Both activating and inactivating mutations in protein tyrosine phosphatase Ptpn11 (encoding Shp2) are associated with tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that Shp2 plays an important role in mitosis, dysregulation of which results in chromosome instability and cancer predisposition. Depletion of Shp2 compromised the mitotic checkpoint. Shp2-depleted cells exhibited a delay in mitotic entry and an earlier mitotic exit. Moreover, Shp2 deficiency caused defective kinetochore-microtubule attachment, chromosome misalignment, chromosomal congression defects, lagging chromosomes, and chromosome missegregation. Reintroduction of wild-type Shp2, but not a catalytically-deficient mutant, restored the checkpoint function and chromosome alignment at metaphase in Shp2-deficient cells, establishing a requirement for the catalytic activity of Shp2 during mitosis. Further analyses revealed that Shp2 was required for the optimal activation of the mitotic kinases PLK1 and Aurora B and thereby the proper kinetochore localization and phosphorylation of BubR1, a core mitotic checkpoint protein that is also critical for chromosome alignment. Together, our findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for Shp2 in the maintenance of chromosome stability and suggest a new mechanism by which dysregulation of Shp2 signaling contributes to malignancy development.
Ptpn11 (Shp2); Phosphatase; Mitosis; Chromosome stability
Structure-activity relationship study shows that the catechol group in 7,8-dihdyroxyflavone, a selective small TrkB receptor agonist, is critical for the agonistic activity. To improve the poor pharmacokinetic profiles intrinsic to catechol-containing molecules and elevate the agonistic effect of the lead compound, we initiated the lead optimization campaign by synthesizing various bioisosteric derivatives. Here we show that the optimized 2-methyl-8-(4′-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)phenyl)chromeno[7,8-d]imidazol-6(1H)-one derivative possesses the enhanced TrkB stimulatory activity. Chronic oral administration of this compound significantly reduces the immobility in forced swim test and tail suspension test, two classical antidepressant behavioral animal models, which is accompanied by robust TrkB activation in hippocampus of mouse brain. Further, in vitro ADMET studies demonstrate that this compound possesses the improved features compared to the previous lead compound. Hence, this optimized compound may act as a promising lead candidate for in-depth drug development for treating various neurological disorders including depression.
TrkB agonist; BDNF; synthetic derivatives; antidepressant; neurogenesis
A p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6) was previously identified to be an androgen receptor (AR) interacting protein through a yeast two-hybrid screening. We used hormone responsive prostate cancer LAPC4 and LNCap cell lines as models to study the signaling events associated with androgen stimulation and PAK6. An androgen-stimulated PAK6 kinase activation was observed in LAPC4 cells expressing endogenous PAK6 and in LNCap cells ectopically expressing a wild type PAK6. This activation was likely mediated through a direct interaction between AR and PAK6 since siRNA knock-down of AR in LAPC4 cells downregulated androgen-stimulated PAK6 activation. In addition, LNCap cells expressing a non-AR-interacting PAK6 mutant exhibited dampened androgen-stimulated kinase activation. As a consequence of androgen-stimulated activation, PAK6 was phosphorylated at multiple serine/threonine residues including the AR-interacting domain of PAK6. Furthermore, androgen-stimulation promoted prostate cancer cell motility and invasion were demonstrated in LNCap cells ectopically expressing PAK6-WT. In contrast, LNCap expressing non-AR-interacting mutant PAK6 did not respond to androgen stimulation with increased cell motility and invasion. Our results demonstrate that androgen-stimulated PAK6 activation is mediated through a direct interaction between AR and PAK6 and PAK6 activation promotes prostate cancer cells motility and invasion.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common urogenital infections among women of reproductive age that represents shifts in microbiota from Lactobacillus spp. to diverse anaerobes. The aim of our study was to evalute the diagnostic values of Gardnerella, Atopobium, Eggerthella, Megasphaera typeI, Leptotrichia/Sneathia and Prevotella, defined as a vaginal pathogenic community for BV and their associations with vaginal pH and Nugent scores.
Methods and Findings
We investigated the vaginal pathogenic bacteria and Lactobacillus spp. with species-specific real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 50 BV-positive and 50 BV-negative Chinese women of reproductive age. Relative to BV-negative subjects, a siginificant decline in Lactobacillus and an obvious increase in bacteria in the vaginal pathogenic community were observed in BV-postive subjects (P<0.05). With the exception of Megasphaera typeI, other vaginal pathogenic bacteria were highly predictable for BV with a better sensitivity and specificity. The vaginal pathogenic community was positively associated with vaginal pH and Nugent scores, while Lactobacillus spp., such as L. iners and L. crispatus was negatively associated with them (P<0.05).
Our data implied that the prevalance of vaginal pathogenic bacteria as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Vaginal microbiota shifts, especially the overgrowth of the vaginal pathogenic community, showed well diagnostic values in predicting BV. Postive correlations between those vaginal pathogenic bacteria and vaginal pH, Nugent score indicated the vaginal pathogenic community rather than a single vaginal microorganism, was participated in the onset of BV directly.
Despite increasing awareness of the many important roles played by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) activation of TrkB, a fuller understanding of this system and the use of potential TrkB-acting therapeutic agents has been limited by the lack of any identified small-molecule TrkB agonists that fully mimic the actions of BDNF at brain TrkB receptors in vivo. However, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) has recently been identified as a specific TrkB agonist that crosses the blood-brain barrier after oral or intra-peritoneal administration. The authors combined pharmacological, biochemical, and behavioral approaches in a preclinical study examining the role of 7,8-DHF in modulating emotional memory in mice.
The authors first examined the ability of systemic 7,8-DHF to activate TrkB receptors in the amygdala. They then examined the effects of systemic 7,8-DHF on acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear, using specific and well-characterized BDNF-dependent learning paradigms in several models using naive mice and mice with prior traumatic stress exposure.
Amygdala TrkB receptors, which have previously been shown to be required for emotional learning, were activated by systemic 7,8-DHF (at 5 mg/kg i.p.). 7,8-DHF enhanced both the acquisition of fear and its extinction. It also appeared to rescue an extinction deficit in mice with a history of immobilization stress.
These data suggest that 7,8-DHF may be an excellent agent for use in understanding the effects of TrkB activation in learning and memory paradigms and may be attractive for use in reversing learning and extinction deficits associated with psychopathology.
Aberrant changes in specific glycans have been shown to be associated with immunosurveillance, tumorigenesis, tumor progression and metastasis. In this study, the N-glycan profiling of membrane proteins from human breast cancer cell lines and tissues was detected using modified DNA sequencer-assisted fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (DSA-FACE). The N-glycan profiles of membrane proteins were analyzed from 7 breast cancer cell lines and MCF 10A, as well as from 100 pairs of breast cancer and corresponding adjacent tissues. The results showed that, compared with the matched adjacent normal tissue samples, two biantennary N-glycans (NA2 and NA2FB) were significantly decreased (p <0.0001) in the breast cancer tissue samples, while the triantennary glycan (NA3FB) and a high-mannose glycan (M8) were dramatically increased (p = 0.001 and p <0.0001, respectively). Moreover, the alterations in these specific N-glycans occurred through the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. These results suggested that the modified method based on DSA-FACE is a high-throughput detection technology that is suited for analyzing cell surface N-glycans. These cell surface-specific N-glycans may be helpful in recognizing the mechanisms of tumor cell immunologic escape and could be potential targets for new breast cancer drugs.
Repair of large bone defects is a major challenge, requiring sustained stimulation to continually promote bone formation locally. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) plays an important role in bone development. In an attempt to overcome this difficulty of bone repair, we created a delivery system to slowly release human BMP-2 cDNA plasmid locally, efficiently transfecting local target cells and secreting functional human BMP-2 protein. For transfection, we used polyethylenimine (PEI) to create pBMP-2/PEI nanoparticles, and to ensure slow release we used poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to create microsphere encapsulated pBMP-2/PEI nanoparticles, PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI. We demonstrated that pBMP-2/PEI nanoparticles could slowly release from the PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI microspheres for a long period of time. The 3–15 μm diameter of the PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI further supported this slow release ability of the PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI. In vitro transfection assays demonstrated that pBMP-2/PEI released from PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI could efficiently transfect MC3T3-E1 cells, causing MC3T3-E1 cells to secrete human BMP-2 protein, increase calcium deposition and gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), SP7 and I type collagen (COLL I), and finally induce MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. Importantly, in vivo data from micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological staining demonstrated that the human BMP-2 released from PLGA@pBMP-2/PEI had a long-term effect locally and efficiently promoted bone formation in the bone defect area compared to control animals. All our data suggest that our PLGA-nanoparticle delivery system efficiently and functionally delivers the human BMP-2 cDNA and has potential clinical application in the future after further modification.
gene therapy; bone regeneration; biodegradable polymer; human BMP-2
The association between Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class II and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been extensively studied, but few reported DR-DQ haplotype. Here we investigated the association of HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DR-DQ haplotypes with RA susceptibility and with anti-CCP antibodies in 281 RA patients and 297 control in Han population. High-resolution genotyping were performed. The HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE)-encoding allele *0405 displayed the most significant RA association (P = 1.35×10−6). The grouped DRB1 SE alleles showed great association with RA (P = 3.88×10−13). The DRB1 DRRAA alleles displayed significant protective effects (P = 0.021). The SE-dependent DR-DQ haplotype SE-DQ3/4/5 remained strong association with both anti-CCP -positive (P = 3.71×10−13) and -negative RA (P = 3.89×10−5). Our study revealed that SE alleles and its haplotypes SE-DQ3/4/5 were highly associated with RA susceptibility in Han population. The SE-DQ3/4/5 haplotypes were associated with both anti-CCP positive RA and -negative RA.
Background. The notion that diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of renal fibrosis prompted us to investigate the effects of blood glucose fluctuation (BGF) under high glucose condition on kidney in the mice. Methods. The diabetic and BGF animal models were established in this study. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and RT-PCR analysis were applied to detect the expression of type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1), metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), phosphorylated-ERK, p38, smad2/3, and Akt. Results. BGF treatment increased type I collagen synthesis by two times compared with the control. The expression of MMP1 was reduced markedly while TIMP1 synthesis was enhanced after BGF treatment. ERK phosphorylation exhibits a significant increase in the mice treated with BGF. Furthermore, BGF can markedly upregulate TGF-β1 expression. The p-smad2 showed 2-fold increases compared with the only diabetic mice. However, p-AKT levels were unchanged after BGF treatment. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that BGF can accelerate the trend of kidney fibrosis in diabetic mice by increasing collagen production and inhibiting collagen degradation. Both ERK/MAPK and TGF-β/smad signaling pathways seem to play a role in the development of kidney fibrosis accelerated by blood glucose fluctuation.
Although the effectiveness of BCG vaccination in preventing adult pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has been highly variable, epidemiologic studies have suggested that BCG provides other general health benefits to vaccinees including reducing the impact of asthma, leprosy, and possibly malaria. To further evaluate whether BCG immunization protects against malarial parasitemia and to define molecular correlates of this non-specific immunity, mice were vaccinated with BCG and then challenged 2 months later with asexual blood stage Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL (PyNL) parasites. Following challenge with PyNL, significant decreases in parasitemia were observed in BCG vaccinated mice relative to naïve controls. To identify immune molecules that may be associated with the BCG-induced protection, gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR in i) naïve controls, ii) BCG-vaccinated mice, iii) PyNL infected mice and iv) BCG vaccinated/PyNL infected mice at 0, 1, 5, and 9 days after the P. yoelii infection. The expression results showed that i) BCG immunization induces the expression of at least 18 genes including the anti-microbial molecules lactoferrin, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil major basic protein and the cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP); ii) an active PyNL infection suppresses the expression of important immune response molecules; and iii) the extent of PyNL-induced suppression of specific genes is reduced in BCG-vaccinated/PyNL infected mice. To validate the gene expression data, we demonstrated that pre-treatment of malaria parasites with lactoferrin or the cathelicidin LL-37 peptide decreases the level of PyNL parasitemias in mice. Overall, our study suggests that BCG vaccination induces the expression of non-specific immune molecules including antimicrobial peptides which may provide an overall benefit to vaccinees by limiting infections of unrelated pathogens such as Plasmodium parasites.
Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic virus that produces neuropsychiatric dysfunction in a wide range of warm-blooded species. Several studies have associated BDV with human psychiatric illness, but the findings remain controversial. Although oligodendrocytes are a major glial component of brain white matter and play a pivotal role in neuronal cell function, BDV's effects on human oligodendrocytes have not been clarified. Here, the effects of two BDV strains, Hu-H1 (isolated from a bipolar patient) and Strain V (a laboratory strain), on the proliferation and apoptosis of human oligodendrocytes were investigated. Three experimental cell lines were constructed: Hu-H1-infected oligodendroglioma (Hu-H1) cells, Strain V-infected oligodendroglioma (Strain V) cells, and non-infected oligodendroglioma (control) cells. BDV infection was assayed by BDV nucleoprotein (p40) immunofluorescence, cell proliferation was assayed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), and cell cycle phases and apoptosis were assayed by flow cytometry. Expressions of the apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 were measured by Western blotting. p40 expression was confirmed in Hu-H1 and Strain V on and after day three post-infection. Strain V cells showed significantly greater cellular proliferation than Hu-H1 cells on and after day three post-infection. In Hu-H1 cells, Bax and Bcl-2 expression were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, on and after day three post-infection. In contrast, in Strain V cells, Bax and Bcl-2 expression were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, on and after day three post-infection. In conclusion, Hu-H1 inhibits cellular proliferation and promotes apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes via Bax upregulation and Bcl-2 downregulation. In contrast, Strain V promotes cellular proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes via Bax downregulation and Bcl-2 upregulation. The effects of the Hu-H1 strain (isolated from a bipolar patient) are opposite from those of Strain V (a laboratory strain), thereby providing a proof of authenticity for both.
In the title compound, C27H27NO5 (systematic name: 17-cyclopropylmethyl-14-hydroxy-6-oxo-4,5-epoxymorphinan-6-yl benzoate), which is the benzoate ester of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone, the dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings is 77.1 (1)°. In the crystal, a weak aromatic C—H⋯Ocarboxyl hydrogen bond involving the benzoate groups of adjacent molecules gives rise to a chain extending along the a-axis direction. The known absolute configuration for the molecule was inferred from a previous naltrexone structure.
Elucidating the biogeography of bacterial communities on the human body is critical for establishing healthy baselines from which to detect differences associated with disease; however, little is known about the baseline bacterial profiles from various human habitats of healthy Chinese undergraduates.
Using parallel barcoded 454 pyrosequencing targeting on the 16S rRNA gene V3 region, the bacterial diversity of the nasopharynx, saliva, dominant hands, and feces were investigated from 10 healthy Chinese junior boarding undergraduates at Zhejiang University. The participants were 21–24 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) < 24 kg/m2. A total of 156,717 high-quality pyrosequencing reads were obtained for evaluating bacterial diversity, which represented 29,887 unique phylotypes. The overall taxonomic distribution of the 16S rRNA gene-based amplicons demonstrated that these 4 habitats of the human body harbored distinct microbiota and could be divided into different clusters according to anatomic site, while the established patterns of bacterial diversity followed the human body habitat (feces, hands, saliva, and nasopharynx). Although significant inter-individual variation was observed, the healthy microbiota still shared a large number of phylotypes in each habitat, but not among the four habitats, indicating that a core microbiome existed in each healthy habitat. The vast majority of sequences from these different habitats were classified into different taxonmies that became the predominant bacteria of the healthy microbiota.
We first established the framework of microbial communities from four healthy human habitats of the same participants with similar living environments for the Chinese undergraduates. Our data represent an important step for determining the diversity of Chinese healthy microbiota, and can be used for more large-scale studies that focus on the interactions between healthy and diseases states for young Chinese adults in the same age range.
Healthy microbiota; Saliva; Nasopharynx; Feces; Dominant hand; Pyrosequencing; Core microbiome
Most sensorineural hearing loss cases occur as a result of hair cell loss, which results in secondary degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Substantial loss of SGNs reduces the benefit of cochlear implants, which rely on SGNs for transmitting signals to the central auditory centers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) play essential roles in cochlear development and are required for SGN survival. Here we report that 7,8,3’-trihydroxyflavone (7,8,3’-THF), which is a small molecule agonist of tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), promoted SGN survival with high potency both in vitro and in vivo. The compound protected the SGNs in a TrkB-dependent manner, as its effects on SGNs disappeared when the TrkB was blocked. Application of 7,8,3’-THF in the bulla of conditional connexin26 (cCx26)-null mice dramatically rescued SGNs in the applied ear compared to untreated control cochlea in the same animal. Our findings suggest that 7,8,3’-THF is a promising therapeutic agent protecting the SGNs from degeneration both in vitro and in vivo.
spiral ganglion neurons; 7,8,3’-trihydroxyflavone; neuronal degeneration; BDNF; TrkB receptor; Gjb2 deletion; cochlea; mouse model
Serine-arginine protein kinases 2 (SRPK2) is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that phosphorylates serine/arginine domain-containing proteins and mediates pre-mRNA splicing with unclear function in neurons. Here, we show that SRPK2 phosphorylates tau on S214, suppresses tau-dependent microtubule polymerization and inhibits axonal elongation in neurons. Depletion of SRPK2 in dentate gyrus inhibits tau phosphorylation in APP/PS1 mouse and alleviates the impaired cognitive behaviors. The defective LTP in APP/PS1 mice is also improved after SRPK2 depletion. Moreover, active SRPK2 is increased in the cortex of APP/PS1 mice and the pathological structures of human Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain. Therefore, our study suggests SRPK2 may contribute to the formation of hyperphosphorylated tau and the pathogenesis of AD.
The systemic inflammatory response syndrome can be self-limited or can progress to severe sepsis and septic shock. Despite significant advances in the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of septic shock, it is still one of the most frequent and serious problems confronting clinicians in the treatments. And the effects of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) on the sepsis still remain undefined. The present study was aimed to explore the role and mechanism of CB2R in acute sepsis model of mice. Here, we found that mice were more vulnerable for lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced death and inflammation after CB2R deletion (CB2R−/−). CB2R agonist, GW405833, could significantly extend the survival rate and decrease serum proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-treated mice. GW405833 dose-dependently inhibits proinflammatory cytokines release in splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages as well as splenocytes proliferation, and these effects were partly abolished in CB2R−/− splenocytes but completely abolished in CB2R−/− peritoneal macrophages. Further studies showed that GW405833 inhibits LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and STAT3 and blocks IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in macrophages. All data together showed that CB2R provides a protection and is a potential therapeutic target for the sepsis.
The identification of interactions between drugs and target proteins plays a key role in genomic drug discovery. In the present study, the quantitative binding affinities of drug-target pairs are differentiated as a measurement to define whether a drug interacts with a protein or not, and then a chemogenomics framework using an unbiased set of general integrated features and random forest (RF) is employed to construct a predictive model which can accurately classify drug-target pairs. The predictability of the model is further investigated and validated by several independent validation sets. The built model is used to predict drug-target associations, some of which were confirmed by comparing experimental data from public biological resources. A drug-target interaction network with high confidence drug-target pairs was also reconstructed. This network provides further insight for the action of drugs and targets. Finally, a web-based server called PreDPI-Ki was developed to predict drug-target interactions for drug discovery. In addition to providing a high-confidence list of drug-target associations for subsequent experimental investigation guidance, these results also contribute to the understanding of drug-target interactions. We can also see that quantitative information of drug-target associations could greatly promote the development of more accurate models. The PreDPI-Ki server is freely available via: http://sdd.whu.edu.cn/dpiki.
To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) for dietary sodium intake among adult residents of Shandong Province, China
In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of 15,350 adults aged 18 to 69 years using a standardized questionnaire to assess their KAP for sodium. Variation in the KAPs by gender, and residence location were compared using the Chi-square tests. Predictors for the ‘intention to’ and ‘currently taking action to’ reduce sodium intake were determined by multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for confounding factors.
KAPs for dietary sodium intake among urban residents was generally more favorable than among rural residents. Women were likely to have more favorable KAPs than men. About four fifth of subjects reported that they favored a low sodium diets. However, 31% reported that consumption of less sodium results in less physical strength. Overall, 70% indicated their intention to reduce sodium intake, although only 39 % reported that they had taken action to reduce sodium. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that favorable actions to dietary sodium reduction were more likely to occur among those who were aware of the link between sodium and hypertension, and less likely among those who had unfavorable attitudes towards dietary sodium reduction.
Increasing knowledge levels about the benefits of sodium reduction will be a key success factor for effective sodium reduction initiatives and is linked to favorable behavioral change. Emphasis should be placed on the rural area.
A successful occupational sun-protection program was translated to 67 ski areas where the effectiveness of two dissemination strategies was assessed. An industry professional association distributed materials to the resorts. Half of the resorts received the basic dissemination strategy (BDS) in which the materials were simply distributed to the resorts. In a randomized trial, the BDS was compared with an enhanced dissemination strategy (EDS) that added interpersonal contact with managers. Employees (n=2,228) at worksites that received the EDS had elevated program exposure (74.0% at EDS vs. 57.5% at BDS recalled a message). Exposure increased at two levels of program use: from less than four (55% exposed) to four to eight (68%) and to nine or more (82%) program items in use. More employees exposed to messages engaged in sun-safety behaviors than those unexposed. At worksites using nine or more items (versus 4–8 or <4), employees engaged in additional sun-safety behaviors. Program effects were strongly mediated by increased self-efficacy. Partnerships with industry associations facilitate dissemination of evidence-based programs. Dissemination methods are needed to maximize implementation and exposure to reduce health risk behaviors.
Sun safety; Translational research; Health communication campaign; Skin cancer prevention; Diffusion of innovation; Occupational health
Apoptosis; Knockout; PIKE; Neuroprotection
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) binds and enhances PI3K/Akt activities. However, its physiological functions in brain have never been explored. Here we show that PIKE is important in regulating the neuronal survival and development of neocortex. During development, enhanced apoptosis is observed in the ventricular zone of PIKE knockout (PIKE −/−) cortex. Moreover, PIKE −/− neurons show reduced dendritic complexity, dendritic branch length and soma size. These defects are due to the reduced PI3K/Akt activities in PIKE −/− neurons, as the impaired dendritic arborization can be rescued when PI3K/Akt cascade is augmented in vitro or in PIKE−/−PTEN−/− double knockout mice. Interestingly, PIKE −/− mice display behavioral abnormality in locomotion and spatial navigation. Because of the diminished PI3K/Akt activities, PIKE −/− neurons are more vulnerable to glutamate or stroke-induced neuronal cell death. Together, our data established the critical role of PIKE in regulating neuronal survival and development by substantiating the PI3K/Akt pathway.
Salicylidene acylhydrazides identified as inhibitors of virulence-mediating type III secretion systems (T3SSs) potentially target their inner membrane export apparatus. They also lead to inhibition of flagellar T3SS-mediated swimming motility in Salmonella enterica serovar. Typhimurium. We show that INP0404 and INP0405 act by reducing the number of flagella/cell. These molecules still inhibit motility of a Salmonella ΔfliH-fliI-fliJ/flhB(P28T) strain, which lacks three soluble components of the flagellar T3S apparatus, suggesting that they are not the target of this drug family. We implemented a genetic screen to search for the inhibitors' molecular target(s) using motility assays in the ΔfliH-fliI/flhB(P28T) background. Both mutants identified were more motile than the background strain in the absence of the drugs, although HM18 was considerably more so. HM18 was more motile than its parent strain in the presence of both drugs while DI15 was only insensitive to INP0405. HM18 was hypermotile due to hyperflagellation, whereas DI15 was not hyperflagellated. HM18 was also resistant to a growth defect induced by high concentrations of the drugs. Whole-genome resequencing of HM18 indicated two alterations within protein coding regions, including one within atpB, which encodes the inner membrane a-subunit of the FOF1-ATP synthase. Reverse genetics indicated that the alteration in atpB was responsible for all of HM18's phenotypes. Genome sequencing of DI15 uncovered a single A562P mutation within a gene encoding the flagellar inner membrane protein FlhA, the direct role of which in mediating drug insensitivity could not be confirmed. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of T3SS export apparatus function and drug target identification.
Previous studies in murine systems have demonstrated that CD8+ Treg cells down-regulate immune responses in vivo through suppressing activated CD4+ T cells. Here we describe novel regulatory CD8+ T-cell clones isolated from healthy human peripheral blood following in vitro stimulation with autologous Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-specific CD4+ T cells. TCR activation of CD4+ target T cells was required for CD8+ Treg cells to exert suppressive activity, which was mediated through lysis of CD4+ targets in a cell contact-dependent manner. Suppression was independent of Foxp3 expression in CD8+ Treg cells, HLA compatibility between CD8+ Treg cells and CD4+ target cells and antigen-specificity of CD4+ target T cells. CD8+ Treg clones expressed CD3 and a variety of TCR Vβ chains as well as CD56, CD69, CD62L and CD95 but did not express CD16, CD161, CXCR4 and CCR7. When used together, antibodies specific for CD11a/CD18 and CD8 inhibited suppressive activity of CD8+ Treg clones. The ability to establish clonal CD8+ T cells that maintain regulatory function in vitro will facilitate further studies to define this population in vivo and to identify the mechanisms used for recognition and suppression of activated target cells.
CD8+ Treg cells; Suppression and cytotoxicity
Recent studies have reported that DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in the epigenetic regulation of cancer, as well as promoting cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. These mechanisms also play important roles in ovarian cancer, but little is known concerning the correlation of DNMTs and HDACs in ovarian cancer. In the present study, we used quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining to examine the mRNA and protein expression of DNMTs and class I HDACs of tissues from 22 cases of ovarian cancer and 8 normal ovaries as a control. Furthermore, we assessed the correlation with clinicopathological stages and the mRNA expression of these genes. The results indicated that the mRNA expression of DNMT1, DNMT3b and class I HDACs was increased in ovarian cancers, while the expression of DNMT3a was not different between cancer tissues and normal ovaries. Additionally, the results of immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that DNMT1 and DNMT3b were significantly increased in ovarian cancer samples. Furthermore, the expression of DNMT1, DNMT3b, HDAC1 and HDAC2 was significantly higher in stage III/IV compared with stage I/II ovarian carcinomas. The expression of HDAC2 was positively correlated with HDCA1, HDAC3 and HDAC8, and DNMT1 was positively correlated with DNMT3b. Simultaneously, DNMT3b was correlated with HDAC1 and HDAC2. HDAC1 may upregulate the expression of DNMTs, but this requires confirmation by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The overall high rate of expression for class I HDACs, DNMT1 and DNMT3b suggested that these mRNAs should be explored as predictive factors in ovarian cancer. In addition, HDAC1, HDAC2 and DNMT3b cooperated in controlling ovarian cancer progression. Determining the correlations between HDACs and DNMTs in ovarian cancer will not only further clarify the mechanisms of genesis and development, but also guide clinical therapy using the inhibitors of HDACs and DNMTs.
ovarian cancer; DNA methyltransferases; histone deacetylases; expression pattern; correlation
IL-2 plays a key role in the survival and proliferation of immune cells, especially T lymphocytes. Its expression is precisely regulated at transcriptional and posttranscriptional level. IL-2 is known to be regulated by RNA binding proteins, such as tristetraprolin (TTP), via an AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) to influence the stability of mRNA. MCPIP1, identified as a novel RNase, can degrade IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α mRNA by an ARE-independent pathway in the activation of macrophages. Here, we reported that MCPIP1 was induced in the activation of T lymphocytes and negatively regulated IL-2 gene expression in both mouse and human primary T lymphocytes through destabilizing its mRNA. A set of Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that a non-ARE conserved element in IL-2 3′UTR, which formed a stem-loop structure, responded to MCPIP1 activity.RNA immunoprecipitation and Biotin pulldown experiments further suggested that MCPIP1 could modestly bind to IL-2 mRNA. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MCPIP1 down-regulates IL-2 via an ARE-independent pathway.