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1.  Role of gefitinib in the targeted treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer in Chinese patients 
OncoTargets and therapy  2016;9:1291-1302.
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. Conventional treatment options have limited efficacy because most cases are in the advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. In recent years, gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has shown its good antitumor activities in treating NSCLC in a number of studies. This paper reviews its role in the targeted treatment of NSCLC in Chinese patients.
doi:10.2147/OTT.S80635
PMCID: PMC4790503  PMID: 27022285
pulmonary carcinoma; therapy; EGFR-TK inhibitor; status; People’s Republic of China
2.  Antibacterial effect and shear bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive cement containing Galla chinensis extract 
Biomedical Reports  2016;4(4):507-511.
Galla chinensis extract (GCE), a naturally-derived agent, has a significant inhibitory effect on cariogenic bacteria. The present study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effect and shear bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive cement containing GCE. A resin-modified glass ionomer cement incorporated GCE at five mass fractions (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8%) to prepare GCE-containing cement for analysis. For the agar diffusion test, cement specimens were placed on agar disk inoculated with Streptococcus mutans (strain ATCC 25175). Following 48 h incubation, the inhibition halo diameter was measured. To assess bacteria colonization susceptibility, S. mutans adhesion to cement specimens was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following 48 h incubation. To evaluate bond strength, a total of 50 metal brackets were bonded on premolar surfaces by using cement (10 teeth/group). Following immersion in an artificial saliva for 3 days, shear bond strength (SBS) was measured. The results demonstrated that GCE-containing samples exhibited a larger bacterial inhibition halo than control, and the inhibition zone increased as the GCE mass fraction increased. SEM analysis demonstrated that S. mutans presented a weaker adherent capacity to all GCE-containing cements compared with control, but the difference between each GCE-containing group was not significant. SBS values of each GCE-containing group exhibited no difference compared with the control. In conclusion, GCE-containing adhesive cement exhibits a promising inhibitory effect on S. mutans growth and adhesion. Without compromising bond strength, adding GCE in adhesive cement may be an attractive option for preventing white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment.
doi:10.3892/br.2016.603
PMCID: PMC4812524  PMID: 27073642
white spot lesions; Galla chinensis extract; adhesive cement; antibacterial effect; bond strength
3.  Predicting protein phosphorylation from gene expression: top methods from the IMPROVER Species Translation Challenge 
Bioinformatics  2014;31(4):462-470.
Motivation: Using gene expression to infer changes in protein phosphorylation levels induced in cells by various stimuli is an outstanding problem. The intra-species protein phosphorylation challenge organized by the IMPROVER consortium provided the framework to identify the best approaches to address this issue.
Results: Rat lung epithelial cells were treated with 52 stimuli, and gene expression and phosphorylation levels were measured. Competing teams used gene expression data from 26 stimuli to develop protein phosphorylation prediction models and were ranked based on prediction performance for the remaining 26 stimuli. Three teams were tied in first place in this challenge achieving a balanced accuracy of about 70%, indicating that gene expression is only moderately predictive of protein phosphorylation. In spite of the similar performance, the approaches used by these three teams, described in detail in this article, were different, with the average number of predictor genes per phosphoprotein used by the teams ranging from 3 to 124. However, a significant overlap of gene signatures between teams was observed for the majority of the proteins considered, while Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were enriched in the union of the predictor genes of the three teams for multiple proteins.
Availability and implementation: Gene expression and protein phosphorylation data are available from ArrayExpress (E-MTAB-2091). Software implementation of the approach of Teams 49 and 75 are available at http://bioinformaticsprb.med.wayne.edu and http://people.cs.clemson.edu/∼luofeng/sbv.rar, respectively.
Contact: gyanbhanot@gmail.com or luofeng@clemson.edu or atarca@med.wayne.edu
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu490
PMCID: PMC4325537  PMID: 25061067
4.  Tankyrase 1 inhibitior XAV939 increases chemosensitivity in colon cancer cell lines via inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway 
International Journal of Oncology  2016;48(4):1333-1340.
Aberrant Wnt signaling pathway is associated with a wide array of tumor types and plays an important role in the drug resistance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). To explore the effects and mechanism of WNT signaling pathway inhibitor XAV939 on drug resistance in colon cancer cells, the colon cancer cells SW480 and SW620 were treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/cisplatin (DDP) alone or combined with XAV939. Cell cycle distribution, apoptosis level and the percentage of CD133+ cells were detected by flow cytometry. The protein expression of Axin, β-catenin, EpCAM, TERT and DCAMKL-1 was detected by western blotting. XAV939 upregulated Axin, decreased the total and nuclei of β-catenin in SW480 and SW620 cells. Furthermore, XAV939 significantly downregulated the CSC markers EpCAM, TERT and DCAMKL-1 in SW480 cells, as well as EpCAM in SW620 cells. No significant difference was found in the apoptosis of SW480 and SW620 cells with XAV939 treatment, but XAV939 significantly increased apoptosis induced by 5-FU/DDP in SW480 cells, whereas, the effects were slight in SW620 cells. Collectively, we show for the first time that the WNT signaling pathway inhibitor XAV939 was able to significantly increase the apoptosis induced by 5-FU/DDP, accompanied by the protein expression level alternation of β-catenin, Axin and CSC markers in colon cancer cells. Axin, an important component of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway could be a potential molecular target for reversing multidrug resistance in colon cancer.
doi:10.3892/ijo.2016.3360
PMCID: PMC4777596  PMID: 26820603
colorectal cancer; drug resistance; WNT signaling pathway; XAV939; cancer stem cells
5.  Synthesis, characterization, and application of reversible PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA copolymer thermogels in vitro and in vivo 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:19077.
In this study, a series of injectable thermoreversible and thermogelling PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA copolymers were developed and a systematic evaluation of the thermogelling system both in vitro and in vivo was performed. The aqueous PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA solutions above a critical gel concentration could transform into hydrogel spontaneously within 2 minutes around the body temperature in vitro or in vivo. Modulating the molecular weight, block length and polymer concentration could adjust the sol-gel transition behavior and the mechanical properties of the hydrogels. The gelation was thermally reversible due to the physical interaction of copolymer micelles and no crystallization formed during the gelation. Little cytotoxicity and hemolysis of this polymer was found, and the inflammatory response after injecting the hydrogel to small-animal was acceptable. In vitro and in vivo degradation experiments illustrated that the physical hydrogel could retain its integrity as long as several weeks and eventually be degraded by hydrolysis. A rat model of sidewall defect-bowel abrasion was employed, and a significant reduction of post-operative adhesion has been found in the group of PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA hydrogel-treated, compared with untreated control group and commercial hyaluronic acid (HA) anti-adhesion hydrogel group. As such, this PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA hydrogel might be a promising candidate of injectable biomaterial for medical applications.
doi:10.1038/srep19077
PMCID: PMC4707506  PMID: 26752008
6.  Beyond the CMSSM without an accelerator: proton decay and direct dark matter detection 
We consider two potential non-accelerator signatures of generalizations of the well-studied constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM). In one generalization, the universality constraints on soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters are applied at some input scale \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$M_{\mathrm{in}}$$\end{document}Minbelow the grand unification (GUT) scale \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$M_{\mathrm{GUT}}$$\end{document}MGUT, a scenario referred to as ‘sub-GUT’. The other generalization we consider is to retain GUT-scale universality for the squark and slepton masses, but to relax universality for the soft supersymmetry-breaking contributions to the masses of the Higgs doublets. As with other CMSSM-like models, the measured Higgs mass requires supersymmetric particle masses near or beyond the TeV scale. Because of these rather heavy sparticle masses, the embedding of these CMSSM-like models in a minimal SU(5) model of grand unification can yield a proton lifetime consistent with current experimental limits, and may be accessible in existing and future proton decay experiments. Another possible signature of these CMSSM-like models is direct detection of supersymmetric dark matter. The direct dark matter scattering rate is typically below the reach of the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment if \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$M_{\mathrm{in}}$$\end{document}Min is close to \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$M_{\mathrm{GUT}}$$\end{document}MGUT, but it may lie within its reach if \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$M_{\mathrm{in}} \lesssim 10^{11}$$\end{document}Min≲1011 GeV. Likewise, generalizing the CMSSM to allow non-universal supersymmetry-breaking contributions to the Higgs offers extensive possibilities for models within reach of the LZ experiment that have long proton lifetimes.
doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-015-3842-6
PMCID: PMC4701827  PMID: 26766922
7.  Forkhead box protein A2 and T helper type 2-mediated pulmonary inflammation 
World Journal of Methodology  2015;5(4):223-229.
The transcription factor forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2, also known as hepatocyte nuclear factor 3β or transcription factor 3β), has been found to play pivotal roles in multiple phases of mammalian life, from the early development to the organofaction, and subsequently in homeostasis and metabolism in the adult. In the embryonic development period, FOXA2 is require d for the formation of the primitive node and notochord, and its absence results in embryonic lethality. Moreover, FOXA2 plays an important role not only in lung development, but also in T helper type 2 (Th2)-mediated pulmonary inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia. In this article, the role of FOXA2 in lung development and Th2-mediated pulmonary inflammation, as well as in goblet cell hyperplasia, is reviewed. FOXA2 deletion in airway epithelium results into Th2-mediated pulmonary inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia in developing lung. Leukotriene pathway and signal transducers and activators of transcription 6 pathway may mediate this inflammation through recruitment and activation of denditric cell during lung developments. FOXA2 is a potential treatment target for lung diseases with Th2 inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
doi:10.5662/wjm.v5.i4.223
PMCID: PMC4686420  PMID: 26713283
Forkhead box protein A2; T helper type 2 inflammation; Pulmonary; Development; Goblet cell hyperplasia
8.  Hypoxia and TGF-β1 lead to endostatin resistance by cooperatively increasing cancer stem cells in A549 transplantation tumors 
Cell & Bioscience  2015;5:72.
Background
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and treatments for lung cancer have a high failure rate. Anti-angiogenic therapy is also often ineffective because of refractory disease. Endostatin (ES) is one of the most widely-used anti-angiogenic drugs for lung cancer in China, and resistance to it is a barrier that needs to be resolved. It has been shown that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are involved in resistance to ES. Whether other cells and/or cell factors in the tumor microenvironment that have been shown to be related to resistance to other anti-cancer drugs are also involved in ES resistance is unknown.
Results
In this study, we showed that after continuously treatment with ES for 12 days, volumes of A549 transplantation tumors of mice reached the sizes of tumors which were borne by mice that were treated with normal saline and this meant that resistance to ES appeared. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have been widely accepted as one of reasons responsible for resistance to many anti-tumor drugs were also being discovered increased proportionally in A549 transplantation tumors after ES treatment for 12 days. During further exploration of reasons for this increase, we discovered that after ES treatment, microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor level was decreased in tumors, whereas transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 level was elevated, and MDSCs, one of the sources of TGF-β1, were also increased. We speculate that hypoxia and TGF-β1 are responsible for the increased CSC number in A549 transplantation tumors. By using cobalt chloride to mimic hypoxia and human recombinant TGF-β1 in vitro, we found that hypoxia and TGF-β1can indeed enhance the stemness of A549 cells. In addition, the inductive effect of hypoxia is stronger than TGF-β1, and the combination of both is stronger than either alone, which is first report of such a finding, to our knowledge.
Conclusions
Increased TGF-β1 and strengthened hypoxia in A549 transplantation tumors, as a result of ES therapy, cooperatively increase proportion of CSCs that are involved in ES resistance which was revealed by failure of tumor volume repression after continuously treatment with ES for 12 days.
doi:10.1186/s13578-015-0064-4
PMCID: PMC4690275  PMID: 26705466
Endostatin; Lung cancer stem cells; Hypoxia; TGF-β1
9.  Association analyses of large-scale glycan microarray data reveal novel host-specific substructures in influenza A virus binding glycans 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:15778.
Influenza A viruses can infect a wide variety of animal species and, occasionally, humans. Infection occurs through the binding formed by viral surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and certain types of glycan receptors on host cell membranes. Studies have shown that the α2,3-linked sialic acid motif (SA2,3Gal) in avian, equine, and canine species; the α2,6-linked sialic acid motif (SA2,6Gal) in humans; and SA2,3Gal and SA2,6Gal in swine are responsible for the corresponding host tropisms. However, more detailed and refined substructures that determine host tropisms are still not clear. Thus, in this study, we applied association mining on a set of glycan microarray data for 211 influenza viruses from five host groups: humans, swine, canine, migratory waterfowl, and terrestrial birds. The results suggest that besides Neu5Acα2–6Galβ, human-origin viruses could bind glycans with Neu5Acα2–8Neu5Acα2–8Neu5Ac and Neu5Gcα2–6Galβ1–4GlcNAc substructures; Galβ and GlcNAcβ terminal substructures, without sialic acid branches, were associated with the binding of human-, swine-, and avian-origin viruses; sulfated Neu5Acα2–3 substructures were associated with the binding of human- and swine-origin viruses. Finally, through three-dimensional structure characterization, we revealed that the role of glycan chain shapes is more important than that of torsion angles or of overall structural similarities in virus host tropisms.
doi:10.1038/srep15778
PMCID: PMC4623813  PMID: 26508590
10.  Smart gating membranes with in situ self-assembled responsive nanogels as functional gates 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:14708.
Smart gating membranes, inspired by the gating function of ion channels across cell membranes, are artificial membranes composed of non-responsive porous membrane substrates and responsive gates in the membrane pores that are able to dramatically regulate the trans-membrane transport of substances in response to environmental stimuli. Easy fabrication, high flux, significant response and strong mechanical strength are critical for the versatility of such smart gating membranes. Here we show a novel and simple strategy for one-step fabrication of smart gating membranes with three-dimensionally interconnected networks of functional gates, by self-assembling responsive nanogels on membrane pore surfaces in situ during a vapor-induced phase separation process for membrane formation. The smart gating membranes with in situ self-assembled responsive nanogels as functional gates show large flux, significant response and excellent mechanical property simultaneously. Because of the easy fabrication method as well as the concurrent enhancement of flux, response and mechanical property, the proposed smart gating membranes will expand the scope of membrane applications, and provide ever better performances in their applications.
doi:10.1038/srep14708
PMCID: PMC4592958  PMID: 26434387
11.  Upregulation of the MCL-1S protein variant following dihydroartemisinin treatment induces apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma cells 
Oncology Letters  2015;10(6):3545-3550.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether dihydroartemisinin (DHA) induces apoptosis in the human cholangiocarcinoma QBC939 cell line through the regulation of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) expression. The inhibitory rates of DHA on QBC939 cell proliferation and the effects of DHA on the cell death rates at various DHA concentrations and following various treatment times were examined. The rate of apoptosis and cell cycle changes following DHA treatment were examined and the changes in the expression of MCL-1 mRNAs and MCL-1 proteins following DHA treatment were also examined. The MTT assay and trypan blue staining demonstrated that DHA significantly inhibited the proliferation (P<0.05) and promoted the death of QBC939 cells (P<0.05). The DNA ladder assay and flow cytometry (FCM) analysis demonstrated that the rate of apoptosis in the experimental group was significantly increased following DHA treatment (P<0.01). FCM analysis also demonstrated that DHA treatment led to a reduction in the percentage of QBC939 cells in the G0/G1 and G2/M phases, and the majority of the DNA-treated cells were arrested in the S phase of the cell cycle (P<0.01). Western blot analysis demonstrated that DHA treatment significantly upregulated the expression of the pro-apoptotic MCL-1S protein. In contrast, no significant difference in the expression of the anti-apoptotic MCL-1L protein was observed following DHA treatment. DHA affected the expression of the apoptosis-associated protein MCL-1 through multiple mechanisms. DHA treatment increased the ratio of MCL-1S/MCL-1L protein, thus inducing apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma cells.
doi:10.3892/ol.2015.3760
PMCID: PMC4665764  PMID: 26788167
cholangiocarcinoma; QBC939; dihydroartemisinin; Mcl-1
12.  Systems Biology Approaches to Mining High Throughput Biological Data 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:504362.
doi:10.1155/2015/504362
PMCID: PMC4539426  PMID: 26347339
13.  Identification of MicroRNAs in Meloidogyne incognita Using Deep Sequencing 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(8):e0133491.
MicroRNAs play important regulatory roles in eukaryotic lineages. In this paper, we employed deep sequencing technology to sequence and identify microRNAs in M. incognita genome, which is one of the important plant parasitic nematodes. We identified 102 M. incognita microRNA genes, which can be grouped into 71 nonredundant miRNAs based on mature sequences. Among the 71 miRANs, 27 are known miRNAs and 44 are novel miRNAs. We identified seven miRNA clusters in M. incognita genome. Four of the seven clusters, miR-100/let-7, miR-71-1/miR-2a-1, miR-71-2/miR-2a-2 and miR-279/miR-2b are conserved in other species. We validated the expressions of 5 M. incognita microRNAs, including 3 known microRNAs (miR-71, miR-100b and let-7) and 2 novel microRNAs (NOVEL-1 and NOVEL-2), using RT-PCR. We can detect all 5 microRNAs. The expression levels of four microRNAs obtained using RT-PCR were consistent with those obtained by high-throughput sequencing except for those of let-7. We also examined how M. incognita miRNAs are conserved in four other nematodes species: C. elegans, A. suum, B. malayi and P. pacificus. We found that four microRNAs, miR-100, miR-92, miR-279 and miR-137, exist only in genomes of parasitic nematodes, but do not exist in the genomes of the free living nematode C. elegans. Our research created a unique resource for the research of plant parasitic nematodes. The candidate microRNAs could help elucidate the genomic structure, gene regulation, evolutionary processes, and developmental features of plant parasitic nematodes and nematode-plant interaction.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133491
PMCID: PMC4524723  PMID: 26241472
14.  PrhN, a putative marR family transcriptional regulator, is involved in positive regulation of type III secretion system and full virulence of Ralstonia solanacearum 
The MarR-family of transcriptional regulators are involved in various cellular processes, including resistance to multiple antibiotics and other toxic chemicals, adaptation to different environments and pathogenesis in many plant and animal pathogens. Here, we reported a new MarR regulator PrhN, which was involved in the pathogenesis of Ralstonia solanacearum. prhN mutant exhibited significantly reduced virulence and stem colonization compared to that of wild type in tomato plants. prhN mutant caused identical hypersensitive response (HR) on resistant plants to the wild type. Deletion of prhN gene substantially reduced the expression of type III secretion system (T3SS) in vitro and in planta (mainly in tomato plants), which is essential for pathogenicity of R. solanacearum, and the complemented PrhN could restore its virulence and T3SS expression to that of wild type. T3SS is directly controlled by AraC-type transcriptional regulator HrpB, and the transcription of hrpB is activated by HrpG and PrhG. HrpG and PrhG are homologs but are regulated by the PhcA positively and negatively, respectively. Deletion of prhN gene also abolished the expression of hrpB and prhG, but didn't change the expression of hrpG and phcA. Together, these results indicated that PrhN positively regulates T3SS expression through PrhG and HrpB. PrhN and PhcA should regulate prhG expression in a parallel way. This is the first report on the pathogenesis of MarR regulator in R. solanacearum, and this new finding will improve our understanding on the various biological functions of MarR regulator and the complex regulatory network on hrp regulon in R. solanacearum.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00357
PMCID: PMC4412082  PMID: 25972849
R. solanacearum; type III secretion system; Hrp regulon; pathogenesis; PrhN; MarR type regulator
15.  Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis Reveals Similar Types of NBS Genes in Hybrid Citrus sinensis Genome and Original Citrus clementine Genome and Provides New Insights into Non-TIR NBS Genes 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(3):e0121893.
In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR) domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC) domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121893
PMCID: PMC4374887  PMID: 25811466
16.  Orthotopic Transplantation of Cryopreserved Mouse Ovaries and Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone Analogues in the Restoration of Function following Chemotherapy-Induced Ovarian Damage 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(3):e0120736.
Therapy advances are constantly improving survival rates of cancer patients, however the toxic effects of chemotherapy drugs can seriously affect patients’ quality of life. In women, fertility and premature ovarian endocrine dysfunction are of particular concern. It is urgently we find methods to preserve or reconstruct ovarian function for these women. This study compares GnRHa treatment with ovarian tissue cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation in a chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage murine model. 56 inbred Lewis rats were divided into 4 treatment groups: Saline control (group I); cyclophosphamide only (group II); cyclophosphamide plus GnRHa (group III); cyclophosphamide and grafting of thawed cryopreserved ovaries (group IV). Body weight, estrous cycle recovery time, ovarian weight, morphology and follicle count, as well as breeding and fertility were compared among groups. Only group IV was able to restore to normal body weight by the end of the observation period and resumed normal estrous cycles in a shorter time compared to other treatment groups. There was a decrease in primordial follicles in all treatment groups, but group III had the greatest reduction. Although, there was no difference in pregnancy, only one animal littered normal pups in group II, none littered in group III and four littered in group IV. Thus, cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation of ovarian tissue can restore the fertility of rats subjected to chemotherapy in a manner that is superior to GnRHa treatment. We also observed increased rates of hepatic, splenic and pulmonary haemorrhage in group III, suggesting there may be synergistic toxicity of GnRHa and cyclophosphamide.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120736
PMCID: PMC4374936  PMID: 25811681
17.  Endostatin improves cancer-associated systemic syndrome in a lung cancer model 
Oncology Letters  2015;9(5):2023-2030.
Cancer-associated systemic syndrome (CASS) is characterized by a constellation of symptoms, including progressive weight loss, anemia, endocrine disorders, gastrointestinal dysfunction, muscle and adipose atrophy, hepatic peliosis and kidney failure. The present study assesses the effects of endostatin on CASS and any possible underlying mechanism in tumor-bearing mice. The results showed that the inoculation of Lewis lung carcinoma cells into mice led to CASS that was characterized by a notable decrease in body weight, severe anemia phenotype, disordered biochemistry, hepatosplenomegaly, and a marked increase in serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The continuous injection of 10 mg/kg/day endostatin suppressed tumor growth and alleviated CASS in the tumor-bearing mice, as shown by weight gain, improvement in biochemistry and anemia, and the preservation of organ function. The effects of endostatin on CASS in the tumor-bearing mice were accompanied by the downregulation of serum VEGF and IL-6. Collectively, these findings indicate that endostatin improves CASS in tumor-bearing mice by decreasing the serum levels of VEGF and IL-6.
doi:10.3892/ol.2015.3049
PMCID: PMC4467285  PMID: 26137006
endostatin; Lewis lung carcinoma; cancer-associated systemic syndrome; angiogenic cytokines
18.  Breakthrough cancer medicine and its impact on novel drug development in China: report of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) and Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) Joint Session at the 17th CSCO Annual Meeting 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(12):620-624.
The US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) teamed up with Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) to host a joint session at the17th CSCO Annual Meeting on September 20th, 2014 in Xiamen, China. With a focus on breakthrough cancer medicines, the session featured innovative approaches to evaluate breakthrough agents and established a platform to interactively share successful experiences from case studies of 6 novel agents from both the United States and China. The goal of the session is to inspire scientific and practical considerations for clinical trial design and strategy to expedite cancer drug development in China. A panel discussion further provided in-depth advice on advancing both early and full development of novel cancer medicines in China.
doi:10.5732/cjc.014.10246
PMCID: PMC4308658  PMID: 25418191
Breakthrough; clinical trial; cancer medicine
19.  Cholesterol-conjugated let-7a mimics: antitumor efficacy on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in a preclinical orthotopic xenograft model of systemic therapy 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:889.
Background
A major challenge to the clinical utility of let-7 for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy is the lack of an effective carrier to target tumours. We confirmed the high transfection efficiency of cholesterol-conjugated let-7a miRNA mimics (Chol-let-7a) in human HCC cells, as well as their high affinity for liver tissue in nude mice. However, their antitumor efficacy via systemic delivery remains unknown.
Methods
We explored the effects of Chol-let-7a on HCC in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability and mobility, let-7a abundance and the target ras genes was measured. Live-cell image and cell ultrastructure was observed. Antitumor efficacy in vivo was analyzed by ultrasonography, hispatholgogy and transmission electronic microscopy in a preclinical model of HCC orthotopic xenografts with systemic therapy.
Results
Chol-let-7a inhibited the viability and mobility of HCC cells. Chol-let-7a was primarily observed in the cytoplasm and induced organelle changes, including autophagy. Mild changes were observed in the cells treated with negative control miRNA. Chol-let-7a reached HCC orthotopic tumours, significantly inhibited tumour growth, and prevented local invasion and metastasis. Compared to control tumours, Chol-let-7a-treated tumours showed more necrosis. Tumour cells showed no significant atypia, and mitoses were very rare after systemic Chol-let-7a therapy. Furthermore, let-7a abundance in orthotopic xenografts was coincident with a reduction in the expression of 3 human ras mRNAs and RAS proteins.
Conclusions
Chol-let-7a exerted significant antitumor effects by down-regulating all human ras genes at the transcriptional and translational levels. Chol-let-7a inhibited cell proliferation, growth, and metastasis, and mainly functioned in the cytoplasm. Chol-let-7a represents a potential useful modified molecule for systemic HCC therapy.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-889) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-889
PMCID: PMC4289300  PMID: 25429777
20.  A randomized, controlled, blinded study of the safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine injected at different intramuscular sites in Chinese infants 
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics  2013;9(11):2311-2315.
To compare the safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine administered via the vastus lateralis and deltoid muscles, 320 healthy Chinese infants <12 mo of age were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, blinded study and divided into 2 age groups: 2–5 mo and 6–12 mo. Each age group was then randomized (1:1) to either the vastus lateralis (experimental) group who received Hib vaccination into this muscle 2 or 3 times at monthly intervals, or the deltoid (control) group who received Hib vaccination into this muscle either 3 times (2–5 mo group) or twice (6–12 mo group) at monthly intervals. Local and systemic adverse reactions after each vaccine dose were recorded, and Hib-PRP antibody concentrations were determined by ELISA at 28 d after completion of the immunization schedule. There were no significant differences in the proportions of subjects with post-immunization Hib-PRP antibody concentrations ≥1.0 μg/mL or ≥0.15 μg/mL with the two injection sites for either age group, or in the post-immunization Hib-PRP antibody concentrations achieved (P > 0.05). In addition, there were no significant differences in the rates of local and systemic reactions after the first and second vaccinations between the 2 injection sites for either age group (P > 0.05), but the rate of systemic reactions in the 2–5 mo group after the third vaccination via the vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower than after deltoid vaccination (0% vs 8.57%; P < 0.05). Thus, administration via the vastus lateralis muscle is worth considering for Hib vaccination.
doi:10.4161/hv.25526
PMCID: PMC3981838  PMID: 23842003
Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; vaccination site; vastus lateralis; deltoid; safety; immunogenicity
21.  Isolation, Identification and Characteristics of an Endophytic Quinclorac Degrading Bacterium Bacillus megaterium Q3 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e108012.
In this study, we isolated an endophytic quinclorac-degrading bacterium strain Q3 from the root of tobacco grown in quinclorac contaminated soil. Based on morphological characteristics, Biolog identification, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, we identified strain Q3 as Bacillus megaterium. We investigated the effects of temperature, pH, inoculation size, and initial quinclorac concentration on growth and degrading efficiency of Q3. Under the optimal degrading condition, Q3 could degrade 93% of quinclorac from the initial concentration of 20 mg/L in seven days. We analyzed the degradation products of quinclorac using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The major degradation products by Q3 were different from those of previously identified quinclorac degrading strains, which suggests that Q3 may employ new pathways for quinclorac degradation. Our indoor pot experiments demonstrated that Q3 can effectively alleviate the quinclorac phytotoxicity in tobacco. As the first endophytic microbial that is capable of degrading quinclorac, Q3 can be a good bioremediation bacterium for quinclorac phytotoxicity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108012
PMCID: PMC4171507  PMID: 25244184
22.  Immunogenicity and safety of three 2010–2011 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines in Chinese toddlers, children and older adults 
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics  2013;9(8):1725-1734.
The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic strain was for the first time included in the 2010–2011 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial in Chinese population to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the 2010–2011 TIV manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and compared it with the counterpart vaccines manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur and Sinovac Biotech. Healthy toddlers (6–36 mo), children (6–12 y) and older adults (≥60 y) with 300 participants in each age group were enrolled to randomly receive two doses (toddlers, 28 d apart) or one dose (children and older adults). The immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. The solicited injection-site and systemic adverse events (AEs) were collected within 7 d after vaccination. All the three TIVs were well-tolerated with 15.1% of participants reporting AEs, most of which were mild. No serious AEs and unusual AEs were reported. Fever and pain were the most common systemic and injection-site AEs, respectively. The three TIVs showed good immunogenicity. The seroprotection rates against both H1N1 and H3N2 strains were more than 87% in toddlers after two doses and more than 95% in children and more than 86% in older adults after one dose. The seroprotection rates against B strain were 68–71% in toddlers after two doses, 70–74% in children and 69–72% in older adults after one dose. In conclusion, the three 2010–2011 TIVs had good immunogenicity and safety in Chinese toddlers, children and older adults and were generally comparable in immunogenicity and reactogenicity.
doi:10.4161/hv.24832
PMCID: PMC3906273  PMID: 23896581
influenza; vaccine; seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine; influenza A (H1N1); immunogenicity; safety
23.  Treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with pulmonary tuberculosis and gout: A case report 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(2):753-757.
In China, the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and tuberculosis remains high. Additionally, there has been a marked increase in the prevalence of gout. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of co-existing diseases. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous cases reported in the literature with regard to patients suffering from NPC complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis and gout. The present study describes the case of a 59-year-old male with this condition. The patient received a combination of anti-tumor, anti-tuberculosis and anti-gout therapies, and experienced no severe adverse reactions during treatment. At present, the patient’s Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status is good, there has been no local recurrence or distant metastasis of the NPC, and the pulmonary tuberculosis and gout are well controlled. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the treatment of patients suffering from co-existing conditions.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2180
PMCID: PMC4081372  PMID: 25013497
combination treatment; gout; nasopharyngeal carcinoma; pulmonary tuberculosis
24.  MiRNA-125a-5p: a regulator and predictor of gefitinib’s effect on nasopharyngeal carcinoma 
Background
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignancy in China and Southeast Asia. Radiotherapy is the major treatment modality for patients with NPC, but does not always achieve fully satisfactory outcomes. Studies have shown that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly expressed in NPC, and EGFR-targeted treatment is expected to be a new strategy for NPC. Recently, clinical trials have shown that NPC patients have different responses to gefitinib. Thus, the identification of indicators that can regulate and predict the sensitivity of NPC to gefitinib is very valuable. MiRNAs (MicroRNAs) are closely related to cancer development. We studied miRNAs in NPC cell lines to identify those that can regulate and predict the effectiveness of gefitinib on NPC.
Methods
CCK8, Annexin V-FITC assays and animal models were carried out to evaluate the inhibitory effect of gefitinib on NPC cell lines HNE-1 and HK-1. MiRNA microarrays were used to detect and compare the miRNAs expression levels in the two cells with gefitinib or not, and qRT-PCR was used to evaluate miR-125a-5p expression in NPC cells and in serum of the tumor animal models. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments were taken to evaluate the effect of miR-125a-5p on gefitinib effectiveness. Western blots were used to evaluate the effect of miR-125a-5p on p53 and Her2 in HNE-1 and HK-1 cells.
Results
Gefitinib inhibited two NPC cell lines proliferation in vitro and in vivo,and HNE-1 cells were less sensitive than HK-1 cells to gefitinib.MiR-125a-5p expression levels were increased by geftinib in the two cell lines and in the serum of NPC tumor bearing-mice. This phenomenon was weak in HNE-1 cells and strong in HK-1 cells. MiR-125a-5p over expression improved anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of gefitinib on the NPC cells and that miR-125a-5p down-regulation decreased those effects. MiR-125a-5p also increased p53 protein expression in HNE-1 cells, and decreased Her2 protein expression in HNE-1 and HK-1 cells.
Conclusions
Our results indicate that gefitinib sensitivity and some miRNAs expressions varied in NPC cell lines. The miR-125a-5p is a possible candidate that can regulate and predict the effect of gefitinib on NPC.
doi:10.1186/1475-2867-14-24
PMCID: PMC3973965  PMID: 24602316
miRNA; miR-125a-5p; Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; Gefitinib
25.  Correction: A High Density Consensus Genetic Map of Tetraploid Cotton That Integrates Multiple Component Maps through Molecular Marker Redundancy Check 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):10.1371/annotation/d2b10915-daa3-4ed7-ad95-3a6d50b26fea.
doi:10.1371/annotation/d2b10915-daa3-4ed7-ad95-3a6d50b26fea
PMCID: PMC3899042

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