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author:("hind, Rainer")
1.  Imaging Epigenetic Regulation by Histone Deacetylases in the Brain using PET/MRI with 18F-FAHA 
NeuroImage  2012;64:630-639.
Epigenetic modifications mediated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in the mechanisms of different neurologic diseases and HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) have shown promise in therapy. However, pharmacodynamic profiles of many HDACIs in the brain remain largely unknown due to the lack of validated methods for noninvasive imaging of HDACs expression-activity. In this study, dynamic PET/CT imaging was performed in 4 rhesus macaques using [18F]FAHA, a novel HDAC substrate, and [18F]fluoroacetate, the major radio-metabolite of [18F]FAHA, and fused with corresponding MR images of the brain. Quantification of [18F]FAHA accumulation in the brain was performed using a customized dual-tracer pharmacokinetic model. Immunohistochemical analyses of brain tissue revealed the heterogeneity of expression of individual HDACs in different brain structures and cell types and confirmed that PET/CT/MRI with [18F]FAHA reflects the level of expression-activity of HDAC class IIa enzymes. Furthermore, PET/CT/MRI with [18F]FAHA enabled non-invasive, quantitative assessment of pharmacodynamics of HDACs inhibitor SAHA in the brain.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.09.019
PMCID: PMC3540799  PMID: 22995777
epigenetics; histone deacetylases; positron emission tomography; brain; rhesus macaque
2.  [11C]-(R)PK11195 tracer kinetics in the brain of glioma patients and a comparison of two referencing approaches 
Purpose
Translocator protein (TSPO) is a biomarker of neuroinflammation that can be imaged by PET using [11C]-(R)PK11195. We sought to characterize the [11C]-(R)PK11195 kinetics in gliomas of different histotypes and grades, and to compare two reference tissue input functions (supervised cluster analysis versus cerebellar grey matter) for the estimation of [11C]-(R)PK11195 binding in gliomas and surrounding brain structures.
Methods
Twenty-three glioma patients and ten age-matched controls underwent structural MRI and dynamic [11C]-(R)PK11195 PET scans. Tissue time–activity curves (TACs) were extracted from tumour regions as well as grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of the brains. Parametric maps of binding potential (BPND) were generated with the simplified reference tissue model using the two input functions, and were compared with each other. TSPO expression was assessed in tumour tissue sections by immunohistochemistry.
Results
Three types of regional kinetics were observed in individual tumour TACs: GM-like kinetics (n = 6, clearance of the tracer similar to that in cerebellar GM), WM-like kinetics (n = 8, clearance of the tracer similar to that in cerebral WM) and a form of mixed kinetics (n = 9, intermediate rate of clearance). Such kinetic patterns differed between low-grade astrocytomas (WM-like kinetics) and oligodendrogliomas (GM-like and mixed kinetics), but were independent of tumour grade. There was good agreement between parametric maps of BPND derived from the two input functions in all controls and 10 of 23 glioma patients. In 13 of the 23 patients, BPND values derived from the supervised cluster input were systematically smaller than those using the cerebellar input. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that TSPO expression increased with tumour grade.
Conclusion
The three types of [11C]-(R)PK11195 kinetics in gliomas are determined in part by tracer delivery, and indicated that kinetic analysis is a valuable tool in the study of gliomas with the potential for in vivo discrimination between low-grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. Supervised cluster and cerebellar input functions produced consistent BPND estimates in approximately half of the gliomas investigated, but had a systematic difference in the remainder. The cerebellar input is preferred based on theoretical and practical considerations.
doi:10.1007/s00259-013-2447-2
PMCID: PMC3738844  PMID: 23715902
Translocator protein; [11C]-(R)PK11195; Kinetic analysis; Reference tissue; Glioma; PET
3.  Quantification of ligand PET studies using a reference region with a displaceable fraction: application to occupancy studies with [11C]-DASB as an example 
This paper aims to build novel methodology for the use of a reference region with specific binding for the quantification of brain studies with radioligands and positron emission tomography (PET). In particular: (1) we introduce a definition of binding potential BPD=DVR−1 where DVR is the volume of distribution relative to a reference tissue that contains ligand in specifically bound form, (2) we validate a numerical methodology, rank-shaping regularization of exponential spectral analysis (RS-ESA), for the calculation of BPD that can cope with a reference region with specific bound ligand, (3) we demonstrate the use of RS-ESA for the accurate estimation of drug occupancies with the use of correction factors to account for the specific binding in the reference. [11C]-DASB with cerebellum as a reference was chosen as an example to validate the methodology. Two data sets were used; four normal subjects scanned after infusion of citalopram or placebo and further six test–retest data sets. In the drug occupancy study, the use of RS-ESA with cerebellar input plus corrections produced estimates of occupancy very close the ones obtained with plasma input. Test–retest results demonstrated a tight linear relationship between BPD calculated either with plasma or with a reference input and high reproducibility.
doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2011.108
PMCID: PMC3323353  PMID: 21811290
[11C]-DASB; kinetic modelling; occupancy; positron emission tomography; rank-shaping spectral analysis; reference region; spectral analysis
4.  Presynaptic 5-HT1A is Related to 5-HTT Receptor Density in the Human Brain 
Neuropsychopharmacology  2011;36(11):2258-2265.
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) is an important neurotransmitter for a number of brain functions and widely distributed throughout the brain. Physiological and pharmacological relationship between 5-HT1A receptors and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in the regulation of 5-HT neurotransmission has now been documented. A relationship between 5-HT1A receptors and 5-HTT is also suggested by the pathophysiology of depression and the mechanism of action of antidepressants. We have scanned 42 healthy adults with both [11C] WAY-100635 and [11C] DASB to investigate the anatomical co-distribution of multiple serotonergic markers. We hypothesized that lower 5-HTT densities in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and limbic regions will be accompanied by lower 5-HT1A receptor density in the same regions, contributing to the 5-HT1A receptor desensitization. In addition, variations in DRN 5-HT1A receptor density can theoretically influence the density and/or function of other serotonin receptor subtypes and the 5-HTT consequent to changes in serotonergic tone. In a comparatively large sample of volunteers, we have shown that the relationship between 5-HT1A and 5-HTT PET indices was complex. We were unable to demonstrate robust, intra-regional relationships between 5-HT1A and 5-HTT densities. Inter-regionally, DRN 5-HT1A receptors were related to cortical (temporal and frontal regions) and paralimbic (insula), but not limbic 5-HTT. This latter finding may reflect differences in 5-HT tone between individuals, and highlights probable substrates sensitive to variations in DRN 5-HT function.
doi:10.1038/npp.2011.113
PMCID: PMC3176562  PMID: 21750580
5-HT1A; 5-HTT; antidepressants; drug discovery; PET; serotonin; imaging; clinical or preclinical; serotonin; biological psychiatry; psychopharmacology; PET
5.  A European multicentre PET study of fibrillar amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease 
Purpose
Amyloid PET tracers have been developed for in vivo detection of brain fibrillar amyloid deposition in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To serve as an early biomarker in AD the amyloid PET tracers need to be analysed in multicentre clinical studies.
Methods
In this study 238 [11C]Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) datasets from five different European centres were pooled. Of these 238 datasets, 18 were excluded, leaving [11C]PIB datasets from 97 patients with clinically diagnosed AD (mean age 69 ± 8 years), 72 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; mean age 67.5 ± 8 years) and 51 healthy controls (mean age 67.4 ± 6 years) available for analysis. Of the MCI patients, 64 were longitudinally followed for 28 ± 15 months. Most participants (175 out of 220) were also tested for apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype.
Results
[11C]PIB retention in the neocortical and subcortical brain regions was significantly higher in AD patients than in age-matched controls. Intermediate [11C]PIB retention was observed in MCI patients, with a bimodal distribution (64 % MCI PIB-positive and 36 % MCI PIB-negative), which was significantly different the pattern in both the AD patients and controls. Higher [11C]PIB retention was observed in MCI ApoE ε4 carriers compared to non-ApoE ε4 carriers (p < 0.005). Of the MCI PIB-positive patients, 67 % had converted to AD at follow-up while none of the MCI PIB-negative patients converted.
Conclusion
This study demonstrated the robustness of [11C]PIB PET as a marker of neocortical fibrillar amyloid deposition in brain when assessed in a multicentre setting. MCI PIB-positive patients showed more severe memory impairment than MCI PIB-negative patients and progressed to AD at an estimated rate of 25 % per year. None of the MCI PIB-negative patients converted to AD, and thus PIB negativity had a 100 % negative predictive value for progression to AD. This supports the notion that PIB-positive scans in MCI patients are an indicator of prodromal AD.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00259-012-2237-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00259-012-2237-2
PMCID: PMC3510420  PMID: 22961445
Amyloid; Multicentre PET; PIB; MCI; Alzheimer’s disease; Mild cognitive impairment; Cognition
6.  Optimization of supervised cluster analysis for extracting reference tissue input curves in (R)-[11C]PK11195 brain PET studies 
Performance of two supervised cluster analysis (SVCA) algorithms for extracting reference tissue curves was evaluated to improve quantification of dynamic (R)-[11C]PK11195 brain positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Reference tissues were extracted from images using both a manually defined cerebellum and SVCA algorithms based on either four (SVCA4) or six (SVCA6) kinetic classes. Data from controls, mild cognitive impairment patients, and patients with Alzheimer's disease were analyzed using various kinetic models including plasma input, the simplified reference tissue model (RPM) and RPM with vascular correction (RPMVb). In all subject groups, SVCA-based reference tissue curves showed lower blood volume fractions (Vb) and volume of distributions than those based on cerebellum time-activity curve. Probably resulting from the presence of specific signal from the vessel walls that contains in normal condition a significant concentration of the 18 kDa translocation protein. Best contrast between subject groups was seen using SVCA4-based reference tissues as the result of a lower number of kinetic classes and the prior removal of extracerebral tissues. In addition, incorporation of Vb in RPM improved both parametric images and binding potential contrast between groups. Incorporation of Vb within RPM, together with SVCA4, appears to be the method of choice for analyzing cerebral (R)-[11C]PK11195 neurodegeneration studies.
doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2012.59
PMCID: PMC3421099  PMID: 22588187
clustering; parametric analysis; (R)-[11C]PK11195; reference tissue
7.  Technical aspects of amyloid imaging for Alzheimer's disease 
[11C]Pittsburgh Compound B positron emission tomography has now been extensively used to evaluate the amyloid load in different types of dementia and has become a powerful research tool in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present short review we discuss the properties of amyloid imaging agent [11C]Pittsburgh Compound B, the different modalities of molecular imaging, image processing and data analysis, and newer amyloid imaging agents.
doi:10.1186/alzrt87
PMCID: PMC3226280  PMID: 21888692
8.  Brain inflammation is induced by co-morbidities and risk factors for stroke 
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity  2011;25(6-4):1113-1122.
Highlights
► Risk factors for stroke include atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes and hypertension. ► Stroke risk factors are associated with peripheral inflammation. ► Corpulent rats and atherogenic mice show increased inflammation in the brain. ► Pilot data show that patients at risk of stroke may also develop brain inflammation. ► Chronic peripheral inflammation can drive inflammatory changes in the brain.
Chronic systemic inflammatory conditions, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and obesity are associated with increased risk of stroke, which suggests that systemic inflammation may contribute to the development of stroke in humans. The hypothesis that systemic inflammation may induce brain pathology can be tested in animals, and this was the key objective of the present study. First, we assessed inflammatory changes in the brain in rodent models of chronic, systemic inflammation. PET imaging revealed increased microglia activation in the brain of JCR-LA (corpulent) rats, which develop atherosclerosis and obesity, compared to the control lean strain. Immunostaining against Iba1 confirmed reactive microgliosis in these animals. An atherogenic diet in apolipoprotein E knock-out (ApoE−/−) mice induced microglial activation in the brain parenchyma within 8 weeks and increased expression of vascular adhesion molecules. Focal lipid deposition and neuroinflammation in periventricular and cortical areas and profound recruitment of activated myeloid phagocytes, T cells and granulocytes into the choroid plexus were also observed. In a small, preliminary study, patients at risk of stroke (multiple risk factors for stroke, with chronically elevated C-reactive protein, but negative MRI for brain pathology) exhibited increased inflammation in the brain, as indicated by PET imaging. These findings show that brain inflammation occurs in animals, and tentatively in humans, harbouring risk factors for stroke associated with elevated systemic inflammation. Thus a “primed” inflammatory environment in the brain may exist in individuals at risk of stroke and this can be adequately recapitulated in appropriate co-morbid animal models.
doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2011.02.008
PMCID: PMC3145158  PMID: 21356305
Brain; Co-morbidity; Inflammation; Risk factors; Stroke; Systemic

Results 1-8 (8)