Previous studies of the conditional ablation of TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in mice indicate that TAK1 has an obligatory role in the survival and/or development of hematopoietic stem cells, B cells, T cells, hepatocytes, intestinal epithelial cells, keratinocytes, and various tissues, primarily because of these cells’ increased apoptotic sensitivity, and have implicated TAK1 as a critical regulator of the NF-κB and stress kinase pathways and thus a key intermediary in cellular survival. Contrary to this understanding of TAK1’s role, we report a mouse model in which TAK1 deletion in the myeloid compartment that evoked a clonal myelomonocytic cell expansion, splenomegaly, multi-organ infiltration, genomic instability, and aggressive, fatal myelomonocytic leukemia. Unlike in previous reports, simultaneous deletion of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) failed to rescue this severe phenotype. We found that the features of the disease in our mouse model resemble those of human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) in its transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Consequently, we found TAK1 deletion in 13 of 30 AML patients (43%), thus providing direct genetic evidence of TAK1’s role in leukemogenesis.
Length of stay (LOS) is one of the most important quantitative indexes that measures health service utilization within a hospital. Many studies have examined the association of three major stroke categories with LOS. Our aim is to investigate the differences of LOS among ischemic stroke subtypes, results from which are helpful to healthcare providers and government agencies to improve health care delivery efficiency.
Using the Beijing Municipal Health Bureau’s hospitalization summary reports, we performed a retrospective study among first-ever in-hospital patients with ischemic stroke (ICD-10 I63) in three general teaching hospitals in Beijing, China, from 2006 to 2010 with generalized linear model. In our study, 5,559 patients (female, 36.0%; age, 64.4±12.9 years) were included. The estimated mean LOS of ischemic stroke was 17.4±1.8 days. After adjusting for confounders, LOS of lacunar infarction (14.7 days; p<0.001) and LOS of small cerebral infarction (17.0 days; p = 0.393) were shorter than that of single cerebral infarction (17.9 days, p<0.001). LOS of multi-infarct (19.0 days; p = 0.028), brainstem infarction (19.3 days; p = 0.045), basal ganglia infarction (18.5 days; p = 0.452) and other subtypes of ischemic stroke (18.9 days; p = 0.327) were longer than that of single cerebral infarction.
LOS of ischemic stroke patient differes across single cerebral infarction, lacunar infarction, multi-infarct and brainstem infarction patients. The ascending order of LOS was lacunar infarction, small cerebral infarction, single cerebral infarction, basal ganglia infarction, other subtypes of ischemic stroke, multi-infarct and brainstem infarction.
Emerging evidence indicates that reactive microglia-initiated inflammatory responses are responsible for secondary damage after primary traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI); epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling may be involved in cell activation. In this report, we investigate the influence of EGFR signaling inhibition on microglia activation, proinflammatory cytokine production, and the neuronal microenvironment after SCI.
Lipopolysaccharide-treated primary microglia/BV2 line cells and SCI rats were used as model systems. Both C225 and AG1478 were used to inhibit EGFR signaling activation. Cell activation and EGFR phosphorylation were observed after fluorescent staining and western blot. Production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was tested by reverse transcription PCR and ELISA. Western blot was performed to semi-quantify the expression of EGFR/phospho-EGFR, and phosphorylation of Erk, JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Wet-dry weight was compared to show tissue edema. Finally, axonal tracing and functional scoring were performed to show recovery of rats.
EGFR phosphorylation was found to parallel microglia activation, while EGFR blockade inhibited activation-associated cell morphological changes and production of IL-1β and TNFα. EGFR blockade significantly downregulated the elevated MAPK activation after cell activation; selective MAPK inhibitors depressed production of cytokines to a certain degree, suggesting that MAPK mediates the depression of microglia activation brought about by EGFR inhibitors. Subsequently, seven-day continual infusion of C225 or AG1478 in rats: reduced the expression of phospho-EGFR, phosphorylation of Erk and p38 MAPK, and production of IL-1β and TNFα; lessened neuroinflammation-associated secondary damage, like microglia/astrocyte activation, tissue edema and glial scar/cavity formation; and enhanced axonal outgrowth and functional recovery.
These findings indicate that inhibition of EGFR/MAPK suppresses microglia activation and associated cytokine production; reduces neuroinflammation-associated secondary damage, thus provides neuroprotection to SCI rats, suggesting that EGFR may be a therapeutic target, and C225 and AG1478 have potential for use in SCI treatment.
Epidermal growth factor receptor; Microglia; Spinal cord injury; Neuroinflammation
Therapeutic proteins and antibodies represent a $125 billion annual market. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) derived cell lines are the preferred host cells for the production of therapeutic proteins. Here, we present a draft genomic sequence of the CHO-K1 ancestral cell line. The assembly comprises 2.45Gb genomic sequence with 24,383 predicted genes. We associate most scaffolds to 21 microfluidically-isolated chromosomes to identify chromosomal locations of genes. Furthermore, we investigate genes involved in glycosylation, which affects therapeutic protein quality, and viral susceptibility genes, which affect cell engineering and regulatory concerns. Specifically, homologs for most human glycosylation-associated genes are identified in the CHO-K1 genome, although 141 are not expressed under exponential growth. In addition, many important viral entry genes are present in the genome but not expressed, which may explain the unusual viral resistance property of CHO cell lines. We demonstrate how the availability of this genome sequence may facilitate genome-scale science for biopharmaceutical protein production.
Autophagy is a catabolic process critical to maintaining cellular homeostasis and responding to cytotoxic insult. Autophagy is recognized as “programmed cell survival” in contrast to apoptosis or programmed cell death. Upregulation of autophagy has been observed in many types of cancers and has been demonstrated to both promote and inhibit antitumor drug resistance depending to a large extent on the nature and duration of the treatment-induced metabolic stress as well as the tumor type. Cisplatin, doxorubicin and methotrexate are commonly used anticancer drugs in osteosarcoma, the most common form of childhood and adolescent cancer. Our recent study demonstrated that high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)-mediated autophagy is a significant contributor to drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells. Inhibition of both HMGB1 and autophagy increase the drug sensitivity of osteosarcoma cells in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the ULK1-FIP200 complex is required for the interaction between HMGB1 and BECN1, which then promotes BECN1-PtdIns3KC3 complex formation during autophagy. Thus, these findings provide a novel mechanism of osteosarcoma resistance to therapy facilitated by HMGB1-mediated autophagy and provide a new target for the control of drug-resistant osteosarcoma patients.
osteosarcoma; HMGB1; autophagy; apoptosis; chemotherapy
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear DNA-binding protein, which functions as Damage Associated Molecular Pattern molecule (DAMP) when released from cells under conditions of stress, such as injury and infection. Recent studies indicate that HMGB1 plays an important role in leukemia pathogenesis and chemotherapy resistance. Serum HMGB1 is increased in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia as compared to healthy control and complete remission groups. Moreover, HMGB1 is a negative regulator of apoptosis in leukemia cells through regulation of Bcl-2 expression and caspase-3 activity. As a positive regulator of autophagy, intracellular HMGB1 interacts with Beclin 1 in leukemia cells leading to autophagosome formation. Additionally, exogenous HMGB1 directly induces autophagy and cell survival in leukemia cells. Experimental strategies that selectively target HMGB1 effectively reverse and prevent chemotherapy resistance in leukemia cells, suggesting that HMGB1 is a novel therapeutic target in leukemia.
HMGB1; leukemia; apoptosis; autophagy; chemotherapy
Allergic diseases substantially affect human health and social economy. The pathogenesis is to be further understood. The effect of current therapeutic remedies on allergic diseases is not satisfactory.
This study aimed to inhibit allergic rhinitis in a mouse model with a Chinese traditional medical prescription, Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang.
Material and Methods:
A mouse AR model was developed with ovalbumin (OVA) plus adjuvant alum. The AR clinical symptoms and immune pathology in the nasal mucosa were assessed with the AR mouse model. Some mice were treated with Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang via gavage-fed. The immune tolerance status in the nasal mucosa was evaluated by counting the numbers of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) and regulatory T cells (Treg).
After exposure to the specific antigen, OVA, the sensitized mice had AR-like symptoms including nasal itch and sneeze. The frequency of mast cells, levels of IgE/IL-4 in nasal mucosa was markedly higher in sensitized mice than naïve controls; while the levels of integration alphavbeta6 (avb6), the number of tolerogenic DCs and Tregs in nasal mucosa were significantly lower than naïve control mice. The AR-like symptoms and immune pathology and immune tolerance status in the AR nasal mucosa were substantially improved by administration with Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang.
The immune tolerance status is impaired in the AR nasal mucosa that can be improved by administering with Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang.
Airways; nose; allergic rhinitis; Chinese traditional medicine; immune tolerance
Lung masses are often difficult to differentiate when their clinical symptoms and shapes or densities on computed tomography (CT) images are similar. However, with different pathological contents, they may appear differently on plain and enhanced CT.
To determine the value of enhanced CT for the differential diagnosis of lung masses based on the differences in radiodensity with and without enhancement.
Patients and Methods
Thirty-six patients with lung cancer, 36 with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and 10 with inflammatory lung pseudotumors diagnosed by CT and confirmed by pathology in our hospital were selected. The mean ± SD radiodensities of lung masses in the three groups of patients were calculated based on the results of plain and enhanced CT.
There were no significant differences in the radiodensities of the masses detected by plain CT among patients with inflammatory lung pseudotumors, TB and lung cancer (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences (P < 0.01) between all the groups in terms of radiodensities of masses detected by enhanced CT.
The radiodensities of lung masses detected by enhanced CT could potentially be used to differentiate between lung cancer, pulmonary TB and inflammatory lung pseudotumors.
Tomography, X-Ray Computed; Lung; Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
In the title compound, C9H7ClN2O6, the nitro groups and the ester group make dihedral angles of 44.0 (1), 89.6 (1) and 164.1 (1)°, respectively, with the benzene ring. In the crystal, molecules are linked through weak C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding interactions. Molecules are stacked via π–π interactions about inversion centers, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.671 (2) Å.
Autophagy and apoptosis are tightly regulated biological processes that are crucial for cell growth, development and tissue homeostasis. UVRAG (UV radiation resistance-associated gene), a mammalian homolog of yeast Vps38, activates the Beclin 1/PtdIns3KC3 (class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase) complex, which promotes autophagosome formation. Moreover, UVRAG promotes autophagosome maturation by recruiting class C Vps complexes (HOPS complexes) and Rab7 of the late endosome. We found that UVRAG has anti-apoptotic activity during tumor therapy through interactions with Bax. UVRAG inhibits Bax translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria during chemotherapy- or UV irradiation-induced apoptosis of human tumor cells. Moreover, deletion of the UVRAG C2 domain abolishes Bax binding and anti-apoptotic activity. These results suggest that, in addition to its previously recognized pro-autophagy activity in response to starvation, UVRAG has cytoprotective functions in the cytosol that control the localization of Bax in tumor cells exposed to apoptotic stimuli.
UVRAG; Bax; apoptosis; autophagy; mitochondria; tumor therapy
In the molecule of the title compound, C10H11NO4, the nitro group is approximately coplanar with the benzene ring [dihedral angle = 4.57 (10)°], while the carboxylate group is slightly twisted, making an angle of 12.16 (8)°. In the crystal, weak intermolecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonding and π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.670 (2) and 3.665 (2) Å] are observed.
Synthesis and broad-spectrum anticancer activity of a novel heterocyclic
compound 1 containing the title
ring system have been reported. The compound shows potent in
vitro antitumor activity with low micromolar
IC50’s against prostate, lung, breast, and ovarian cancer
cell lines tested. The long alkyl chain attached to the 6-position of the
heterocyclic ring of 1 appears to be necessary for the observed
imidazo[4 5-e][1 3]diazepine
analogue; synthesis; in vitro screening; broad-spectrum anticancer activity; prostate; lung; breast and ovarian cancers
During stomatal movement, guard cells undergo considerable and repetitive variations in cell volume and consequently surface area over a period of minutes. Due to limited stretching capability of the plasma membrane, alterations in the surface area must accommodate the volume changes through membrane turnover. Using fluorescence imaging and electrophysiology techniques, extensive studies imply that endocytosis may be a critical mechanism for the plasma membrane turnover. In contrast to the conventional studies, using transmission electronic microscope in combination with laser confocal microscope so that the membrane turnover can be detected without a resolution limitation, our works, recently published in the Journal of Experimental Botany, has provided strong evidences that excretion and folding of plasma membrane are critical for the accommodation of the cell volume alterations in intact guard cells in Vicia faba L. These results have opened a new perspective on the mechanism for the membrane turnover during stomatal movement. In this addendum, we further discuss some key issues about the mechanisms for the accommodation of the cell volume alterations during stomatal movements.
stomata; guard cell; plasma membrane; surface area; endocytosis; excretion; accommodation
PML-RARα oncoprotein is a fusion protein of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) and the retinoic acid receptor-α (RARα) and causes acute promyelocytic leukemias (APL). A hallmark of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) responses in APL is PML-RARα degradation, which promotes cell differentiation. Here, we demonstrated that autophagy is a crucial regulator of PML-RARα degradation. Inhibition of autophagy by short hairpin (sh) RNA that target essential autophagy genes such as ATG1, ATG5 and PI3KC3, and by autophagy inhibitors (e.g., 3-methyladenine), blocked PML-RARα degradation and subsequently granulocytic differentiation of human myeloid leukemic cells. In contrast, rapamycin, the mTOR kinase inhibitor, enhanced autophagy and promoted ATRA-induced PML-RARα degradation and myeloid cell differentiation. Moreover, PML-RARα co-immunoprecipitated with the ubiquitin-binding adaptor protein p62/SQSTM1, which is degraded through autophagy. Furthermore, knockdown of p62/SQSTM1 inhibited ATRA-induced PML-RARα degradation and myeloid cell differentiation. The identification of PML-RARα as a target of autophagy provides new insight into the mechanism of action of ATRA and its specificity for APL.
autophagy; differentiation; oncoprotein; leukemia; degradation; PML-RARa; p62/SQSTM1
Damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) are cellularly derived molecules that can initiate and perpetuate immune responses following trauma, ischemia and other types of tissue damage in the absence of pathogenic infection. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a prototypical DAMP and is associated with the hallmarks of cancer. Recently we found that HMGB1 release after chemotherapy treatment is a critical regulator of autophagy and a potential drug target for therapeutic interventions in leukemia. Overexpression of HMGB1 by gene transfection rendered leukemia cells resistant to cell death; whereas depletion or inhibition of HMGB1 and autophagy by RNA interference or pharmacological inhibitors increased the sensitivity of leukemia cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. HMGB1 release sustains autophagy as assessed by microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) lipidation, redistribution of LC3 into cytoplasmic puncta, degradation of p62 and accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes. Moreover, these data suggest a role for HMGB1 in the regulation of autophagy through the PI3KC3-MEKERK pathway, supporting the notion that HMGB1-induced autophagy promotes tumor resistance to chemotherapy.
DAMP; autophagy; HMGB1; chemotherapy resistance; leukemia; PI3KC3; ERK
The title compound, C9H8ClNO4, crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, the carboxylate group is nearly coplanar with the benzene ring, forming dihedral angles of 2.4 (1) and 4.9 (1)°. In the crystal, molecules are linked through weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. A short O⋯N contact of 2.7660 (19) Å occurs between the nitro groups of adjacent molecules.
In the title compound, C8H11N3O4, the dihedral angle between the imidazole ring and the ethyl acetate plane is 103.1 (8)°. The crystal packing is stabilized by weak intermolecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds.
In the crystal structure of the title compound, C4H10NO2
+·Cl− (systematic name: 3-ethoxy-3-oxopropan-1-aminium chloride), there are strong intermolecular N—H⋯Cl, C—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding interactions between the free chloride anion and the organic cation, resulting in a two-dimensional supramolecular network in the ab plane.
Stomatal movement results in large and repetitive changes in cell volume and consequently surface area. While endocytosis has been extensively studied and is thought to be a major mechanism for accommodating the volume changes as evidenced mainly by fluorescent labelling and confocal imaging, studies at the ultrastructural level in intact guard cells of stomata regulated by natural factors have never been reported. Here, it is reported that excretion and folding of the plasmalemma are critical for accommodating the volume alterations in intact guard cells in Vicia faba L. Using transmission electron microscopy in combination with laser confocal microscopy, it was observed that in fully opened stomata the plasmalemma was smooth and tightly adhered to the cell walls while a whole large vacuole appeared in the cell. In the closed stomata, besides vacuole fragmentation, endocytosis of the tonoplast rather than the plasmalemma commonly occurred. Importantly, in stomata where pore closure was induced by circadian rhythm or CO2, numerous tiny vesicles were found outside the plasmalemma and, moreover, extensive folding of the plasmalemma could also be found in some regions of the cells. Additionally, an unknown structure was found at the interface between the plasmalemma and cell walls, especially in those areas of the cell where extensive folding occurred, suggesting that plasmalemma turnover is possibly associated with an interaction between the plasmalemma and cell walls. Collectively, the results strongly indicate that excretion and folding of the plasmalemma are critical for the accommodation of the cell volume alterations during stomatal movement.
Excretion; folding; guard cell; plasmalemma; stomata
Nearly every extracellular ligand that has been found to play a role in regulating bone biology acts, at least in part, through MAPK pathways. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about the contribution of MAPKs to osteoblast biology in vivo. Here we report that the p38 MAPK pathway is required for normal skeletogenesis in mice, as mice with deletion of any of the MAPK pathway member–encoding genes MAPK kinase 3 (Mkk3), Mkk6, p38a, or p38b displayed profoundly reduced bone mass secondary to defective osteoblast differentiation. Among the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) family, we identified TGF-β–activated kinase 1 (TAK1; also known as MAP3K7) as the critical activator upstream of p38 in osteoblasts. Osteoblast-specific deletion of Tak1 resulted in clavicular hypoplasia and delayed fontanelle fusion, a phenotype similar to the cleidocranial dysplasia observed in humans haploinsufficient for the transcription factor runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). Mechanistic analysis revealed that the TAK1–MKK3/6–p38 MAPK axis phosphorylated Runx2, promoting its association with the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP), which was required to regulate osteoblast genetic programs. These findings reveal an in vivo function for p38β and establish that MAPK signaling is essential for bone formation in vivo. These results also suggest that selective p38β agonists may represent attractive therapeutic agents to prevent bone loss associated with osteoporosis and aging.
The title compound, C10H8I3NO4, crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The I atoms and the benzene ring plane in the two molecules are approximately coplanar, the I atoms deviating by −0.1631 (1), 0.0704 (1) and −0.0507 (1) Å from the mean plane of the benzene ring in one molecule and by 0.1500 (1), −0.0034 (1) and −0.1213 (1) Å in the other. The planes of the ester groups are almost orthogonal to those of the benzene rings in both molecules, forming dihedral angles of 83.5 (3), 76.4 (3), 97.3 (1) and 75.7 (1)°. The mean planes of the benzene rings in two molecules are inclined at 69.8 (3)° with respect to each other. In the crystal, intermolecular I⋯O interactions link the molecules into infinite chains. In addition, N—H⋯O and non-classical C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed.
The molecule of the title compound, C9H12O2, is approximately planar (mean atomic deviation = 0.0346 Å) and disposed about a crystallographic centre of symmetry. The H atom of the benzene ring is disordered over four orientations, with occupancies of 0.100 (3) and 0.401 (3) at the C atoms in the 2- and 3-positions and the same at their symmetric location. The H atoms of methyl group at the 2-position are disordered over two positions of equal occupancy. In the crystal structure, adjacent molecules are linked through O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network.
In the molecule of the title compound, C8H5ClN2O6, the two nitro groups and the ester group make dihedral angles of 29.6 (1)°, 82.3 (1)° and 13.7 (1)°, respectively, with the benzene ring. In the crystal structure weak C—H⋯O interactions are present.
In the title compound, C26H14Cl6N2, the phenanthroline ring system is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.048 (6) Å, and makes dihedral angles of 64.8 (14) and 66.6 (6)° with the two terminal phenyl rings. One of the trichloromethyl groups is disordered over two positions, with occupancies of 0.42 (2) and 0.58 (2).
The title compound, C12H12I3NO4, crystallizes with two molecules in an asymmetric unit. In one of the molecules, the conformation of the O—C—O—C in one ester group is cis and trans in the other. The corresponding conformations for both the ester groups in the other molecule are trans. The I atoms and the benzene rings in the two molecules are approximately coplanar, the I atoms deviating by 0.219 (14), 0.056 (15) and −0.143 (14) Å from the mean plane of the benzene ring in one molecule and 0.189 (14), −0.162 (15) and −0.068 (14) Å in the other. The planes of the ester groups are almost orthogonal to those of the benzene rings in both molecules, forming dihedral angles of 88.1 (4), 72.2 (4), 73.0 (4) and 86.6 (4)°. The mean planes of the benzene rings in the two molecules are inclined at 74.6 (4)° with respect to each other. In the crystal, intermolecular I⋯O interactions [3.138 (7) and 3.144 (7) Å] link the molecules into infinite chains along the a axis. In addition, non-classical C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed.