof APM component down-regulation by itself and in combination with absent intratumoral T-cell infiltration on the survival of patients with ovarian carcinoma implies a role for immune escape in addition to immunosurveillance in the clinical course of disease.
Mutation in the BRCA1 gene is associated with increased risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. In sporadic ovarian tumors, BRCA1 dysfunction is thought to be common. BRCA1 is a nuclear-cytoplasm shuttling protein. Our group has previously reported that BRCA1 proteins, unlike K109R and cancer-predisposing mutant C61G BRCA1 proteins, bind the sole SUMO E2-conjugating enzyme Ubc9. In this study, we examined the result of altered Ubc9 binding and knockdown on the sub-cellular localization and growth inhibitory function of BRCA1 proteins in ovarian cancer cells. Using live imaging of YFP, RFP-tagged BRCA1 and BRCA1a proteins, our results show enhanced cytoplasmic localization of K109R and C61G mutant BRCA1 proteins in ES-2, NIHOVCAR3 and UWB 1.289 ovarian cancer cells. Down-regulation of Ubc9 in ovarian cancer cells using Ubc9 siRNA resulted in cytoplasmic localization of BRCA1 and BRCA1a proteins. These mutant BRCA1a proteins were impaired in their capacity to inhibit growth of ES-2 ovarian cancer cells. Several ovarian cancer cells, including a BRCA1-null ovarian cancer cell line, showed higher levels of expression of Ubc9. This is the first study demonstrating the physiological link between loss of Ubc9 binding and loss of growth suppression of disease-associated mutant BRCA1a proteins in ovarian cancer cells. BRCA1, by turning off or on Ubc9 binding, regulates growth of ovarian cancers.
BRCA1; BRCA1a; Ubc9; Ovarian cancer; RING domain mutants; nuclear import; Growth suppression
The mechanisms of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in ovarian cancer and the role that platelets play in abetting cancer growth are unclear.
We analyzed clinical data on 619 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer to test associations between platelet counts and disease outcome. Human samples and mouse models of epithelial ovarian cancer were used to explore the underlying mechanisms of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis. The effects of platelets on tumor growth and angiogenesis were ascertained.
Thrombocytosis was significantly associated with advanced disease and shortened survival. Plasma levels of thrombopoietin and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated in patients who had thrombocytosis as compared with those who did not. In mouse models, increased hepatic thrombopoietin synthesis in response to tumor-derived interleukin-6 was an underlying mechanism of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis. Tumor-derived interleukin-6 and hepatic thrombopoietin were also linked to thrombocytosis in patients. Silencing thrombopoietin and interleukin-6 abrogated thrombocytosis in tumor-bearing mice. Anti–interleukin-6 antibody treatment significantly reduced platelet counts in tumor-bearing mice and in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. In addition, neutralizing interleukin-6 significantly enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel in mouse models of epithelial ovarian cancer. The use of an antiplatelet antibody to halve platelet counts in tumor-bearing mice significantly reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis.
These findings support the existence of a paracrine circuit wherein increased production of thrombopoietic cytokines in tumor and host tissue leads to paraneoplastic thrombocytosis, which fuels tumor growth. We speculate that countering paraneoplastic thrombocytosis either directly or indirectly by targeting these cytokines may have therapeutic potential. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.)
We tested the efficacy of dual targeting of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the alphaVbeta3 integrin in orthotopic mouse models of ovarian cancer.
In the SKOV3ip1 model, both single-agent bevacizumab and etaracizumab reduced tumor growth by 52–63% (p < 0.05), while combined therapy reduced growth by 63–74% compared to either agent alone (p < 0.05). Furthermore, bevacizumab/paclitaxel was superior to paclitaxel alone (weight reduction by 53%, p < 0.05), but etaracizumab/paclitaxel was not. Combining all three agents was more effective than either agent with paclitaxel (p < 0.05). Significantly, both bevacizumab and etaracizumab each sensitized the taxane-resistant SKOV3TRip2 cells to paclitaxel, reducing growth by 56–73% (p < 0.05). Both agents decreased proliferation and microvessel density, and increased apoptosis, alone and in combination with paclitaxel. In the HeyA8 model, there was significantly reduced growth with bevacizumab treatment, but not with etaracizumab, and combination therapy was not superior to bevacizumab alone.
In vivo therapy experiments were conducted in chemo-sensitive (SKOV3ip1, HeyA8) and -resistant (SKOV3TRip2) ovarian cancer models. VEGF was targeted with bevacizumab and alphaVbeta3 with etaracizumab. Mice were treated with each agent alone, together, or in combination with paclitaxel for assessment of tumor growth. Tumor specimens were tested for proliferative index, microvessel density and apoptosis.
Bevacizumab and etaracizumab are more effective in combination than individually in some ovarian cancer models, but not all. Both can sensitize taxane-resistant ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel, though bevacizumab was superior to etaracizumab in this regard. Further study of this dual anti-angiogenic therapy is warranted.
VEGF; alphaVbeta3; bevacizumab; etaracizumab; ovarian cancer
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a critical role in ovarian cancer cell survival and in various steps in the metastatic cascade. Based on encouraging in vitro results with FAK silencing, we examined the in vivo therapeutic potential of this approach using short interfering RNA (siRNA) in the neutral liposome 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC).
Therapy experiments of FAK siRNA with or without docetaxel were done using human ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3ip1, HeyA8, and HeyA8MDR in nude mice. Additional experiments with a cisplatin-resistant cell line (A2780-CP20) were also done. Assessments of angiogenesis (CD31), cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase – mediated dUTP nick end labeling) were done using immunohistochemical analysis.
A single dose of FAK siRNA-DOPC was highly effective in reducing in vivo FAK expression for up to 4 days as assayed by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Therapy experiments were started 1 week after injection of the ovarian cancer cells. Treatment with FAK siRNA-DOPC (150 µg/kg twice weekly) reduced mean tumor weight by 44% to 72% in the three cell lines compared with the control group (Ps < 0.05 for HeyA8, A2780-CP20, and SKOV3ip1). When FAK siRNA-DOPC was combined with docetaxel, there was even greater reduction in mean tumor weight in all models (all Ps < 0.05). Similar results were observed in combination with cisplatin. Treatment with FAK siRNA-DOPC plus docetaxel resulted in decreased microvessel density, decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9, and increased apoptosis of tumor-associated endothelial cells and tumor cells.
Taken together, these findings suggest that FAK siRNA-DOPC plus docetaxel or platinum might be a novel therapeutic approach against ovarian cancer.
Docetaxel causes cell death through induction of apoptosis; however, cell death characteristics for docetaxel have not yet been fully elucidated. We examined the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) cleavage in docetaxel-mediated apoptosis.
FAK degradation after treatment with docetaxel was determined in both taxane-sensitive (HeyA8 and SKOV3) and taxane-resistant (HeyA8-MDRand SKOV3-TR) ovarian cancer celllines by Westernblot analysis. Cell growth was determined with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. FAK-targeting small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to decrease FAK expression. Apoptosis and caspase activity were determined using commercially available kits.
SKOV3 and HeyA8 celllines were both sensitive to docetaxel (IC50 levels,1–6.2 nmol/L), whereas the SKOV3-TR and HeyA8-MDR cells were resistant (IC50 ≥250 nmol/L for both). Docetaxel induced high rates of apoptosis in SKOV3 and HeyA8 cells (84% and 66% apoptosis, respectively) but minimal apoptosis (5–8%) in SKOV3-TR and HeyA8-MDR cells. Similarly, FAK was cleaved in SKOV3 and HeyA8 cells in response to docetaxel treatment but unchanged in the resistant cells. Caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity also increased significantly in docetaxel-treated SKOV3 and HeyA8 cells but not in the taxane-resistant cells. DEVD-fmk (caspase-3 blocker) was able to block both FAK cleavage and apoptosis mediated by docetaxel in SKOV3 and HeyA8 cells. FAK siRNA transfection resulted in 70% to 90% decrease in FAK levels in all cell lines within 72 hours. FAK silencing augmented docetaxel-mediated growth inhibition (5- to 8-fold increase) and apoptosis in both of the taxane-sensitive and taxane-resistant cell lines.
Docetaxel induces FAK cleavage, mediated through activation of caspase-3, in taxane-sensitive ovarian cancer cells but not in taxane-resistant cells. The absence of FAK degradation may contribute to cell survival in taxane-resistant cells. FAK silencing promotes the in vitro efficacy of docetaxel in both taxane-sensitive and taxane-resistant cell lines and may serve as a novel therapeutic approach.
There is growing evidence that stress and other behavioral factors may affect cancer progression and patient survival. The underlying mechanisms for this association are poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of stress-associated hormones norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol on the invasive potential of ovarian cancer cells.
The ovarian cancer cells EG, SKOV3, and 222 were exposed to increasing levels of either norepinephrine, epinephrine, or cortisol, and the in vitro invasive potential was determined using the membrane invasion culture system. Additionally, the effects of these stress hormones on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 were determined by ELISA. The effects of the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol on in vivo tumor growth were determined using nude mice.
Stress levels of norepinephrine increased the in vitro invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells by 89% to 198%. Epinephrine also induced significant increases in invasion in all three cell lines ranging from 64% to 76%. Cortisol did not significantly affect invasiveness of the EG and 222 cell lines but increased invasion in the SKOV3 cell line (P = 0.01). We have previously shown that ovarian cancer cells express β-adrenergic receptors. The β-adrenergic antagonist propanolol (1 µmol/L) completely blocked the norepinephrine-induced increase in invasiveness. Norepinephrine also increased tumor cell expression of MMP-2 (P = 0.02 for both SKOV3 and EG cells) and MMP-9 (P = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively), and pharmacologic blockade of MMPs abrogated the effects of norepinephrine on tumor cell invasive potential. Isoproterenol treatment resulted in a significant increase in tumor volume and infiltration in the SKOV3ip1 in vivo model, which was blocked by propranolol.
These findings provide direct experimental evidence that stress hormones can enhance the invasive potential of ovarian cancer cells. These effects are most likely mediated by stimulation of MMPs.
EphA2 is overexpressed in many types of human cancer but is absent or expressed at low levels in normal epithelial tissues. We investigated whether a novel immunoconjugate containing an anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibody (1C1) linked to a chemotherapeutic agent (monomethyl auristatin phenylalanine [MMAF]) through a noncleavable linker maleimidocaproyl (mc) had antitumor activity against ovarian cancer cell lines and tumor models.
Specificity of 1C1-mcMMAF was examined in EphA2-positive HeyA8 and EphA2-negative SKMel28 ovarian cancer cells by antibody binding and internalization assays. Controls were phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 1C1, or control IgG-mcMMAF. Viability and apoptosis were investigated in ovarian cancer cell lines and tumor models (10 mice per group). Antitumor activities were tested in the HeyA8-luc and SKOV3ip1 orthotopic mouse models of ovarian cancer. Endothelial cells were identified by use of immunohistochemistry and anti-CD31 antibodies. All statistical tests were two-sided.
The 1C1-mcMMAF immunoconjugate specifically bound to EphA2-positive HeyA8 cells but not to EphA2-negative cells and was internalized by HeyA8 cells. Treatment with 1C1-mcMMAF decreased the viability of HeyA8-luc cells in an EphA2-specific manner. In orthotopic mouse models, treatment with 1C1-mcMMAF inhibited tumor growth by 85%–98% compared with that in control mice (eg, for weight of HeyA8 tumors, 1C1-mcMMAF = 0.05 g and control = 1.03 g; difference = 0.98 g, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.40 to 1.58 g; P = .001). Even in bulkier disease models with HeyA8-luc cells, 1C1-mcMMAF treatment, compared with control treatment, caused regression of established tumors and increased survival of the mice (eg, 1C1-mcMMAF vs control, mean = 60.6 days vs 29.4 days; difference = 31.2 days, 95% CI = 27.6 to 31.2 days; P = .001). The antitumor effects of 1C1-mcMMAF therapy, in SKOV3ip1 tumors, for example, were statistically significantly related to decreased proliferation (eg, 1C1-mcMMAF vs control, mean = 44.1% vs 55.8% proliferating cells; difference = 11.7%, 95% CI = 2.45% to 20.9%; P = .01) and increased apoptosis of tumor cells (eg, 1C1-mcMMAF vs control, mean = 8.6% vs 0.9% apoptotic cells; difference = 7.7%, 95% CI = 3.8% to 11.7%; P < .001) and of mouse endothelial cells (eg, 1C1-mcMMAF vs control, mean 2.8% vs 0.4% apoptotic endothelial cells; difference = 2.4%, 95% CI = 1.4% to 4.6%; P = .034).
The 1C1-mcMMAF immunoconjugate had antitumor activity in preclinical models of ovarian carcinoma.
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a proangiogenic cytokine that is overexpressed in many human cancers. We investigated the clinical and biologic significance of IL-8 in ovarian carcinoma using human samples and orthotopic mouse models.
Tumor expression of IL-8 was assessed by immunohistochemistry among ovarian cancer patients (n = 102) with available clinical and survival data. We examined the effect of IL-8 gene silencing with small interfering RNAs incorporated into neutral liposomes (siRNA-DOPCs), alone and in combination with docetaxel, on in vivo tumor growth, angiogenesis (microvessel density), and tumor cell proliferation in mice (n = 10 per treatment group) bearing orthotopic taxane-sensitive (HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1) and taxane-resistant (SKOV3ip2.TR) ovarian tumors. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Of the 102 cancer specimens, 43 (42%) had high IL-8 expression and 59 (58%) had low or no IL-8 expression; high IL-8 expression was associated with advanced tumor stage (P = .019), high tumor grade (P = .031), and worse survival (median survival for patients with high vs low IL-8 expression: 1.62 vs 3.79 years; P < .001). Compared with empty liposomes, IL-8 siRNA-DOPC reduced the mean tumor weight by 32% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 50%; P = .03) and 52% (95% CI = 27% to 78%; P = .03) in the HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1 mouse models, respectively. In all three mouse models, treatment with IL-8 siRNA-DOPC plus the taxane docetaxel reduced tumor growth the most compared with empty liposomes (77% to 98% reduction in tumor growth; P < .01 for all). In the HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1 models, tumors from mice treated with IL-8 siRNA-DOPC alone had lower microvessel density than tumors from mice treated with empty liposomes (HeyA8: 34% lower, 95% CI = 32% to 36% lower [P = .002]; SKOV3ip1: 39% lower, 95% CI = 34% to 44% lower [P = .007]). Compared with empty liposomes, IL-8 siRNA-DOPC plus docetaxel reduced tumor cell proliferation by 35% (95% CI = 25% to 44%; P < .001) and 38% (95% CI = 28% to 48%; P < .001) in the HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1 models, respectively.
Increased IL-8 expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in human ovarian carcinoma, and IL-8 gene silencing decreases tumor growth through antiangiogenic mechanisms.
The Aurora kinase family plays pivotal roles in mitotic integrity and cell cycle.We sought to determine the effects of inhibiting Aurora kinase on ovarian cancer growth in an orthotopic mouse model using a small molecule pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor, MK-0457.
We examined cell cycle regulatory effects and ascertained the therapeutic efficacy of Aurora kinase inhibition both alone and combined with docetaxel using both in vitro and in vivo ovarian cancer models.
In vitro cytotoxicity assays with HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1 cells revealed >10-fold greater docetaxel cytotoxicity in combination with MK-0457. After in vivo dose kinetics were determined using phospho-histone H3 status, therapy experiments with the chemosensitive HeyA8 and SKOV3ip1as well as the chemoresistant HeyA8-MDR and A2780-CP20 models showed that Aurora kinase inhibition alone significantly reduced tumor burden compared with controls (P values < 0.01). Combination treatment with docetaxel resulted in significantly improved reduction in tumor growth beyond that afforded by docetaxel alone (P ≤ 0.03). Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry revealed that MK-0457 alone and in combination with docetaxel significantly reduced cellular proliferation (P values < 0.001). Compared with controls, treatment with MK-0457 alone and in combination with docetaxel also significantly increased tumor cell apoptosis by ∼3-fold (P < 0.01). Remarkably, compared with docetaxel monotherapy, MK-0457 combined with docetaxel resulted in significantly increased tumor cell apoptosis.
Aurora kinase inhibition significantly reduces tumor burden and cell proliferation and increases tumor cell apoptosis in this preclinical orthotopic model of ovarian cancer. The role of Aurora kinase inhibition in ovarian cancer merits further investigation in clinical trials.
EphA2 gene silencing has been shown to result in anti-tumor efficacy. Here we considered whether silencing additional targets downstream of EphA2 would further enhance the therapeutic effect. EphA2 targeted siRNA was tested in combination with either FAK or Src targeted siRNA using DOPC nanoliposomes in orthotopic models of ovarian carcinoma. The effects of therapy were determined by changes in tumor weight, proliferation (Ki-67), and microvessel density (CD31). In our initial in vivo study, EphA2 plus FAK silencing resulted in the greatest reduction in tumor growth (by 73%, p < 0.005) as compared to control siRNA alone. In the SKOV3ip1 and HeyA8 ovarian cancer models, EphA2 siRNA-DOPC treatment resulted in a 50 to 67% decrease in tumor growth (p < 0.02, for both), and FAK siRNA-DOPC resulted in a 61 to 62% decrease in tumor growth (p < 0.009, p < 0.05, respectively). EphA2 plus FAK siRNA-DOPC treatment resulted in a significant reduction (SKOV3ip1: 76%, p < 0.007, HeyA8: 90%, p < 0.003) in tumor growth compared to control siRNA-DOPC. Combination treatment with EphA2 + FAK siRNA-DOPC resulted in significant decreases in tumor cell proliferation (p < 0.001) and microvessel density compared to control siRNA-DOPC (80%; p < 0.001), or the monotherapy groups (p values <0.001). These data suggest that the anti-tumor efficacy of in vivo EphA2 targeting is enhanced in combination with FAK silencing. Dual targeting of EphA2 and FAK may have therapeutic implications for ovarian cancer management.
EphA2; FAK; ovarian cancer; siRNA therapy
Silencing EphA2 has been shown to result in anti-tumor efficacy. However, it is not known whether increasing EphA2 expression specifically results in increased tumor growth and progression. We examined the effects of stable EphA2 transfection into poorly invasive ovarian cancer cells with regard to in vitro invasive and in vivo metastatic potential.
In low cell density, EphA2-overexpressing A2780 cells (A2780-EphA2) displayed less cell-cell contact, increased cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) attachment and anchorage-independent cell growth compared to empty vector controls. There was no significant effect on anchorage-dependent cell proliferation, migration or invasion. Increased expression of EphA2 promoted tumor growth and enhanced the metastatic potential in A2780-EphA2 human ovarian cancer xenografts. The overexpression of EphA2 resulted in enhanced microvessel density (MVD), but had no effect on tumor cell proliferation.
EphA2 gene was introduced into A2780 cells by retroviral infection. The effects of increased EphA2 expression were examined on cellular morphology, and anchorage-dependent and independent cell growth. Furthermore, the effect of EphA2 overexpression on metastatic ability was determined using an orthotopic nude mouse model of ovarian carcinoma.
EphA2 promotes tumor growth by enhancing cell-ECM adhesion, increasing anchorage-independent growth and promoting angiogenesis.
EphA2; ovarian cancer
Pericytes contribute to endothelial survival in tumor vasculature and represent a potential therapeutic target.
To examine the functional and therapeutic significance of pericytes in ovarian cancer vasculature.
Tumor vessel morphology and efficacy of endothelial and pericyte targeting were examined using in vivo ovarian cancer models. The expression of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) ligands and receptors was examined in endothelial, pericyte-like, and ovarian cancer cells.
Relative to normal vessels, tumor vasculature was characterized by loosely attached pericytes in reduced density. PDGF-BB was expressed predominantly by the endothelial and cancer cells whereas PDGFRβ was present in pericyte-like cells. PDGF-BB significantly increased migration of and VEGF production by pericyte-like cells while PDGFRβ blockade abrogated these effects. Dual VEGF (VEGF-Trap) and PDGF-B (PDGF-Trap) targeted therapy was more effective in inhibiting in vivo tumor growth than either agent alone.
Aberrations in the tumor microenvironment contribute to endothelial cell survival. Strategies targeting both endothelial cells and pericytes should be considered for clinical trials.
endothelial cells; pericytes; ovarian cancer; VEGF; PDGF