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American Journal of Blood Research (1)
Journal of Clinical Microbiology (1)
Verma, Sheetal (2)
Bunting, Kevin D (1)
Dhole, Tapan N. (1)
Kashyap, Saurabh (1)
Kumar, Manoj (1)
Vaughan, Tamisha Y (1)
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Novel Approach for Improving Sensitivity of Microscopic Detection of Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB) by Use of the ReaSLR Method
Dhole, Tapan N.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology
The ReaSLR methodology developed for sputum processing is a novel, low-cost, and simple technique that has improved the sensitivity of smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Sample processing consists of rapid liquefaction of the sputum specimen with the ReaSLR reagent, followed by syringe filtration, concentration by centrifugation, and use of the sediment for smear microscopy. The performance of the ReaSLR kit was evaluated on 150 sputum samples and was compared with that of the modified Petroff method for sputum decontamination and concentration. Ziehl-Neelsen staining was performed for smear microscopy after processing by these two techniques; simultaneously, culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium was done to evaluate the two methods. The efficiency of smear microscopy was 18/150 (12%) with the modified Petroff method compared to 47/150 (31.33%) with the ReaSLR method, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The ReaSLR method for smear microscopy demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 90.47% and 91.6%, respectively, whereas the modified Petroff method showed a sensitivity and specificity of 40.47% and 99.07%, respectively, compared to those of culture, which was used as the gold standard. With the newer ReaSLR method, the kappa coefficient (κ) was 0.8, which implies an excellent positive agreement. The ReaSLR method was found to be more sensitive than the conventional method for sputum smear microscopy. The newer ReaSLR method holds promise for adoption in TB control programs across the globe, as it was found suitable for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Further large-scale studies are needed to evaluate other aspects of this method.
Grb2-associated binding (Gab) proteins in hematopoietic and immune cell biology
Vaughan, Tamisha Y
Bunting, Kevin D
American Journal of Blood Research
Grb2-associated binding (Gab) scaffolding/adapter proteins are a family of three members including mammalian Gab1, Gab2, and Gab3 that are highly conserved. Since the discovery of these proteins, there has been an extensive amount of work done to better understand Gab functional roles in multiple signaling pathways, typically acting as a downstream effectors of receptor-tyrosine kinase (RTK)-triggered signal transduction. In addition to their participation in hematopoiesis, Gabs play important roles in regulation of immune response and in also in cancer cell signaling. Gabs may play complex roles and thus a complete understanding of their interactions and how they modulate hematopoietic and immune cell biology remains to be determined. This review will cover the most recent findings including the involvement of Gabs in disease development and signaling which will be important for design of future therapeutic interventions.
Adapter protein; cytokine signaling; Grb2-associated binding protein; Gab; receptor tyrosine kinase; cancer signaling
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