Autophagy allows the elimination of superfluous or damaged macromolecules or organelles. Genetic evidence indicates that autophagy plays essential functions during differentiation. The differentiation of human blood monocytes into macrophages is a caspase-dependent process triggered by colony stimulating factor1 (CSF1/CSF-1). We have established, using pharmacological inhibitors, siRNA approaches and Atg7−/− mice, that autophagy is required for proper CSF1/CSF-1-driven differentiation of human and murine monocytes and acquisition of phagocytic functions. Collectively, these findings highlight an essential role of autophagy during monocyte differentiation and acquisition of macrophage functions. Deciphering the complex interplay between caspase and autophagy that occurs during this process will undoubtedly bring new insights in our understanding of monocyte differentiation.
caspase; autophagy; differentiation; primary monocytes; CSF1/CSF-1; Atg7−/− mice
A new C47 polyoxygenated acetylenic acid, nepheliosyne B (2), along with the previously described nepheliosyne A (1), have been isolated from the New Caledonian marine sponge Niphates sp. Their structures have been elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. These metabolites exhibited a moderate cytotoxicity against K562, U266, SKM1, and Kasumi cancer cell lines.
marine natural products; highly oxygenated polyacetylenes; marine sponges; Porifera; Haplosclerida
Bcl-2 family members are key modulators of apoptosis that have recently been shown to also regulate autophagy. It has been previously reported that Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL bind and inhibit BECN1, an essential mediator of autophagy. Bcl-B is an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that possesses the four BH (Bcl-2 homology) domains (BH1, BH2, BH3 and BH4) and a predicted C-terminal trans-membrane domain. Although the anti-apoptotic properties of Bcl-B are well characterized, its physiological function remains to be established. In the present study, we first established that Bcl-B interacts with the BH3 domain of BECN1. We also showed that Bcl-B overexpression reduces autophagy triggered by a variety of pro-autophagic stimuli. This impairment of autophagy was closely related to the capacity of Bcl-B to bind to BECN1. Importantly, we have demonstrated that Bcl-B knockdown triggers autophagic cell death and sensitizes cells to amino acid starvation. The cell death induced by Bcl-B knockdown was partially dependent on components of the autophagy machinery (LC3; BECN1; ATG5). These findings reveal a new role of Bcl-B in the regulation of autophagy.
BECN1; Bcl-B; amino acid starvation; apoptosis; autophagy
The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has considerably improved the survival of patients suffering chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Indeed, inhibition of BCR-ABL by imatinib, dasatinib or nilotinib triggers durable responses in most patients suffering from this disease. Moreover, resistance to imatinib due to kinase domain mutations can be generally circumvented using dasatinib or nilotinib, but the multi-resistant T315I mutation that is insensitive to these TKIs, remains to date a major clinical problem. In this line, ponatinib (AP24534) has emerged as a promising therapeutic option in patients with all kinds of BCR-ABL mutations, especially the T315I one. However and surprisingly, the effect of ponatinib has not been extensively studied on imatinib-resistant CML cell lines. Therefore, in the present study, we used several CML cell lines with different mechanisms of resistance to TKI to evaluate the effect of ponatinib on cell viability, apoptosis and signaling. Our results show that ponatinib is highly effective on both sensitive and resistant CML cell lines, whatever the mode of resistance and also on BaF3 murine B cells carrying native BCR-ABL or T315I mutation. We conclude that ponatinib could be effectively used for all types of TKI-resistant patients.
CML; BCR ABL; TKI; Resistance; Ponatinib
Simalikalactone E (SkE) is a quassinoid extracted from a widely used Amazonian antimalarial remedy. Although SkE has previously been shown to have cytostatic and/or cytotoxic activities in some tumor cell lines, its mechanism of action has not yet been characterized. We show here that SkE in the high nanomolar range inhibited the growth of various leukemic and solid tumor cell lines. Importantly, SkE was highly efficient at inhibiting chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells that exhibit constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway and, accordingly, it impaired the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. SkE also abrogated MEK1/2 and B-Raf phosphorylation but had no effect on Ras activity. Moreover, SkE was particularly effective against melanoma cell lines carrying the B-Raf-V600E mutation. Importantly, SkE resensitized the PLX-4032-resistant 451Lu melanoma cell line (451Lu-R) and was more efficient than U0126, a MEK inhibitor, and PLX-4032 (PLX) at inducing the apoptosis of two Hairy Cell Leukemia (HCL) patient samples carrying the B-Raf-V600E mutation. Finally, SkE was as efficient as imatinib at inhibiting tumor formation in a xenograft model of CML cells in athymic mice. In conclusion, we show that SkE, a very potent inhibitor of B-Raf-V600E, is highly effective against cancer cell lines that exhibit constitutive activation of the ERK1/2 pathway.
Simalikalactone E; B-Raf inhibitor; CML; Melanoma; Hairy Cell Leukemia; ERK pathway
Transgenic mice expressing the caspase-cleaved form of the tyrosine kinase Lyn (LynΔN) develop a TNFα-dependent skin disease that accurately recapitulates human psoriasis. Participation of lymphocytes in this disease was confirmed by backcrossing LynΔN mice on a Rag-1 deficient background. The present study was therefore conducted to analyze whether modification of lymphocyte homeostasis does occur and participate in the phenotype of LynΔN mice. We show here that LynΔN mice consistently exhibit thymic atrophy that correlates with both a net decrease in the CD4+/CD8+ Double Positive (DP) and an increase in Single Positive (SP) thymocyte sub-populations, but also display an increase of splenic mature B cell. Interestingly, a normal immune phenotype was rescued in a TNFR1 deficient background. Finally, none of these immune alterations was detected in newborn mice before the onset of inflammation. Therefore, we conclude that chronic inflammation can induce thymic atrophy and perturb spleen homeostasis in LynΔN mice through the increased production of TNFα, LTß and TNFR1 signaling.
Although p62/SQSTM1 was initially identified as an essential mediator of NFκB signaling, several recent studies have also highlighted its important role at the crossroad between the mTOR or MAPK signaling pathways and selective autophagy. The p62 structure containing important interaction domains attests to the ability of this protein to regulate and modulate the activation of these signaling pathways during tumor formation and propagation. The second very important function of this protein is to act as a molecular adaptor between the autophagic machinery and its substrates. Consequently, p62 is degraded following an increase in autophagic flux for which this protein currently serves as an indicator. However, the measurement of p62 expression strictly as a marker of autophagic flux is still controversial and can be misinterpreted mainly because this protein is subject to complex regulation at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Finally, because p62 is an autophagic substrate, it acts as a molecular link between cancer and autophagy by conferring a high level of selectivity through the degradation of important signaling molecules.
Paget’s disease; mTOR; NFκB; NRF2; MAPK; Atg; ROS; ubiquitin; protein aggregates; oxidative stress
Azacitidine is the leading compound to treat patients suffering myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or AML with less than 30% of blasts, but a majority of patients is primary refractory or rapidly relapses under treatment. These patients have a drastically reduced life expectancy as compared to sensitive patients. Therefore identifying predictive factors for AZA resistance is of great interest to propose alternative therapeutic strategies for non-responsive patients. We generated AZA-resistant myeloid cell line (SKM1-R) that exhibited increased expression of BCL2L10 an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member. Importantly, BCL2L10 knockdown sensitized SKM1-R cells to AZA effect suggesting that increased BCL2L10 expression is linked to AZA resistance in SKM1-R. We next established in 77 MDS patients that resistance to AZA is significantly correlated with the percentage of MDS or AML cells expressing BCL2L10. In addition, we showed that the proportion of BCL2L10 positive bone marrow cells can predict overall survival in MDS or AML patients. We propose a convenient assay in which the percentage of BCL2L10 expressing cells as assessed by flow cytometry is predictive of whether or not a patient will become resistant to AZA. Therefore, systematic determination of BCL2L10 expression could be of great interest in newly diagnosed and AZA-treated MDS patients.
MDS; Azacitidine; resistance; BCL2L10; prognosis
AXL is a receptor tyrosine kinase of the TAM family, the function of which is poorly understood. We previously identified AXL overexpression in Imatinib (IM)-resistant CML cell lines and patients. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of AXL and the mechanisms underlying AXL overexpression in Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI)-resistant CML cells. We present evidence that high AXL expression level is a feature of TKI-resistant CML cells and knockdown of AXL sensitized TKI-resistant cells to IM. In addition, expression of wild-type AXL but not a dominant negative form of AXL confers IM-sensitive CML cells the capacity to resist IM effect. AXL overexpression required PKCα and β and constitutive activation of ERK1/2. Accordingly, GF109203X a PKC inhibitor, U0126 a MEK1 inhibitor and PKCα/β knockdown restore sensitivity to IM while PKCα or PKCβ overexpression in CML cells promotes protection against IM-induced cell death. Finally, using luciferase promoter activity assays we established that AXL is regulated transcriptionally through the AP1 transcription factor. Our findings reveal an unexpected role of AXL in resistance to TKI in CML cells, identify the molecular mechanisms involved in its overexpression and support the notion that AXL is a new marker of resistance to TKI in CML.
CML; Imatinib resistance; AXL; ERK1/2; PKC
Chemical investigation of the Mediterranean sponge Sarcotragus spinosulus led to the isolation of a new hydroxylated nonaprenylhydroquinone, along with two known metabolites, hepta- and octaprenylhydroquinones. The structure of the new metabolite was assigned by extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses and MS studies. The antileukemic effect of the three compounds towards the chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells line K562 was also evaluated.
sponges; Sarcotragus spinosulus; marine natural products; hydroxylated polyprenylhydroquinone; bioactivity
The role(s) of mast cells (MC) in gastric mucosal inflammation caused by Helicobacterpylori is (are) still debated.
To determine whether there is an association between MC density and epithelial cell apoptosis in antral gastric mucosa infected by H pylori.
Patients and methods
Biopsy specimens from 122 H pylori‐positive subjects with chronic active gastritis, 84 patients with non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drug‐induced gastritis and 48 volunteers were included. H pylori genotypes were determined by PCR amplification of bacterial cultures. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarrays with anti‐CD117, anti‐chymase, anti‐tryptase, anti‐myeloperoxidase, anti‐Bcl‐2, anti‐Bcl‐x, anti‐Bax and anti‐caspase 3 antibodies.
Of the 122 patients infected with H pylori, 76 (62.3%) harboured cagA positive strains. H pylori isolates belonged to the vacAs1/m1 genotype in 82 (67%) cases, to the vacAs2/m2 genotype in 23 (18.8%) cases and to the vacAs1/m2 genotype in 17 (13.9%) cases. 61 (50%) H pylori isolates were babA2+. In patients infected with H pylori, the density of MC, and in particular the number of MC‐associated epithelial cells, was correlated with a high number of apoptotic epithelial cells. Moreover, the density of MC was correlated with the number of neutrophils infiltrating the antral gastric mucosa, and was strongly increased in patients infected with cagA, vacAs1/m1 and babA2 positive strains.
Taken together, these data show that the density of MC can be considered as a histopathological criterion of gastritis activity in patients infected with H pylori.
Systemic injection of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) produces vascular leakage and animal death. Recent studies suggest that LT triggers direct endothelial cell cytotoxicity that is responsible for the vascular leakage. LT is composed of heptamers of protective antigen (PA), which drives the endocytosis and translocation into host cells of the lethal factor (LF), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase protease. Here we investigated the consequences of injection of an endothelium-permeabilizing factor using LT as a “molecular syringe.” To this end, we generated the chimeric factor LE, corresponding to the PA-binding domain of LF (LF1-254) fused to EDIN exoenzyme. EDIN ADP ribosylates RhoA, leading to actin cable disruption and formation of transcellular tunnels in endothelial cells. We report that systemic injection of LET (LE plus PA) triggers a PA-dependent increase in the pulmonary endothelium permeability. We also report that native LT induces a progressive loss of endothelium barrier function. We established that there is a direct correlation between the extent of endothelium permeability induced by LT and the cytotoxic activity of LT. This suggests new ways to design therapeutic drugs against anthrax directed toward vascular permeability.
CML is an hematopoietic stem cell disease characterized by the t(9;22) (q34;q11) translocation encoding the oncoprotein p210BCR-ABL. The effect of acadesine (AICAR, 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside) a compound with known antileukemic effect on B cell chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (B-CLL) was investigated in different CML cell lines. Acadesine triggered loss of cell metabolism in K562, LAMA-84 and JURL-MK1 and was also effective in killing imatinib-resistant K562 cells and Ba/F3 cells carrying the T315I-BCR-ABL mutation. The anti-leukemic effect of acadesine did not involve apoptosis but required rather induction of autophagic cell death. AMPK knock-down by Sh-RNA failed to prevent the effect of acadesine, indicating an AMPK-independent mechanism. The effect of acadesine was abrogated by GF109203X and Ro-32-0432, both inhibitor of classical and new PKCs and accordingly, acadesine triggered relocation and activation of several PKC isoforms in K562 cells. In addition, this compound exhibited a potent anti-leukemic effect in clonogenic assays of CML cells in methyl cellulose and in a xenograft model of K562 cells in nude mice. In conclusion, our work identifies an original and unexpected mechanism by which acadesine triggers autophagic cell death through PKC activation. Therefore, in addition to its promising effects in B-CLL, acadesine might also be beneficial for Imatinib-resistant CML patients.
Amphiregulin (AR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) are growth factors known to promote non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) survival. We have previously published that 1) AR and IGF1, secreted by H358 NSCLC cells, cooperate to protect those cells and H322 NSCLC cells from serum-starved apoptosis; 2) H358 cells resist to Bax-induced apoptosis through an inhibition of Bax conformational change. We show here that the anti-apoptotic activity of AR/IGF1 combination is specifically abolished by the PKC inhibitors calphostin C and staurosporine, but not by the MAPK and PI3K inhibitors PD98059 and wortmannin, suggesting the involvement of a PKC-dependent, MAPK- and PI3K-independent survival pathway. The PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin restores apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. In addition, phosphorylation of PKCδ and PKCζ/λ, but not of PKCα/βII, increases in serum-starved H358 cells and in H322 cells treated with AR/IGF1 combination and is blocked by calphostin C. Combination of AR and IGF1 increases p90Rsk and Bad phosphorylation as well as it inhibits the conformational change of Bax by a PKC-dependent mechanism. Finally, PKCδ, PKCζ or p90Rsk siRNAs block the anti-apoptotic activity of AR/IGF1 combination but have no effect on partial apoptosis inhibition observed with each factor used alone. Constitutively active PKC expression inhibits serum deprivation-induced apoptosis, whereas a catalytically inactive form of p90Rsk restores it. Thus, AR and IGF1 cooperate to prevent apoptosis by activating a specific PKC-p90Rsk-dependent pathway, which leads to Bad and Bax inactivation. This signalling pathway is different to that used by single factor.
1-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase; antagonists & inhibitors; Androstadienes; pharmacology; Apoptosis; drug effects; physiology; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; pathology; physiopathology; Carrier Proteins; antagonists & inhibitors; physiology; Cell Line, Tumor; Culture Media, Serum-Free; Enzyme Inhibitors; pharmacology; Flavonoids; pharmacology; Glycoproteins; physiology; Humans; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; physiology; Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; physiology; Isoenzymes; antagonists & inhibitors; physiology; Lung Neoplasms; pathology; physiopathology; MAP Kinase Signaling System; drug effects; Models, Biological; Naphthalenes; pharmacology; Protein Kinase C; antagonists & inhibitors; physiology; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; antagonists & inhibitors; physiology; Signal Transduction; drug effects; Staurosporine; pharmacology; bcl-2-Associated X Protein; bcl-Associated Death Protein
The ambiguous role of transcription factor Sp3 for tumour progression is still debated since it was described as a transcriptional repressor or activator. Here we tried to decipher the molecular mechanisms implicated in Sp3 accumulation observed in aggressive tumours.
We generated normal and tumour cell lines conditionally expressing Sp3. Cell growth was analyzed in vitro and after inoculation in nude mice. Apoptosis was assessed by pan- caspase activity assays, by counting fragmented nuclei and by determination of caspase 9 cleavage. Gene expression was determined by quantitative PCR. Cleavage by different caspases was performed after in vitro translation of the Sp3 cDNA in the presence of [S35] labelled methionine. Different tumour cell lines and head and neck tumour samples were tested for the presence of Sp3 by western blots. Correlation between Sp3 expression and overall survival has been statistically determined.
Conditional over-expression of Sp3 induces apoptosis and modifies expression of genes implicated in the regulation of cell cycle and pro and anti apoptotic genes. Sp3 over-expression strongly reduces the development of tumours in nude mice confirming its pro-apoptotic potential in vivo. However, cells can survive to apoptosis through selective Sp3 cleavage by caspase. Sp3 induction in established tumours resulted in transient regression then progression. Progression coincides with re-accumulation of the full length form of Sp3. Sp3 is over-expressed in tumour cell lines of different origins. The presence of high levels of the full-length form of Sp3 indicates a poor prognosis for overall survival of patients with head and neck tumours.
Full length Sp3 accumulation highlights bypass of tumour cell apoptotic capacities and is indicative of head and neck tumours aggressiveness.
The proinflammatory effect of Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains have been recently demonstrated in vitro by showing that polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transepithelial migration is induced after bacterial colonization of apical intestinal monolayers. The effect of Afa/Dr DAEC-PMN interaction on PMN behavior has been not investigated. Because of the putative virulence mechanism of PMN apoptosis during infectious diseases and taking into account the high level of expression of the decay-accelerating factor (DAF, or CD55), the receptor of Afa/Dr DAEC on PMNs, we sought to determine whether infection of PMNs by Afa/Dr DAEC strains could promote cell apoptosis. We looked at the behavior of PMNs incubated with Afa/Dr DAEC strains once they had transmigrated across polarized monolayers of intestinal (T84) cells. Infection of PMNs by Afa/Dr DAEC strains induced PMN apoptosis characterized by morphological nuclear changes, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, and a high level of annexin V expression. However, transmigrated and nontransmigrated PMNs incubated with Afa/Dr DAEC strains showed similar elevated global caspase activities. PMN apoptosis depended on their agglutination, induced by Afa/Dr DAEC, and was still observed after preincubation of PMNs with anti-CD55 and/or anti-CD66 antibodies. Low levels of phagocytosis of Afa/Dr DAEC strains were observed both in nontransmigrated and in transmigrated PMNs compared to that observed with the control E. coli DH5α strain. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that interaction of Afa/Dr DAEC with PMNs may increase the bacterial virulence both by inducing PMN apoptosis through an agglutination process and by diminishing their phagocytic capacity.
Some strains of Escherichia coli related to acute cystitis or colitis produce a toxin named cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF-1). CNF-1 mediates its effects on epithelial cells or phagocytes via the permanent activation of small GTP-binding proteins, caused by the toxin-induced deamidation of Glu63 of p21 Rho. The behavior of peripheral blood T lymphocytes during the acute phase of bacterial colitis has been poorly investigated. Our study was conducted to test whether (i) peripheral blood T lymphocytes can be activated by CNF-1 and (ii) CNF-1-activated T lymphocytes are cytotoxic against intestinal epithelial cells. Activation of T lymphocytes by CNF-1 was assessed by electrophoresis, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and electron microscopy studies. Assays for migration and adherence of CNF-1-treated T lymphocytes were performed in Transwell chambers with T84 intestinal epithelial cells grown on polycarbonate semipermeable filters. CNF-1 induced a decrease in the electrophoretic mobility of the GTP-binding protein Rho in treated T lymphocytes. CNF-1 provoked an increase in the content of actin stress fibers and pseudopodia in T lymphocytes. Several adherence molecules were clustered into cytoplasmic projections in CNF-1-treated T lymphocytes and adherence of such lymphocytes on the basolateral pole of T84 was increased, resulting in cytotoxicity toward epithelial cells. Such enhanced adherence in response to CNF-1 was dependent on p42-44MAP kinase activation of T lymphocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that CNF-1, by acting on T lymphocytes, may increase in an important fashion the virulence of certain strains of E. coli against the intestinal epithelia.
Acute colitis is characterized by a large number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) migrating across the columnar epithelium in response to inflammatory stimuli. Several of these inflammatory factors have been characterized as proapoptotic inducers for intestinal epithelial cells. Our aim was to elucidate the role of PMNL transmigration in the onset of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis. We found that PMNL migration, in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine across monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells (T84), was associated with activation of caspase-2, -3, and -9 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage within epithelial cells. Moreover, dihydrocytochalasin B treatment of T84 cells induced apoptosis with similar characteristics. Although Fas and Fas ligand were expressed on T84 cells and PMNLs, treatment of epithelial cells with an antagonistic anti-Fas antibody failed to prevent apoptosis induced by migrating PMNLs. Owing to the F-actin reorganization accompanying PMNL transmigration, these findings indicate a direct relationship between PMNL migration and induction of apoptosis in epithelial cells. This apoptotic process appears to involve remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton of enterocytes independent of the Fas/Fas ligand pathway.
colitis; apoptosis; caspases; Fas; cytoskeleton
Helicobacter pylori infection can induce polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) infiltration of the gastric mucosa, which characterizes acute chronic gastritis. The mechanisms underlying this process are poorly documented. The lack of an in vitro model has considerably impaired the study of transepithelial migration of PMNL induced by H. pylori. In the present work, we used confluent polarized monolayers of the human intestinal cell line T84 grown on permeable filters to analyze the epithelial PMNL response induced by broth culture filtrates (BCFs) and bacterial suspensions from different strains of H. pylori. We have evaluated the role of the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA and of the cag pathogenicity island (PAI) of H. pylori in PMNL migration via their effects on T84 epithelial cells. We noted no difference in the rates of PMNL transepithelial migration after epithelial preincubation with bacterial suspensions or with BCFs of VacA-negative or VacA-positive H. pylori strains. In contrast, PMNL transepithelial migration was induced after incubation of the T84 cells with cag PAI-positive and cagE-positive H. pylori strains. Finally, PMNL migration was correlated with a basolateral secretion of interleukin-8 by T84 cells, thus creating a subepithelial chemotactic gradient for PMNL. These data provide evidence that the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA is not involved in PMNL transepithelial migration and that the cag PAI, with a pivotal role for the cagE gene, provokes a transcellular signal across T84 monolayers, inducing a subepithelial PMNL response.