β-blockers (BBs) with different pharmacological properties may have heterogeneous effects on sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) and central aortic pressure (CAP), which are independent cardiovascular factors for hypertension. Hence, we analyzed the effects of bisoprolol and atenolol on SNA and CAP in hypertensive patients.
This was a prospective, randomized, controlled study in 109 never-treated hypertensive subjects randomized to bisoprolol (5 mg) or atenolol (50 mg) for 4–8 weeks. SNA, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) were measured using power spectral analysis using a Finometer. CAP and related parameters were determined using the SphygmoCor device (pulse wave analysis).
Both drugs were similarly effective in reducing brachial BP. However, central systolic BP (−14±10 mm Hg vs −6±9 mm Hg; P<0.001) and aortic pulse pressure (−3±10 mm Hg vs +3±8 mm Hg; P<0.001) decreased more significantly with bisoprolol than with atenolol. The augmentation index at a HR of 75 bpm (AIxatHR75) was significantly decreased (29%±11% to 25%±12%; P = 0.026) in the bisoprolol group only. Furthermore, the change in BRS in the bisoprolol group (3.99±4.19 ms/mmHg) was higher than in the atenolol group (2.66±3.78 ms/mmHg), although not statistically significant (P>0.05). BRS was stable when RHR was controlled (RHR≤65 bpm), and the two treatments had similar effects on the low frequency/high frequency (HF) ratio and on HF.
BBs seem to have different effects on arterial distensibility and compliance in hypertensive subjects. Compared with atenolol, bisoprolol may have a better effect on CAP.
Previously, iron core–gold shell nanoparticles (Fe@Au) have been shown to possess cancer-preferential cytotoxicity in oral and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. However, CRC cell lines are less sensitive to Fe@Au treatment when compared with oral cancer cell lines. In this research, Fe@Au are found to decrease the cell viability of CRC cell lines, including Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480, through growth inhibition rather than the induction of cell death. The cytotoxicity induced by Fe@Au in CRC cells uses different subcellular pathways to the mitochondria-mediated autophagy found in Fe@Au-treated oral cancer cells, OECM1. Interestingly, the Caco-2 cell line shows a similar response to OECM1 cells and is thus more sensitive to Fe@Au treatment than the other CRC cell lines studied. We have investigated the underlying cell resistance mechanisms of Fe@Au-treated CRC cells. The resistance of CRC cells to Fe@Au does not result from the total amount of Fe@Au internalized. Instead, the different amounts of Fe and Au internalized appear to determine the different response to treatment with Fe-only nanoparticles in Fe@Au-resistant CRC cells compared with the Fe@Au-sensitive OECM1 cells. The only moderately cytotoxic effect of Fe@Au nanoparticles on CRC cells, when compared to the highly sensitive OECM1 cells, appears to arise from the CRC cells’ relative insensitivity to Fe, as is demonstrated by our Fe-only treatments. This is a surprising outcome, given that Fe has thus far been considered to be the “active” component of Fe@Au nanoparticles. Instead, we have found that the Au coatings, previously considered only as a passivating coating to protect the Fe cores from oxidation, significantly enhance the cytotoxicity of Fe@Au in certain CRC cells. Therefore, we conclude that both the Fe and Au in these core–shell nanoparticles are essential for the anticancer properties observed in CRC cells.
cancer therapy; Fe; gold-coated iron; nanoparticles; differential cytotoxicity
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Although its pathogenesis is still unclear, increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction induced by environmental toxins, such as mitochondrial complex I inhibitors, plays a significant role in the disease process. The microglia in PD brains are highly activated, and inflammation is also an essential element in PD pathogenesis. However, the means by which these toxins activate microglia is still unclear. In the present study, we found that rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, could directly activate microglia via the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway, thereby inducing significantly increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. We further observed that rotenone induced caspase-1 activation and mature IL-1β release, both of which are strictly dependent on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The activation of p38 is associated with the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by rotenone. Removal of these ROS abrogated the activation of the microglia. Therefore, our data suggest that the environmental toxin rotenone can directly activate microglia through the p38 MAPK pathway.
Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder of the enteric nervous system and is characterized by an absence of enteric ganglion cells in terminal regions of the gut during development. Dishevelled (DVL) protein is a cytoplasmic protein which plays pivotal roles in the embryonic development. In this study, we explore the cause of HSCR by studying the expression of DVL-1 and DVL-3 genes and their proteins in the aganglionic segment and the ganglionic segment of colon in HSCR patients. Materials and Methods: Specimen of aganglionic segment and ganglionic segment of colon in 50 cases of HSCR patients. Expression levels of mRNA and proteins of DVL-1 and DVL-3 were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry staining between the aganglionic segment and the ganglionic segment of colon in HSCR patients. Results: The mRNA expression of DVL-1 and DVL-3 were 2.06 fold and 3.12 fold in the aganglionic segment colon tissues compared to the ganglionic segment, respectively. Similarly, the proteins expression of DVL-1 and DVL-3 were higher (39.71 ± 4.53 vs and 53.90 ± 6.79 vs) in the aganglionic segment colon tissues than in the ganglionic segment (15.01 ± 2.66 and 20.13 ± 3.63) by western blot. Besides, immunohistochemical staining showed that DVL-1 and DVL-3 have a significant increase in mucous and submucous layers from aganglionic colon segments compared with ganglionic segments. Conclusion: The study showed an association of DVL-1 and DVL-3 with HSCR, it may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HSCR.
Hirschsprung’s disease; dishevelled-1 and dishevelled-3; gene and protein; expression
Caveolae orchestrate the dominant placental angiogenic growth factor fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) signaling primarily via FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) in placental artery endothelial cells; however, how the proximal FGF2/FGFR1 signaling is organized in the caveolae is obscure. We have shown in the present study that the FGFR substrate 2alpha (FRS2alpha) is physically associated with FGFR1, and both are targeted to the caveolae via interaction with caveolin-1 in ovine fetoplacental artery endothelial cells. Treatment with FGF2 rapidly stimulated time- and concentration-dependent FRS2alpha tyrosine phosphorylation and recruited the cytosolic growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2)-GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1) complex to the caveolae, where they formed a ternary complex with FRS2alpha. Disruption of caveolae by cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin inhibited FGF2-induced FRS2alpha tyrosine phosphorylation, and it blocked the FGF2-induced recruitment of GRB2 and GAB1 to the caveolae and formation of the FRS2alpha-GRB2-GAB1 complex in the caveolae, as well as activation of the PI3K/AKT1 and MAPK1/2 pathways. Thus, these findings have demonstrated that the proximal fibroblast growth factor (FGF2/FGFR1) signaling is compartmentalized in the placental endothelial caveolae via the FGFR substrate 2α that mediates formation of a FRS2α-GRB2-GAB1 complex.
The proximal fibroblast growth factor (FGF2/FGFR1) signaling is compartmentalized in the placental endothelial caveolae via the FGFR substrate 2α that mediates formation of a FRS2α-GRB2-GAB1 complex.
caveolae; caveolin-1; FRS2α; placental endothelial cells; proximal FGF2/FGFR1 signaling
ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by chemical bath deposition. After heat treatment in hydrogen or air, Ag nanoparticles were deposited on ZnO nanorod arrays by photo-reduction method. The size of Ag nanoparticles as well as the surface morphology, structure, composition, and optical property of ZnO nanorod arrays before and after the deposition of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XRD, EDS, and UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. As compared to the samples with heat treatment in air or without heat treatment, the ZnO nanorod arrays after heat treatment in hydrogen allowed Ag nanoparticles to be deposited more uniformly, densely, and numerously. Also, they exhibited higher efficiency for the visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye. The effects of the amount of Ag nanoparticles, initial dye concentration, and temperature on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency were investigated. Furthermore, they also exhibited better surface-enhanced Raman scattering property for the detection of R6G dyes.
ZnO nanorod arrays; Hydrogen treatment; Ag nanoparticles; Photocatalytic; Surface-enhanced raman scattering
A retrospective study was conducted to determine the mortality, causes and risk factors for death among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Korea. The outcomes were determined by time periods, during the first year of ART and during 1-5 yr after ART initiation, respectively. Patients lost to follow-up were traced to ascertain survival status. Among 327 patients initiating ART during 1998-2006, 68 patients (20.8%) died during 5-yr follow-up periods. Mortality rate per 100 person-years was 8.69 (95% confidence interval, 5.68-12.73) during the first year of ART, which was higher than 4.13 (95% confidence interval, 2.98-5.59) during 1-5 yr after ART. Tuberculosis was the most common cause of death in both periods (30.8% within the first year of ART and 16.7% during 1-5 yr after ART). During the first year of ART, clinical category B and C at ART initiation, and underlying malignancy were significant risk factors for mortality. Between 1 and 5 yr after ART initiation, CD4 cell count ≤ 50 cells/µL at ART initiation, hepatitis B virus co-infection, and visit constancy ≤ 50% were significant risk factors for death. This suggests that different strategies to reduce mortality according to the time period after ART initiation are needed.
HIV; Antiretroviral Therapy; Mortality; Cause of Death; Risk Factors; Loss to Follow-up; Retention in Care; Visit Constancy
Previous reports have demonstrated that L1cam is aberrantly expressed in various tumors. The potential role of L1cam in the progression and metastasis of gastric cancer is still not clear and needs exploring.
Expression of L1cam was evaluated in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The relationship between L1cam expression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. The effects of L1cam on cell proliferation, migration and invasion were investigated in gastric cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. The impact of L1cam on PI3K/Akt pathway was also evaluated.
L1cam was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. L1cam expression was correlated with aggressive tumor phenotype and poor overall survival in gastric cancer patients. Ectopic expression of L1cam in gastric cell lines significantly promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion whereas knockdown of L1cam inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro as well as tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. The low level of phosphorylated Akt in HGC27 cells was up-regulated after ectopic expression of L1cam, whereas the high level of phosphorylated Akt in SGC7901 cells was suppressed by knockdown of L1cam. Moreover, the migration and invasion promoted by L1cam overexpression in gastric cancer cells could be abolished by either application of LY294002 (a phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor) or knockdown of endogenous Akt by small interfering RNA.
Our study demonstrated that L1cam, overexpressed in gastric cancer and associated with poor prognosis, plays an important role in the progression and metastasis of gastric cancer.
L1cam; Metastasis; PI3K/Akt; Prognosis; Gastric cancer
The cell division cycle 20 homolog (CDC20) is an essential cofactor of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C). CDC20 overexpression has been detected in many types of human cancers; however, its clinical role in colorectal cancer remains unknown.
Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to compare CDC20 expression in adjacent non-cancerous, cancerous and liver metastatic tissues as well as in colon cancer cell lines and normal colon epithelial cell lines. Additionally, the correlation of CDC20 expression with patient clinical parameters and its diagnostic value were statistically analyzed.
CDC20 was overexpressed in colon cancer cell lines/primary cancer tissues compared with normal colon epithelial cell lines/adjacent noncancerous tissue samples. Interestingly, CDC20 expression was further increased in metastatic liver tissues. CDC20 protein expression was significantly correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.008), N classification (P = 0.020), M classification (P = 0.013) and pathologic differentiation (P = 0.008). Patients with higher CDC20 expression had a shorter overall survival than those with lower CDC20 expression. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that CDC20 expression was an independent prognostic factor (P < 0.001).
CDC20 may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker of human colorectal cancer.
CDC20; Prognosis; Colorectal cancer
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1 (FGFR1) protein was expressed as the long and short as well as some truncated forms in ovine fetoplacental artery ex vivo and in vitro. Upon FGF2 stimulation, both the long and short FGFR1s were tyrosine phosphorylated and the PI3K/AKT1 and ERK1/2 pathways were activated in a concentration- and time- dependent manner in ovine fetoplacental artery endothelial (oFPAE) cells. Blockade of the PI3K/AKT1 pathway attenuated FGF2-stimulated cell proliferation and migration as well as tube formation; blockade of the ERK1/2 pathway abolished FGF2-stimulated tube formation and partially inhibited cell proliferation and did not alter cell migration. Both AKT1 and ERK1/2 were co-fractionated with caveolin-1 and activated by FGF2 in the caveolae. Disruption of caveolae by methyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibited FGF2 activation of AKT1 and ERK1/2. FGFR1 was found in the caveolae where it physically binds to caveolin-1. FGF2 stimulated dissociation of FGFR1 from caveolin-1. Downregulation of caveolin-1 significantly attenuated the FGF2-induced activation of AKT1 and ERK1/2 and inhibited FGF2-induced cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in oFPAE cells. Pretreatment with a caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide to mimic caveolin-1 overexpression also inhibited these FGF2-induced angiogenic responses. These data demonstrate that caveolae function as a platform for regulating FGF2-induced angiogenesis through spatiotemporally compartmentalizing FGFR1 and the AKT1 and ERK1/2 signaling modules; the major caveolar structural protein caveolin-1 interacts with FGFR1 and paradoxically regulates FGF2-induced activation of PI3K/AKT1 and ERK1/2 pathways that coordinately regulate placental angiogenesis.
FGF2; caveolin-1; caveolae; cell signaling; endothelial cells; placenta
In the study of biomolecular structures and interactions the polar hydrogen-π bonds (Hp-π) are an extensive molecular interaction type. In proteins 11 of 20 natural amino acids and in DNA (or RNA) all four nucleic acids are involved in this type interaction.
The Hp-π in proteins are studied using high level QM method CCSD/6-311 + G(d,p) + H-Bq (ghost hydrogen basis functions) in vacuum and in solutions (water, acetonitrile, and cyclohexane). Three quantum chemical methods (B3LYP, CCSD, and CCSD(T)) and three basis sets (6-311 + G(d,p), TZVP, and cc-pVTZ) are compared. The Hp-π donors include R2NH, RNH2, ROH, and C6H5OH; and the acceptors are aromatic amino acids, peptide bond unit, and small conjugate π-groups. The Hp-π interaction energies of four amino acid pairs (Ser-Phe, Lys-Phe, His-Phe, and Tyr-Phe) are quantitatively calculated.
Five conclusion points are abstracted from the calculation results. (1) The common DFT method B3LYP fails in describing the Hp-π interactions. On the other hand, CCSD/6-311 + G(d,p) plus ghost atom H-Bq can yield better results, very close to the state-of-the-art method CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ. (2) The Hp-π interactions are point to π-plane interactions, possessing much more interaction conformations and broader energy range than other interaction types, such as common hydrogen bond and electrostatic interactions. (3) In proteins the Hp-π interaction energies are in the range 10 to 30 kJ/mol, comparable or even larger than common hydrogen bond interactions. (4) The bond length of Hp-π interactions are in the region from 2.30 to 3.00 Å at the perpendicular direction to the π-plane, much longer than the common hydrogen bonds (~1.9 Å). (5) Like common hydrogen bond interactions, the Hp-π interactions are less affected by solvation effects.
Protein structures; Molecular interactions; Hydrogen-π interactions; Protein backbones; CCSD; Ghost atom
Adulthood weight gain predicts estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Because local estrogen excess in the breast likely contributes to cancer development, and aromatase is the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, we investigated the role of local aromatase expression in weight gain-associated breast cancer risk in a humanized aromatase (Aromhum) mouse model containing the coding region and the 5′-regulatory region of the human aromatase gene. Compared with littermates on normal chow, female Aromhum mice on a high fat diet gained more weight, and had a larger mammary gland mass with elevated total human aromatase mRNA levels via promoters I.4 and II associated with increased levels of their regulators TNFα and C/EBPβ. There was no difference in total human aromatase mRNA levels in gonadal white adipose tissue. Our data suggest that diet-induced weight gain preferentially stimulates local aromatase expression in the breast, which may lead to local estrogen excess and breast cancer risk.
aromatase; overweight; weight gain; obesity; mammary; breast cancer
To determine the contribution of insulin signaling versus systemic metabolism to metabolic and mitochondrial alterations in type 1 diabetic hearts and test the hypothesis that antecedent mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to impaired cardiac efficiency (CE) in diabetes.
Methods and Results
Control mice (WT) and mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted deletion of insulin receptors (CIRKO) were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (WT-STZ and CIRKO-STZ, respectively), non-diabetic controls received vehicle (citrate buffer). Cardiac function was determined by echocardiography; myocardial metabolism, oxygen consumption (MVO2) and CE were determined in isolated perfused hearts; mitochondrial function was determined in permeabilized cardiac fibers and mitochondrial proteomics by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Pyruvate supported respiration and ATP synthesis were equivalently reduced by diabetes and genotype, with synergistic impairment in ATP synthesis in CIRKO-STZ. In contrast, fatty acid delivery and utilization was increased by diabetes irrespective of genotype, but not in non-diabetic CIRKO. Diabetes and genotype synergistically increased MVO2 in CIRKO-STZ, leading to reduced CE. Irrespective of diabetes, genotype impaired ATP/O ratios in mitochondria exposed to palmitoyl carnitine, consistent with mitochondrial uncoupling. Proteomics revealed reduced content of fatty acid oxidation proteins in CIRKO mitochondria, which were induced by diabetes, whereas tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation proteins were reduced both in CIRKO mitochondria and by diabetes.
Deficient insulin signaling and diabetes mediate distinct effects on cardiac mitochondria. Antecedent loss of insulin signaling markedly impairs CE when diabetes is induced, via mechanisms that may be secondary to mitochondrial uncoupling and increased FA utilization.
Insulin signaling; cardiac efficiency; mitochondria; diabetes
ATP leads to endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)/NO-mediated vasodilation, a process hypothesized to depend on the endothelial caveolar eNOS partitioning and subcellular domain-specific multisite phosphorylation state. We demonstrate herein that, in both the absence and presence of ATP, the uterine artery endothelial caveolae contain specific protein machinery related to subcellular partitioning and act as specific focal “hubs” for NO- and ATP-related proteins. ATP-induced eNOS regulation showed a complex set of multisite posttranslational phosphorylation events that were closely associated with the enzyme’s partitioning between caveolar and noncaveolar endothelial subcellular domains. The comprehensive model that we present demonstrates that ATP repartitioned eNOS between the caveolar and noncaveolar subcellular domains; specifically, the stimulatory PSer635eNOS was substantially higher in the caveolar pool with subcellular domain-independent increased levels on ATP treatment. The stimulatory PSer1179eNOS was not altered by ATP treatment. However, the inhibitory PThr495eNOS was regulated predominantly in the caveolar domain with decreased levels on ATP action. In contrast, the agonist-specific PSer114eNOS was localized in the noncaveolar pool with increased levels on ATP stimulation. Thus, the endothelial caveolar membrane system plays a pivotal role(s) in ATP-associated subcellular partitioning and possesses the relevant protein machinery for ATP-induced NO regulation. Furthermore, these subcellular domain-specific phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events provide evidence relating to eNOS spatio-temporal dynamics.
ATP; eNOS; endothelium; vasodilation; phosphorylation
The aims of this study were to produce mesobiliverdin IXα, an analog of anti-inflammatory biliverdin IXα, and to test its ability to enhance rat pancreatic islet yield for allograft transplantation into diabetic recipients. Mesobiliverdin IXα was synthesized from phycocyanobilin derived from cyanobacteria, and its identity and purity were analyzed by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Mesobiliverdin IXα was a substrate for human NADPH biliverdin reductase. Excised Lewis rat pancreata infused with mesobiliverdin IXα and biliverdin IXα-HCl (1–100 μM) yielded islet equivalents as high as 86.7 and 36.5%, respectively, above those from non-treated controls, and the islets showed a high degree of viability based on dithizone staining. When transplanted into livers of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, islets from pancreata infused with mesobiliverdin IXα lowered non-fasting blood glucose (BG) levels in 55.6% of the recipients and in 22.2% of control recipients. In intravenous glucose tolerance tests, fasting BG levels of 56 post-operative day recipients with islets from mesobiliverdin IXα infused pancreata were lower than those for controls and showed responses that indicate recovery of insulin-dependent function. In conclusion, mesobiliverdin IXα infusion of pancreata enhanced yields of functional islets capable of reversing insulin dysfunction in diabetic recipients. Since its production is scalable, mesobiliverdin IXα has clinical potential as a protectant of pancreatic islets for allograft transplantation.
mesobiliverdin; biliverdin; pancreatic islets; islet transplantation; anti-inflammatory
Impact of activating (aKIR) and inhibitory (iKIR) on overall survival (OS), relapse-related mortality (RRM), and acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD) were studied in 84 adults with high risk hematologic malignancies receiving reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) T-cell depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from haploidentical related donors. In this clinical model, freedom from RRM was more dependent on graft-vs-leukemia (GVL) effect. Patients were divided into myeloid (n=49) and lymphoid (n=35) malignancy groups. KIR-ligand and ligand-ligand models were studied in both directions and statistically correlated with outcome measures. In the myeloid group, OS was higher (p=0.009) and RRM lower (p=0.036) in patients missing HLA-C group2 ligand to donor inhibitory KIR. OS was higher if patients had >1 missing ligand (p=0.018). In lymphoid malignancy, missing ligand to donor KIR had no impact on OS or RRM. However, OS was longer with donor activating KIR 2DS2 (p=0.028). There was a trend toward shorter OS in recipient with KIR 2DS1, 2DS5 and 3DS1, although sample sizes are too small to provide inferential statistics. These results suggest that absence of appropriate HLA ligands in the recipient to donor iKIR may induce GVL without aGVHD in myeloid malignancy patients undergoing TCD-RIC transplants.
KIR; Activating KIR; Inhibitory KIR; Haploidentical; Reduced Intensity Conditioning (RIC); Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT)
Infusing Natural Killer (NK) cells following transplantation may allow less infections and relapse with little risk of acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD). We delivered 51 total NK cell enriched donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) to 30 patients following a 3-6/6 HLA matched T cell depleted nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplant. The primary endpoint of this study was feasibility and safety.
Eight weeks following transplantation, donor NK cell enriched DLIs were processed using a CD56+ selecting column (@Miltenyi) with up to 3 fresh infusions allowed. Toxicity, relapse and survival were monitored. T cell phenotype, NK cell functional recovery, and KIR typing were assessed for association with outcomes.
Fourteen matched and sixteen mismatched transplanted patients received a total of 51 NK cell enriched DLIs. Selection resulted in 96% (standard deviation (SD) 8%) purity and 83% (SD 21%) yield in the matched setting and 97% (SD 3%) purity and 77% (SD 24%) yield in the mismatched setting. The median number of CD3− CD56+ NK cells infused was 10.6 (SD 7.91) × 10e6 cells/kg and 9.21 (SD 5.6) × 10e6 cells/kg respectively. The median number of contaminating CD3+CD56− T cells infused was .53 (1.1) × 10e6 and .27 (.78) × 10e6 in the matched and mismatched setting respectively. Only 1 patient each in the matched (n=14) or mismatched (n=16) setting experienced severe aGVHD with little other toxicity attributable to the infusions. Long term responders with multiple NK cell enriched infusions and improved T cell phenotypic recovery had improved duration of responses (p=.0045) and overall survival (p=.0058).
A one step, high yield process is feasible and results in high doses of NK cells infused with little toxicity. NK cell enriched DLIs result in improved immune recovery and outcomes for some. Future studies must assess whether the improved outcomes are the direct result of the high doses and improved NK cell function or other aspects of immune recovery.
Preeclampsia is characterized by dysfunctional endothelium and impaired angiogenesis. Recent studies suggest that the neuronal guidance SLIT/ROBO system regulates tumor angiogenesis. This study investigated if SLIT and ROBO are differentially expressed in healthy term and preeclamptic placentas and if hypoxia regulates SLIT and ROBO expression in placental trophoblast and endothelial cells. Total RNA and protein were extracted from placental tissues of healthy term (n = 5) and preeclamptic (n = 6) pregnancies and used for SLIT/ROBO expression analyses with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time quantitative-PCR, and immunoblotting. Paraffin-embedded tissues were processed to localize SLIT/ROBO proteins in placental villi by immunohistochemistry. BeWo choriocarcinoma cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with 2% or 10% oxygen or the hypoxia mimetic deferoxamine mesylate (100 μM) to test if hypoxia regulates SLIT/ROBO expression. SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, and ROBO4 mRNA and proteins were detected in the placenta. SLIT2 and ROBO1 proteins localized in the syncytiotrophoblast, and SLIT3, ROBO1, and ROBO4 in capillary endothelium of the placental villi. Levels of ROBO1 and ROBO4 as well as sFLT1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1) proteins were significantly greater in preeclamptic placentas compared to normal controls. Hypoxia significantly increased both mRNA and protein levels of SLIT2 in BeWo cells and of SLIT3, ROBO1, and ROBB4 in HUVEC. Thus, trophoblast and endothelial coexpression of SLIT/ROBO suggests an autocrine/paracrine regulatory system for regulating placental function. Differential expression of SLITs and ROBOs in healthy term and preeclamptic placentas and hypoxia regulation of their expressions in placental cells implicate a potential pathophysiological role for this system in preeclampsia.
Preeclampsia and hypoxia upregulate the SLIT/ROBO signaling system in the human placenta.
hypoxia; placenta; preeclampsia; ROBO; SLIT
Epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromosomal organization, is emerging as a new layer of transcriptional regulation in retinal development and maintenance. Guided by intrinsic transcription factors and extrinsic signaling molecules, epigenetic regulation can activate and/or repress the expression of specific sets of genes, therefore playing an important role in retinal cell fate specification and terminal differentiation during development as well as maintaining cell function and survival in adults. Here, we review the major findings that have linked these mechanisms to the development and maintenance of retinal structure and function, with a focus on ganglion cells and photoreceptors. The mechanisms of epigenetic regulation are highly complex and vary among different cell types. Understanding the basic principles of these mechanisms and their regulatory pathways may provide new insight into the pathogenesis of retinal diseases associated with transcription dysregulation, and new therapeutic strategies for treatment.
Chromatin modifications; Cell type-specific transcription; Neuronal development and disease
A modified procedure for Dynabead perfusion was developed to provide a practical methodology for obtaining large quantities of glomeruli from mice with a high purity. The glomeruli may be useful in exploring the mechanism behind glomerular diseases in conjunction with proteomics. The aim of the study was to save on costs and help researchers, particularly beginners, in the practical application of this method in their studies. Kidneys of C57BL/6 mice were perfused via two different techniques with Dynabeads. The purity and structures of the isolated glomeruli were investigated. The amounts of glomerular protein were measured and the costs of kidney and heart perfusions were compared. There was a 100% success rate at all stages involved in separating the glomeruli of mice via kidney perfusion. The isolated glomeruli remained intact and the purity was 96.7±1.2%. The average amounts of protein in the isolated glomeruli of 8- and 20-week-old mice were 45.6±13.4 and 55.8±17.0 μg, respectively. The cost of glomerular isolation via kidney perfusion was one-fortieth of the cost of isolation via heart perfusion. The described procedure is practical and has a high success rate. The isolated glomeruli of mice were intact and pure and a large quantity was obtained at a lower cost.
Dynabeads; glomerulus; kidney perfusion; proteomics
During spermatogenesis, germ cells initially expand exponentially through mitoses. A majority of these cells are then eliminated through p53-mediated apoptosis to maintain germline homeostasis [1–4]. However, the activity of p53 must be precisely modulated, especially suppressed in postmitotic spermatogenic cells, to guarantee robustness of spermatogenesis. Currently, how the suppression is achieved is not understood. Here, we show that Pumilio 1, a posttranscriptional regulator, binds to mRNAs representing 1527 genes, with significant enrichment for mRNAs involved in pathways regulating p53, cell cycle, and MAPK signaling. Particularly, eight mRNAs encoding activators of p53 are repressed by Pumilio 1. Deleting Pumilio 1 results in strong activation of p53 and apoptosis mostly in spermatocytes, which disrupts sperm production and fertility. Removing p53 reduces apoptosis and rescues testicular hypotrophy in Pumilio 1-null mice. These results indicate that key components of the p53 pathway are coordinately regulated by Pumilio 1 at the posttranscriptional level, which may exemplify an RNA operon.
Pumilio 1; RNA operon; spermatogenesis; apoptosis; p53; translational regulation
One limitation in electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is the inability to recover high-resolution signal from the image-recording media at the full-resolution limit of the transmission electron microscope. Direct electron detection using CMOS-based sensors for digitally recording images has the potential to alleviate this shortcoming. Here, we report a practical performance evaluation of a Direct Detection Device (DDD) for biological cryo-EM at two different microscope voltages: 200 and 300 kV. Our DDD images of amorphous and graphitized carbon show strong per-pixel contrast with image resolution near the theoretical sampling limit of the data. Single-particle reconstructions of two frozen-hydrated bacteriophages, P22 and ε15, establish that the DDD is capable of recording usable signal for 3-D reconstructions at about 4/5 of the Nyquist frequency, which is a vast improvement over the performance of conventional imaging media. We anticipate the unparalleled performance of this digital recording device will dramatically benefit cryo-EM for routine tomographic and single-particle structural determination of biological specimens.
Cryo-EM; Electron cryo-microscopy; Direct detection device; Active pixel sensor; CMOS detector; Nyquist frequency
HE4, also known as WFDC2, is a useful biomarker for ovarian cancer when either used alone or in combination with CA125. HE4 is also overexpressed in endometrial cancer (EC), but its function in cancer cells is not clear. In this study, we investigate the role of HE4 in EC progression. An HE4-overexpression system was established by cloning the HE4 prototypic mRNA variant (HE4-V0) into a eukaryotic expression vector. Following transfection, stable clones in two EC cell lines were selected. The effects of HE4 overexpression on cell growth and function were measured with the use of cell proliferation assay, matrigel invasion, and soft agar gel colony formation assays. HE4-induced cancer cell proliferation in vivo was examined in a mouse xenograft model. HE4 overexpression significantly enhanced EC cell proliferation, matrigel invasion, and colony formation in soft agar. Moreover, HE4 overexpression promoted tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model. HE4 overexpression enhanced several malignant phenotypes in cell culture and in a mouse model. These results are consistent with our previous observation that high levels of serum HE4 closely correlate with the stage, myometrial invasion and tumor size in patients with EC. This study provides evidence that HE4 overexpression directly impacts tumor progression in endometrial cancer.
endometrial cancer; human epididymis protein 4 (HE4); HE4 variant; proliferation; invasion; colony formation; tumorigenesis
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disorder. In most cases, ADPKD similarly affects bilateral kidneys.
Among the 605 ADPKD patients that were followed up by our center, we identified two male patients with unilateral ADPKD. The cases were remarkable because the patients also had ectopia and multicystic dysplasia in the contralateral kidney, which are generally sporadic disease conditions. Both patients tested positive for polycystic kidney disease 1 mutation, but negative for hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 beta mutation. Moreover, the deterioration of their kidney function seemed to be quicker than their age- and sex-matched controls and siblings. Both patients had started a long-term hemodialysis in their 40s.
Anatomical and genetic abnormality in patients with ADPKD may be more frequent and complex than previously believed. The compensatory capacity in patients with ADPKD is fragile, and missing one kidney could accelerate the deterioration of renal function.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; Ectopia; Multicystic dysplasia; Unilateral