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1.  Phosphorylation of p47phox is required for receptor-mediated NADPH oxidase/NOX2 activation in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human B lymphocytes 
The phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX2) is known to be expressed in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human B lymphocytes. Phosphorylation of the NOX2 cytosolic subunit p47phox is required for phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced NOX2 activation in EBV-transformed B lymphocytes, however the role of this process in receptor-mediated NOX2 activation is not known. Here, we used pansorbin which acts by cross linking cell surface IgG and transfected cells with mutated p47phox to address if the phosphorylation of this subunit is required for receptor-mediated NOX2 activation. We show that pansorbin induced NOX2 activation in a time and concentration-dependent manner, albeit at levels only of 20% of those induced by PMA. GF109203X, a PKC selective inhibitor, inhibited pansorbin as well as PMA-induced NOX2 activation. Using specific anti-phospho serine antibodies we showed that pansorbin induced p47phox phosphorylation on Ser304, 315, 320, 328, and 345 and kinetics of these phosphorylations preceed NOX2 activation. To determine whether the phosphorylation of p47phox is required for pansorbin-induced NOX2 activation, we transfected EBV-transformed lymphocytes deficent in p47phox with a plasmid expressing wild type p47phox or p47phox with all the phosphorylated serines mutated to alanines, p47phoxS(303-379)A. Results show that pansorbin-induced NOX2 activation was greatly decreased in lymphocytes expressing the mutant as compared to the wild-type p47phox. These results show that pansorbin induced p47phox phosphorylation on multiple sites in EBV-transformed B lymphocytes and this process is required for pansorbin-induced NADPH oxidase activation in these cells.
PMCID: PMC3484414  PMID: 23119229
NADPH oxidase; NOX2; p47phox; B lymphocytes; pansorbin; ROS; phosphorylation
2.  In Vitro Phenotypic Susceptibility of HIV-2 Clinical Isolates to CCR5 Inhibitors 
HIV-2 is naturally resistant to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, to a fusion inhibitor, and to some of the protease inhibitors. Maraviroc is the first drug of the new anti-CCR5 drug class and is effective only on CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1. No previous studies concerning HIV-2 susceptibility to maraviroc have been reported yet. We developed a phenotypic maraviroc susceptibility test using a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) model. We analyzed the maraviroc susceptibility of 13 R5 HIV-2, 2 X4R5 (dual) HIV-2, and 2 CXCR4-tropic (X4) HIV-2 clinical isolates. We also tested, with the same protocol, 1 X4 HIV-1 and 4 R5 HIV-1 clinical isolates. For the R5 HIV-2 clinical isolates, the 50% effective concentration (EC50) for maraviroc was 0.80 nM (interquartile range [IQR], 0.48 to 1.39 nM), similar to that observed for the R5 HIV-1 isolates. The median maximum percentage of inhibition in the R5 HIV-2 isolates was 93% (IQR, 84 to 98%), similar to that observed in the R5 HIV-1 isolates. As expected, both X4 HIV-1 and HIV-2 were highly resistant to maraviroc. Our study showed for the first time that maraviroc is active in vitro against R5 HIV-2. The new tools we developed will allow identification of HIV-2-infected patients eligible for CCR5 inhibitor use and management of virological failure when receiving a maraviroc-based regimen.
doi:10.1128/AAC.05313-11
PMCID: PMC3256042  PMID: 22064539

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