Recent studies demonstrated that engagement of sodium glucose transporter 1 (SGLT-1) by orally administered D-glucose protects the intestinal mucosa from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury. We tested whether SGLT-1 engagement might protect the intestinal mucosa from doxorubicin (DXR)- and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced injury in animal models mimicking acute or chronic mucositis.
Mice were treated intraperitoneally with DXR, alone or in combination with 5-FU, and orally with BLF501, a glucose-derived synthetic compound with high affinity for SGLT-1. Intestinal mucosal epithelium integrity was assessed by histological analysis, cellular proliferation assays, real-time PCR gene expression assays and Western blot assays. Student’s t-test (paired two-tailed) and χ2 analyses were used for comparisons between groups. Differences were considered significant at p < 0.05.
BLF501 administration in mice treated with DXR and/or 5-FU decreased the injuries to the mucosa in terms of epithelial integrity and cellular proliferative ability. Co-treatment with BLF501 led to a normal expression and distribution of both zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and beta-catenin, which were underexpressed after treatment with either chemotherapeutic agent alone. BLF501 administration also restored normal expression of caspase-3 and ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM), which were overexpressed after treatment with DXR and 5-FU. In SGLT1-/- mice, BLF501 had no detectable effects. BLF501 administration in wild-type mice with growing A431 tumors did not modify antitumor activity of DXR.
BLF501-induced protection of the intestinal mucosa is a promising novel therapeutic approach to reducing the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis.