Aerobic capacity is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality and can influence many complex traits. To explore the biological basis underlying this connection, we developed via artificial selection two rat lines that diverge for intrinsic (i.e. inborn) aerobic capacity and differ in risk for complex disease traits. Here we conduct the first in-depth pedigree and molecular genetic analysis of these lines, the high capacity runners (HCR) and low capacity runners (LCR). Our results show that both HCR and LCR lines maintain considerable narrow-sense heritability (h2) for the running capacity phenotype over 28 generations (h2 = 0.47 ± 0.02 and 0.43 ± 0.02, respectively). To minimize inbreeding, the lines were maintained by rotational mating. Pedigree records predict that the inbreeding coefficient increases at a rate of <1% per generation, ~37-38% slower than expected for random mating. Genome-wide 10K SNP genotype data for generations 5, 14, and 26 demonstrate substantial genomic evolution: between-line differentiation increased progressively, while within-line diversity deceased. Genome-wide average heterozygosity decreased at a rate of <1% per generation, consistent with pedigree-based predictions and confirming the effectiveness of rotational breeding. Linkage disequilibrium index r2 decreases to 0.3 at ~3 Mb, suggesting that the resolution for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) can be as high as 2-3 cM. To establish a test population for QTL mapping, we conducted an HCR-LCR intercross. Running capacity of the F1 population (n=176) was intermediate of the HCR and LCR parentals (28 pairs); and the F2 population (n=645) showed a wider range of phenotypic distribution. Importantly, heritability in the F0-F2 pedigree remained high (h2~0.6). These results suggest that the HCR-LCR lines can serve as a valuable system for studying genomic evolution, and a powerful resource for mapping QTL for a host of characters relevant to human health.
Runs of homozygosity (ROH) may play a role in complex diseases. In the current study, we aimed to test if ROHs are linked to the risk of autism and related language impairment. We analyzed 546,080 SNPs in 315 Han Chinese affected with autism and 1,115 controls. ROH was defined as an extended homozygous haplotype spanning at least 500 kb. Relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) for the trait-associated ROH region was calculated to search for the signature of selection sweeps. Totally, we identified 676 ROH regions. An ROH region on 11q22.3 was significantly associated with speech delay (corrected p = 1.73×10−8). This region contains the NPAT and ATM genes associated with ataxia telangiectasia characterized by language impairment; the CUL5 (culin 5) gene in the same region may modulate the neuronal migration process related to language functions. These three genes are highly expressed in the cerebellum. No evidence for recent positive selection was detected on the core haplotypes in this region. The same ROH region was also nominally significantly associated with speech delay in another independent sample (p = 0.037; combinatorial analysis Stouffer’s z trend = 0.0005). Taken together, our findings suggest that extended recessive loci on 11q22.3 may play a role in language impairment in autism. More research is warranted to investigate if these genes influence speech pathology by perturbing cerebellar functions.
The selective increase of Na+/I− symporter (NIS)-mediated active iodide uptake in thyroid cells allows the use of radioiodine I131 for diagnosis and targeted treatment of thyroid cancers. However, NIS-mediated radioiodine accumulation is often reduced in thyroid cancers due to decreased NIS expression/function. As PI3K signaling is overactivated in many thyroid tumors, we investigated the effects of inhibitors for PI3K, Akt, or mTORC1 as well as their interplay on NIS modulation in thyroid cells under chronic TSH stimulation. PI3K inhibition by LY294002 increased NIS-mediated radioiodide uptake (RAIU) mainly through upregulation of NIS expression, however, mTORC1 inhibition by Rapamycin did not increase NIS-mediated RAIU despite increased NIS protein levels. In comparison, Akt inhibition by Akti-1/2 did not increase NIS protein levels, yet markedly increased NIS-mediated RAIU by decreasing iodide efflux rate and increasing iodide transport rate and iodide affinity of NIS. The effects of Akti-1/2 on NIS-mediated RAIU are not detected in nonthyroid cells, implying that Akti-1/2 or its derivatives may represent potential pharmacological reagents to selectively increase thyroidal radioiodine accumulation and therapeutic efficacy.
We recently reported a terminal deletion of approximately 2.4 Mb at chromosome 8p23.2-pter in a boy with autism. The deleted region contained the DLGAP2 gene that encodes the neuronal post-synaptic density protein, discs, large (Drosophila) homolog-associated protein 2. The study aimed to investigate whether DLGAP2 is genetically associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in general.
We re-sequenced all the exons of DLGPA2 in 515 patients with ASD and 596 control subjects from Taiwan. We also conducted bioinformatic analysis and family study of variants identified in this study.
We detected nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and sixteen novel missense rare variants in this sample. We found that AA homozygotes of rs2906569 (minor allele G, alternate allele A) at intron 1 (P = 0.003) and CC homozygotes of rs2301963 (minor allele A, alternate allele C) at exon 3 (P = 0.0003) were significantly over-represented in the patient group compared to the controls. We also found no differences in the combined frequency of rare missense variants between the two groups. Some of these rare variants were predicted to have an impact on the function of DLGAP2 using informatics analysis, and the family study revealed most of the rare missense mutations in patients were inherited from their unaffected parents.
We detected some common and rare genetic variants of DLGAP2 that might have implication in the pathogenesis of ASD, but they alone may not be sufficient to lead to clinical phenotypes. We suggest that further genetic or environmental factors in affected patients may be present and determine the clinical manifestations.
Autism spectrum disorders; DLGAP2; Common variants; Rare variants
Comparative gene expression profiling analysis is useful in discovering differentially expressed genes associated with various diseases, including mental disorders. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of complex childhood-onset neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders characterized by deficits in language development and verbal communication, impaired reciprocal social interaction, and the presence of repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The study aimed to identify novel genes associated with the pathogenesis of ASD.
We conducted comparative total gene expression profiling analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) between 16 male patients with ASD and 16 male control subjects to screen differentially expressed genes associated with ASD. We verified one of the differentially expressed genes, FOXP1, using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in a sample of 83 male patients and 83 male controls that included the initial 16 male patients and male controls, respectively.
A total of 252 differentially expressed probe sets representing 202 genes were detected between the two groups, including 89 up- and 113 downregulated genes in the ASD group. RT-qPCR verified significant elevation of the FOXP1 gene transcript of LCL in a sample of 83 male patients (10.46 ± 11.34) compared with 83 male controls (5.17 ± 8.20, P = 0.001).
Comparative gene expression profiling analysis of LCL is useful in discovering novel genetic markers associated with ASD. Elevated gene expression of FOXP1 might contribute to the pathogenesis of ASD.
Clinical trial registration
Autism; FOXP1; Expression microarray; Genetics; Lymphoblastoid cell line
MicroRNA (miR)-92 is overexpressed in a number of tumors and has been proven to negatively regulate a number of tumor suppressor genes, including phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN). However, its function and molecular mechanism(s) of action in squamous cervical carcinoma (SCCs) have not been well described. Furthermore, the correlation between miR-92 and human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E6 has not been studied. In the present study, miR-92 expression levels were quantified using quantitative PCR (qPCR) in cervical cancer tissues, normal cervical tissues and cervical cancer cell lines. SiHa cells were transfected with either miR-92-mimics, anti-miR-92 or negative controls. C33A cells were stably transfected with pEGFP-N1-16E6 and pEGFP-N1-neo plasmids. The levels of PTEN protein expression in the transfected SiHa and C33A cells were evaluated using western blot analysis. The effects of miR-92 were detected using cell counting kit (CCK)-8 and Transwell assays. HPV16 E6 siRNA was used to detect the effectiveness of the E6 protein on miR-92 in the SiHa and C33A cells. miR-92 was highly-expressed in the human cervical cancer tissues compared with the normal tissues. In the HPV16-positive cervical cancer tissues, the expression of miR-92 was higher compared with the HPV16-negative cervical cancer tissues. HPV16 E6 upregulated miR-92 expression in the SiHa- and C33A-pEGFP-N1-16E6 cells. The upregulation of miR-92 promoted cell growth and invasion in the SiHa cells. PTEN protein expression was decreased in the SiHa cells that were transfected with the miR-92 mimic. The data indicated that miR-92 may increase the migration and invasion of SiHa cells, partially through the downregulation of PTEN protein expression. HPV16 E6 was identified to upregulate miR-92 expression.
squamous cervical carcinoma; microRNA -92; phosphatase and tensin homologue; human papillomavirus-16 E6
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer (BC). One of them, conducted among Chinese women, found an association of rs2046210 at 6q25.1 with the risk of BC recently. Since then, numerous association studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between this polymorphism and BC risk in various populations. However, these have yielded contradictory results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to clarify this inconsistency. Overall, a total of 235003 subjects based on 13 studies were included in our study. Significantly increased BC risk was detected in the pooled analysis [allele contrast: OR = 1.13, 95%CI = 1.10–1.17, P(Z) <10−5, P(Q) <10−4; dominant model: OR = 1.21, 95%CI = 1.14–1.27, P(Z) <10−5, P(Q) <10−4; recessive model: OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.12–1.24, P(Z) <10−5, P(Q) = 0.04]. In addition, our data revealed that rs2046210 conferred greater risk in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors [OR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.15–1.40, P(Z) <10−5, P(Q) <10−4] than in ER-positive ones [OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.09–1.28, P(Z) <10−4, P(Q) = 0.0003]. When stratified by ethnicity, significant associations were found in Caucasian and Asian populations, but not detected among Africans. There was evidence of heterogeneity (P<0.05), however, the heterogeneity largely disappeared after stratification by ethnicity. The present meta-analysis demonstrated that the rs2046210 polymorphism may be associated with increased BC susceptibility, but this association varies in different ethnicities.
Micro–single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides a noninvasive way to evaluate the effects of genetic and/or pharmacological modulation on sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)–mediated radionuclide accumulation in mouse thyroid and salivary glands. However, parameters affecting image acquisition and analysis of mouse thyroids and salivary glands have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of region-of-interest (ROI) selection, collimation, scan time, and imaging orbit on image acquisition and quantification of thyroidal and salivary radionuclide accumulation in mice.
The effects of data window minima and maxima on thyroidal and salivary ROI selection using a visual boundary method were examined in SPECT images acquired from mice injected with 123I NaI. The effects of collimation, scan time, and imaging orbit on counting linearity and signal intensity were investigated using phantoms filled with various activities of 123I NaI or Tc-99m pertechnetate. Spatial resolution of target organs in whole-animal images was compared between circular orbit with parallel-hole collimation and spiral orbit with five-pinhole collimation. Lastly, the inter-experimental variability of the same mouse scanned multiple times was compared with the intra-experimental variability among different mice scanned at the same time.
Thyroid ROI was separated from salivary glands by empirically increasing the data window maxima. Counting linearity within the range of 0.5–14.2 μCi was validated by phantom imaging using single- or multiple-pinhole collimators with circular or spiral imaging orbit. Scanning time could be shortened to 15 minutes per mouse without compromising counting linearity despite proportionally decreased signal intensity. Whole-animal imaging using a spiral orbit with five-pinhole collimators achieved a high spatial resolution and counting linearity. Finally, the extent of inter-experimental variability of NIS-mediated radionuclide accumulation in the thyroid and salivary glands by SPECT imaging in the same mouse was less than the magnitude of variability among the littermates.
The impacts of multiple variables and experimental designs on micro-SPECT imaging and quantification of radionuclide accumulation in mouse thyroid and salivary glands can be minimized. This platform will serve as an invaluable tool to screen for pharmacologic reagents that differentially modulate thyroidal and salivary radioiodine accumulation in preclinical mouse models.
To investigate the potential of false inclusion of a close genetic relative in paternity testing by using computer generated families.
10 000 computer-simulated families over three generations were generated based on genotypes using 15 short tandem repeat loci. These data were used in assessing the probability of inclusion or exclusion of paternity when the father is actually a sibling, grandparent, uncle, half sibling, cousin, or a random male. Further, we considered a duo case where the mother’s DNA type was not available and a trio case including the mother’s profile.
The data showed that the duo scenario had the highest and lowest false inclusion rates when considering a sibling (19.03 ± 0.77%) and a cousin (0.51 ± 0.14%) as the father, respectively; and the rate when considering a random male was much lower (0.04 ± 0.04%). The situation altered slightly with a trio case where the highest rate (0.56 ± 0.15%) occurred when a paternal uncle was considered as the father, and the lowest rate (0.03 ± 0.03%) occurred when a cousin was considered as the father. We also report on the distribution of the numbers for non-conformity (non-matching loci) where the father is a close genetic relative.
The results highlight the risk of false inclusion in parentage testing. These data provide a valuable reference when incorporating either a mutation in the father’s DNA type or if a close relative is included as being the father; particularly when there are varying numbers of non-matching loci.
Kindlin 2, as an integrin-associated protein, is required for myocyte elongation and fusion. However, the association of Kindlin 2 with muscle differentiation-related signaling pathways is unknown. Here, we identified a mechanism that Kindlin 2 regulates myogenic regulatory factors myogenin via a canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We found that knockdown of Kindlin 2 leads to the abolishment of β-catenin/TCF4-mediated transcription in C2C12 cells, followed by the impairment of myogenic differentiation. Mechanistically, nuclear translocation of both Kindlin 2 and β-catenin is induced during myogenic differentiation. In particular, Kindlin 2 forms a tripartite complex with active β-catenin and TCF4, and hence co-occupied on the promoter of myogenin to enhance its expression. Functionally, depletion of Kindlin 2 impairs myogenic differentiation via downregulation of myogenin. Taken together, our data reveal that Kindlin 2 is required for Wnt signaling-regulated myogenic differentiation, providing a mechanistic insight into the role of Kindlin-2 in muscle development.
Atherosclerotic disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, and oxidized LDL (OxLDL) plays a key role in the formation, rupture, and subsequent thrombus formation in atherosclerotic plaques. In the current study, anti-mouse OxLDL polyclonal antibody and nonspecific IgG antibody were conjugated to polyethylene glycol-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles, and a carotid perivascular collar model in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice was imaged at 7.0 Tesla MRI before contrast administration and at 8 h and 24 h after injection of 30 mg Fe/kg. The results showed MRI signal loss in the carotid atherosclerotic lesions after administration of targeted anti-OxLDL-USPIO at 8 h and 24 h, which is consistent with the presence of the nanoparticles in the lesions. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the colocalization of the OxLDL/macrophages and iron oxide nanoparticles. The nonspecific IgG-USPIO, unconjugated USPIO nanoparticles, and competitive inhibition groups had limited signal changes (p < 0.05). This report shows that anti-OxLDL-USPIO nanoparticles can be used to directly detect OxLDL and image atherosclerotic lesions within 24 h of nanoparticle administration and suggests a strategy for the therapeutic evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques in vivo.
atherosclerosis; molecular imaging; magnetic resonance imaging; low density lipoprotein
Resistin is a novel hormone that is secreted by human adipocytes and mononuclear cells and is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and inflammation. Recently, resistin has been postulated to play a role in angiogenesis. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that resistin regulates ovary carcinoma production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the angiogenic processes. We found that in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells (HO-8910), resistin (10–150 ng/mL) enhanced both VEGF protein and mRNA expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, as well as promoter activity. Furthermore, resistin enhanced DNA-binding activity of Sp1 with VEGF promoter in a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner. PI3K/Akt activated by resistin led to increasing interaction with Sp1, triggering a progressive phosphorylation of Sp1 on Thr453 and Thr739, resulting in the upregulation of VEGF expression. In an in vitro angiogenesis system for endothelial cells (EA.hy926) co-cultured with HO-8910 cells, we observed that the addition of resistin stimulated endothelial cell tube formation, which could be abolished by VEGF neutralizing antibody. Our findings suggest that the PI3K/Akt-Sp1 pathway is involved in resistin-induced VEGF expression in HO-8910 cells and indicates that antiangiogenesis therapy may be beneficial treatment against ovarian epithelial carcinoma, especially in obese patients.
resistin; vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); Sp1; phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt
Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins are evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes and play critical roles in transcriptional activation via deposition of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) in chromatin. Several Arabidopsis TrxG members have been characterized, and among them SET DOMAIN GROUP 2 (SDG2) has been shown to be necessary for global genome-wide H3K4me3 deposition. Although pleiotropic phenotypes have been uncovered in the sdg2 mutants, SDG2 function in the regulation of stem cell activity has remained largely unclear. Here, we investigate the sdg2 mutant root phenotype and demonstrate that SDG2 is required for primary root stem cell niche (SCN) maintenance as well as for lateral root SCN establishment. Loss of SDG2 results in drastically reduced H3K4me3 levels in root SCN and differentiated cells and causes the loss of auxin gradient maximum in the root quiescent centre. Elevated DNA damage is detected in the sdg2 mutant, suggesting that impaired genome integrity may also have challenged the stem cell activity. Genetic interaction analysis reveals that SDG2 and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY FACTOR-1 act synergistically in root SCN and genome integrity maintenance but not in telomere length maintenance. We conclude that SDG2-mediated H3K4me3 plays a distinctive role in the regulation of chromatin structure and genome integrity, which are key features in pluripotency of stem cells and crucial for root growth and development.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted on many psychiatric disorders. Evidence from large GWAS indicates that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 in the zinc-finger protein 804A gene (ZNF804A) is associated with psychotic disorders including bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. One study also found significant association between rs1344706 and the executive control network of attention. In this study we examine the role of the rs1344706 polymorphism that previously showed association with BD and is known to alter expression of the gene in two clinical family-based ADHD samples from the UK and Taiwan.
To investigate the association between rs1344706 and ADHD, two family samples of ADHD probands from the United Kingdom (n = 180) and Taiwan (n = 212) were genotyped using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays and analysed using within-family transmission disequilibrium test. No significant associations were found between rs1344706 polymorphism and ADHD in either of the samples from Taiwan (P = 0.91) and UK (P = 0.41). Even combining the two datasets together the A allele of rs1344706 SNP was still not significantly over-transmitted to affected probands (P = 0.50). Furthermore, there was no evidence of association with the specific symptoms subgroups of inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity.
In this study we used family-based ADHD data in the UK and Taiwanese population to test for an association between rs1344706 SNP in the ZNF804A gene and ADHD. Results showed no significant association of rs1344706 with ADHD in UK and Taiwanese samples.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; ZNF804A; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Association study; Bipolar disorder
microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) impact numerous biological processes in eukaryotes. In addition to biogenesis, turnover contributes to the steady-state levels of small RNAs. One major factor that stabilizes miRNAs and siRNAs in plants as well as siRNAs and piRNAs in animals is 2′;-O-methylation on the 3′; terminal ribose by the methyltransferase HUA ENHANCER1 (HEN1) [1–6]. Genetic studies with Arabidopsis, Drosophila and zebrafish hen1 mutants show that 2′-O-methylation protects small RNAs from 3′-to-5′ truncation and 3′ uridylation, the addition of non-templated nucleotides, predominantly uridine [2, 7, 8]. Uridylation is a widespread phenomenon that is not restricted to small RNAs in hen1 mutants, and is often associated with their reduced accumulation ([7, 9, 10]; reviewed in ). The enzymes responsible for 3′ uridylation of small RNAs when they lack methylation in plants or animals have remained elusive. Here, we identify the Arabidopsis HEN1 SUPPRESSOR1 (HESO1) gene as responsible for small RNA uridylation in hen1 mutants. HESO1 exhibits terminal nucleotidyl transferase activity, prefers uridine as the substrate nucleotide, and is completely inhibited by 2′-O-methylation. We show that uridylation leads to miRNA degradation, and the degradation is most likely through an enzyme that is distinct from that causing the 3′ truncation in hen1 mutants.
miRNA; siRNA; HESO1; nucleotidyl transferase; methylation; uridylation
Arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater is a great environmental health concern and is often the result of contact between groundwater and arsenic-containing rocks or sediments and from variation of pH and redox potentials in the subsurface. In the past decade, magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have been shown to have high adsorption activity towards As. Alerted by the reported cytotoxicity of 5–12 nm MNP, we studied the adsorption behavior of 1.15 nm MNP and a MNP composite (MNPC), MNPs interlinked by silane coupling agents. With an initial concentration of As at 25 mg L−1, MNPs exhibited high adsorption capacity for As(V) and As (III), 206.9 mg·g−1 and 168.6 mg·g−1 under anaerobic conditions, respectively, and 109.9 mg·g−1 and 108.6 mg·g−1 under aerobic conditions, respectively. Under aerobic conditions, MNPC achieved even higher adsorption capacity than MNP, 165.1 mg·g−1 on As(V) and 157.9 mg·g−1 on As(III). For As(V) at 50 mg L−1, MNPC achieved an adsorption capacity as high as 341.8 mg·g−1, the highest in the literature. A kinetic study indicated that this adsorption reaction can reach equilibrium within 15 min and the rate constant of As(V) is about 1.9 times higher than that of As(III). These results suggested that MNPC can serve as a highly effective adsorbent for fast removal of As.
arsenic; adsorption; magnetite; nanoparticle; magnetite composite
Recent studies revealed that erythropoietin (EPO) has tissue-protective effects in the heart by increasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and attenuating myocardial fibrosis in ischemia models. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPO on ventricular remodeling and blood vessel growth in diabetic rats.
Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control rats, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with 1000 U/kg EPO by subcutaneous injection once per week. Twelve weeks later, echocardiography was conducted, and blood samples were collected for counting of peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Myocardial tissues were collected, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of VEGF and EPO-receptor (EPOR), and Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression of VEGF and EPOR. VEGF, EPOR, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and CD31 levels in the myocardium were determined by immunohistochemistry. To detect cardiac hypertrophy, immunohistochemistry of collagen type I, collagen type III, and Picrosirius Red staining were performed, and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area was measured.
After 12 weeks STZ injection, blood glucose increased significantly and remained consistently elevated. EPO treatment significantly improved cardiac contractility and reduced diastolic dysfunction. Rats receiving the EPO injection showed a significant increase in circulating EPCs (27.85 ± 3.43%, P < 0.01) compared with diabetic untreated animals. EPO injection significantly increased capillary density as well as EPOR and VEGF expression in left ventricular myocardial tissue from diabetic rats. Moreover, EPO inhibited interstitial collagen deposition and reduced TGF-β expression.
Treatment with EPO protects cardiac tissue in diabetic animals by increasing VEGF and EPOR expression levels, leading to improved revascularization and the inhibition of cardiac fibrosis.
Erythropoietin; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Diabetes mellitus; Endothelial progenitor cell; Myocardial interstitial fibrosis; Transforming growth factor beta
Radionuclide Cisternography (RNC) is of potential value in pointing out the sites of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). In the current report, we present two patients who underwent RNC for suspected CSF leakage. Both patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and RNC for evaluation. We describe a simple method to increase the detection ability of RNC for CSF leakage in patients with SIH.
Intracranial Hypotension; Technetium; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Scintigraphy
Slc39a7/Zip7, also known as Ke4, is a member of solute carrier family 39 (Slc39a) and plays a critical role in regulating cell growth and death. Because the function of Zip7 in vivo was unclear, the present study investigated the function of zip7 in vertebrate development and zinc metabolism using zebrafish as a model organism.
Using real-time PCR to determine the gene expression pattern of zip7 during zebrafish development, we found that zip7 mRNA is expressed throughout embryonic development and into maturity. Interestingly, whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that while zip7 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed until 12 hours post-fertilization (hpf); at 24 hpf and beyond, zip7 mRNA was specifically detected only in eyes. Morpholino-antisense (MO) gene knockdown assay revealed that downregulation of zip7 expression resulted in several morphological defects in zebrafish including decreased head size, smaller eyes, shorter palates, and shorter and curved spinal cords. Analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) showed reduced concentrations of zinc in brain, eyes, and gills of zip7-MO-injected embryos. Furthermore, incubation of the zip7 knockdown embryos in a zinc-supplemented solution was able to rescue the MO-induced morphological defects.
Our data suggest that zip7 is required for eye, brain, and skeleton formation during early embryonic development in zebrafish. Moreover, zinc supplementation can partially rescue defects resulting from zip7 gene knockdown. Taken together, our data provide critical insight into a novel function of zip7 in development and zinc homeostasis in vivo in zebrafish.
To use a virtually simulated population, generated from published allele frequencies based on 15 short tandem repeats (STR), to evaluate the efficacy of trio sibship testing and sibling assignment for forensic purposes.
Virtual populations were generated using 15 STR loci to create a large number of related and unrelated genotypes (10 000 trio combinations). Using these virtual populations, the probability of related and unrelated profiles can be compared to determine the chance of inclusions of being siblings if they are true siblings and the chance of inclusion if they are unrelated. Two specific relationships were tested – two reference siblings were compared to a third true sibling (3S trio, sibling trio) and two reference siblings were compared to an unrelated individual (2S1U trio, non-sibling trio).
When the likelihood ratio was greater than 1, 99.87% of siblings in the 3S trio population were considered as siblings (sensitivity); 99.88% of non-siblings in the 2S1U trio population were considered as non-siblings (specificity); 99.9% of both populations were identified correctly as siblings and non-siblings; and the accuracy of the test was 99.88%.
The high sensitivity and specificity figures when using two known siblings compared to a putative sibling are significantly greater than when using only one known relative. The data also support the use of increasing number of loci allowing for greater confidence in genetic identification. The system established in this study could be used as the model for evaluating and simulating the cases with multiple relatives.
Much recent research effort in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been devoted to the discovery of a reliable biomarker correlating with severity of injury. Currently, no consensus has been reached regarding a representative marker for traumatic brain injury. In this study, we explored the potential of epithelial/endothelial tyrosine kinase (Etk) as a novel marker for TBI.
TBI was induced in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by controlled cortical impact. Brain tissue samples were analyzed by Western blot, Q-PCR, and immunofluorescence staining using various markers including glial fibrillary acidic protein, and epithelial/endothelial tyrosine kinase (Etk). Results show increased Etk expression with increased number and severity of impacts. Expression increased 2.36 to 7-fold relative to trauma severity. Significant upregulation of Etk appeared at 1 hour after injury. The expression level of Etk was inversely correlated with distance from injury site. Etk and trauma/inflammation related markers increased post-TBI, while other tyrosine kinases did not.
The observed correlation between Etk level and the number of impacts, the severity of impact, and the time course after impact, as well as its inverse correlation with distance away from injury site, support the potential of Etk as a possible indicator of trauma severity.
Few studies assessed effects of individual and multiple ions simultaneously on metabolic outcomes, due to methodological limitation.
By combining advanced ionomics and mutual information, a quantifying measurement for mutual dependence between two random variables, we investigated associations of ion modules/networks with overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in 976 middle-aged Chinese men and women. Fasting plasma ions were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Significant ion modules were selected by mutual information to construct disease related ion networks. Plasma copper and phosphorus always ranked the first two among three specific ion networks associated with overweight/obesity, MetS and T2DM. Comparing the ranking of ion individually and in networks, three patterns were observed (1) “Individual ion,” such as potassium and chrome, which tends to work alone; (2) “Module ion,” such as iron in T2DM, which tends to act in modules/network; and (3) “Module-individual ion,” such as copper in overweight/obesity, which seems to work equivalently in either way.
In conclusion, by using the novel approach of the ionomics strategy and the information theory, we observed potential associations of ions individually or as modules/networks with metabolic disorders. Certainly, these findings need to be confirmed in future biological studies.
The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal dose of osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) using a dosage forced-titration scheme to achieve symptomatic remission in children with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We also evaluated the efficacy and safety of, and patient and parent satisfaction with, the change in therapy from immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) to OROS-MPH over 10 weeks.
We recruited 521 children and adolescents aged 6–18 years with an American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) diagnosis of ADHD, who had received IR-MPH treatments (<70 mg/day) for at least 1 month. The treatment, switched from IR-MPH to OROS-MPH according to a conversion scheme, started with a 6-week forced-titration phase of OROS-MPH to achieve symptomatic remission (defined as a score of 0 or 1 for each of the first 18 ADHD items in the Chinese version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV [SNAP-IV]), followed by a 4-week maintenance phase. The global ADHD severity and drug side effects of the participants were evaluated. Parents completed the ratings scales for the ADHD-related symptoms. Patient and parent satisfaction for the OROS-MPH treatment was also assessed.
Among the 439 participants with ADHD who completed the trial, 290 participants (66.1%) achieved symptomatic remission. The mean dose of OROS-MPH among participants in remission was 36.7 mg (1.08 mg/kg) per day. Increased efficacy, superior satisfaction, and safety equivalent to that of IR-MPH were demonstrated in intra-individual comparisons from the baseline to the end of study. Determinants for remission included less severe ADHD symptoms (SNAP-IV score < 40), no family history of ADHD, and an appropriate dosage of medication according to the patient's weight.
The findings suggest remission as a treatment goal for ADHD therapy by providing an optimal dosage of medication for children and adolescents with ADHD through using an effective and tolerable forced-titration scheme.
Dysregulation of canonical Wnt signaling is thought to play a role in colon carcinogenesis. β-Catenin, a key mediator of the pathway, is stabilized upon Wnt activation and accumulates in the nucleus, where it can interact with the transcription factor T cell factor (TCF) to transactivate gene expression. Normal colonic epithelia express a truncated TCF-1 form, called dnTCF-1, that lacks the critical β-catenin–binding domain and behaves as a transcriptional suppressor. How the cell maintains a balance between the two forms of TCF-1 is unclear. Here, we show that ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) modulates the interaction between β-catenin and TCF-1. We observed EBP50 localization to the nucleus of human colorectal carcinoma cell lines at low cell culture densities and human primary colorectal tumors that manifested a poor clinical outcome. In contrast, EBP50 was primarily membranous in confluent cell lines. Aberrantly located EBP50 stabilized conventional β-catenin/TCF-1 complexes and connected β-catenin to dnTCF-1 to form a ternary molecular complex that enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling events, including the transcription of downstream oncogenes such as c-Myc and cyclin D1. Genome-wide analysis of the EBP50 occupancy pattern revealed consensus binding motifs bearing similarity to Wnt-responsive element. Conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that EBP50 bound to genomic regions highly enriched with TCF/LEF binding motifs. Knockdown of EBP50 in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines compromised cell cycle progression, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenesis in nude mice. We therefore suggest that nuclear EBP50 facilitates colon tumorigenesis by modulating the interaction between β-catenin and TCF-1.
AIM: To investigate the expression of B7-H1 in human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) to define its regulating effects on T cells in tumor microenvironment.
METHODS: One hundred and two paraffin blocks and 33 fresh samples of CRC tissues were subject to this study. Immunohistochemistry was performed for B7-H1 and CD3 staining in CRC tissues. Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation was used to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells of fresh CRC tissues; flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining were used for detection of regulatory T cells. Data was analyzed with statistical software.
RESULTS: Costimulatory molecule B7-H1 was found strongly expressed in CRC tissues, localized in tumor cell membrane and cytoplasm, while weak or none expression of B7-H1 was detected in pared normal colorectal tissues. Meanwhile, CD3 positive T cells were found congregated in CRC tumor nest and stroma. Statistic analysis showed that B7-H1 expression level was negatively correlated to the total T cell density in tumor nest (P < 0.0001) and tumor stroma (P = 0.0200) of 102 cases of CRC tissues. Among the total T cells, a variable amount of regulatory T cells with a clear Foxp3+ (forkhead box P3) staining could be detected in CRC tissues and patients’ blood. Interestingly, in the 33 samples (15 cases of B7-H1high CRC tissues and 18 cases of B7-H1low CRC tissues) of freshly isolated mononuclear cells from CRC tissues, the percentages of CD4+Foxp3+ and CD8+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells were found remarkably higher in B7-H1high CRC tissues than in B7-H1low CRC tissues (P = 0.0024, P = 0.0182), indicating that B7-H1 expression was involved in proliferation of regulatory T cell. No significant difference was found in CRC peripheral blood (P = 0.0863, P = 0.0678). PD-1 is the specific ligand for B7-H1 pathway transferring inhibitory signal to T cell, which is expressed by activated T cell. Our further analysis of PD-1 expression on T cells in CRC tissues showed that conventional T cells (CD4+Foxp3-/CD8+Foxp3-), which was thought to contribute to the anti-tumor immune response, highly expressed PD-1; while regulatory T cells (CD4+Foxp3+/CD8+Foxp3-) almost failed to express PD-1. The average percentage of PD-1 expression on regulatory T cells was significantly higher than the percentage of PD-1 on conventional T cells (CD4+Foxp3- T cell, P < 0.0001; CD8+Foxp3- T cell, P < 0.0001). The diverse expression of PD-1 might lead to different fate of T cell subsets in B7-H1 over-expression CRC tumor microenvironment.
CONCLUSION: B7-H1 expression in tumor cells can inhibit the conventional T cell proliferation in tumor microenvironment through the PD-1 expression on conventional T cells.
Costimulatory molecule; B7-H1; PD-1; Regulatory T cell; Colorectal carcinoma