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1.  The var3 genes of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain are differentially expressed in infected erythrocytes 
Parasite  2014;21:19.
Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is an important virulence factor encoded by a family of 59 var genes, including 56 var genes plus 3 small var3 genes. The var genes are among the most diverse sequences in the P. falciparum genome, but the var3 genes are found conserved in most P. falciparum strains. Previous studies have been mainly focused on the typical var genes, while the biological characteristics of the var3 genes remain unknown. In this study, the three var3 genes, PF3D7_0100300, PF3D7_0600400, and PF3D7_0937600, were found to be transcribed in the erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum, with a peak in the transcription level at 16 h post-invasion, but terminated immediately after 16 h post-invasion. The encoded protein of PF3D7_0600400 could be detected in both the late trophozoite stage and schizont stage, while the encoded proteins of PF3D7_0100300 and PF3D7_0937600 could only be detected in the late trophozoite stage and schizont stage, respectively. Thus, the var3 genes of the P. falciparum 3D7 strain were differentially expressed during the erythrocytic development of the parasite.
doi:10.1051/parasite/2014019
PMCID: PMC3996870
Plasmodium falciparum; var gene; PfEMP1; Expression
2.  The var3 genes of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain are differentially expressed in infected erythrocytes 
Parasite  2014;21:19.
Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is an important virulence factor encoded by a family of 59 var genes, including 56 var genes plus 3 small var3 genes. The var genes are among the most diverse sequences in the P. falciparum genome, but the var3 genes are found conserved in most P. falciparum strains. Previous studies have been mainly focused on the typical var genes, while the biological characteristics of the var3 genes remain unknown. In this study, the three var3 genes, PF3D7_0100300, PF3D7_0600400, and PF3D7_0937600, were found to be transcribed in the erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum, with a peak in the transcription level at 16 h post-invasion, but terminated immediately after 16 h post-invasion. The encoded protein of PF3D7_0600400 could be detected in both the late trophozoite stage and schizont stage, while the encoded proteins of PF3D7_0100300 and PF3D7_0937600 could only be detected in the late trophozoite stage and schizont stage, respectively. Thus, the var3 genes of the P. falciparum 3D7 strain were differentially expressed during the erythrocytic development of the parasite.
doi:10.1051/parasite/2014019
PMCID: PMC3996964  PMID: 24759654
Plasmodium falciparum; var gene; PfEMP1; Expression
3.  Cancer-testis antigens: the current status on antigen regulation and potential clinical use 
Immunotherapy is theoretically an attractive therapeutic option for patients with hematological malignancies. Various laboratory studies suggested the importance of the choice of tumor antigen for successful immunotherapy. Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are potentially suitable molecules for tumor vaccines of hematological malignancies because of their high immunogenicity in vivo, even in cancer-bearing patients, and their relatively restricted normal tissue distribution. Tumor cell kill using a CTA-based immunotherapy will, therefore, be more specific and associated with less toxicities when compared to chemotherapy. Many CTAs have been identified in various hematologic malignancies. In this review, we will take the readers through the journey of hopes and the disappointments arisen from the discovery of CTAs. We will describe the features of CTAs and their expression in hematologic malignancies. We will also discuss the mechanisms regulating the expression of these CTAs, from a primary regulatory mechanism involving DNA methylation to secondary controls by cytokines. Finally, we will address the potential obstacles that will prevent the successful use of CTAs as targets for tumor immunotherapy.
PMCID: PMC3301432  PMID: 22432085
Cancer-testis antigens; hematological malignancies; DNA methylation; heterogeneity of antigen expression
4.  Core promoter sequence of SEMG I spans between the two putative GATA-1 binding domains and is responsive to IL-4 and IL-6 in myeloma cells 
Leukemia research  2008;33(1):166-169.
Semenogelin (SEMG) I is a Cancer-Testis antigen expressed in myeloma cells. SEMG I expression is upregulated by IL-4, IL-6 and 5-azacytidine. In this study, we set out to define the core promoter sequence needed for the expression of SEMG I in myeloma cells. We found that nucleotide sequences spanning the two putative GATA-1 binding domains are vital for the primary regulation of SEMG I promoter function while the other parts of the promoter sequence are responsible for the fine adjustment of the core promoter function. The core promoter sequence is responsive to the enhancing effect of IL-4 and IL-6.
doi:10.1016/j.leukres.2008.05.021
PMCID: PMC2605945  PMID: 18602691
Semenogelin I; Myeloma; GATA-1 binding domains; IL-4; IL-6
5.  Semenogelin I expression in myeloma cells can be upregulated pharmacologically 
Leukemia research  2008;32(12):1889-1894.
Semenogelin (SEMG) I is a Cancer-Testis (CT) antigen that we have found to be expressed in myeloma cells. In this study, we set out to determine whether the expression of SEMG I could be upregulated pharmacologically. We found that SEMG I expression in myeloma cells can be upregulated by 5-azacytidine, IL-4 and IL-6. The mechanisms of SEMG I gene upregulation by 5-azacytidine is unclear since there was no correlation between the methylation of the single CpG dinucleotide at position -11 and SEMG I expression. Both IL-4 and IL-6 appeared to enhance SEMG I expression through increasing its promoter function.
doi:10.1016/j.leukres.2008.03.036
PMCID: PMC2615790  PMID: 18468680
Semenogelin I; CT antigen; 5-azacytidine; IL-4; IL-6
6.  Identification of Protamine 1 as a novel CT antigen in early CLL 
British journal of haematology  2008;144(5):660-666.
Summary
Early chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an ideal disease for immunotherapy. We previously showed that SEMG 1 is a Cancer-Testis (CT) antigen in CLL. In this study, we applied SEMG 1 as the bait in a yeast two-hybrid system of a testicular cDNA library. We isolated seven clones and identified Protamine (Prm) 1 as a novel CT antigen in early CLL. Prm 1 transcripts were detected in 11/41 (26.8%) patients. Prm 1 protein was also expressed but heterogeneously within individual patients. Of the 11 patients expressing Prm 1, four expressed Zap 70 protein and seven did not. These results, therefore, indicate that Prm 1 could potentially be a suitable target for the design of tumor vaccine for patients with early CLL, including for those with poor risk CLL. High titers Prm 1 IgG antibodies could be detected in 20 of these 41 CLL patients but not in any of the 20 healthy donors (p = 0.0001), suggesting the presence of Prm 1-reactive immune responses within immune repertoire of patients with early CLL. Further work is warranted, especially in approaches to upregulate Prm 1 expression, to determine the role of Prm 1 as an immunotherapeutic target for early CLL.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07502.x
PMCID: PMC2752686  PMID: 19036087
Protamine 1; CT antigen; CLL; Zap 70

Results 1-6 (6)