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1.  Reference region automatic extraction in dynamic [11C]PIB 
The positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer [11C]Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) is a marker of amyloid plaque deposition in brain, and binding potential is usually quantified using the cerebellum as a reference where the specific binding is negligible. The use of the cerebellum as a reference, however, has been questioned by the reported cerebellar [11C]PIB retention in familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects. In this work, we developed a supervised clustering procedure for the automatic extraction of a reference region in [11C]PIB studies. Supervised clustering models each gray matter voxel as the linear combination of three predefined kinetic classes, normal and lesion gray matter, and blood pool, and extract reference voxels in which the contribution of the normal gray matter class is high. In the validation with idiopathic AD subjects, supervised clustering extracted reference voxels mostly in the cerebellum that indicated little specific [11C]PIB binding, and total distribution volumes of the extracted region were lower than those of the cerebellum. Next, the methodology was applied to the familial AD cohort where the cerebellar amyloid load had been demonstrated previously, resulting in higher binding potential compared with that obtained with the cerebellar reference. The supervised clustering method is a useful tool for the accurate quantification of [11C]PIB studies.
doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.133
PMCID: PMC3824180  PMID: 23921900
[11C]PIB; PET; reference region; supervised clustering
2.  Microglia, Amyloid, and Glucose Metabolism in Parkinson's Disease with and without Dementia 
Neuropsychopharmacology  2013;38(6):938-949.
[11C](R)PK11195-PET measures upregulation of translocator protein, which is associated with microglial activation, [11C]PIB-PET is a marker of amyloid, while [18F]FDG-PET measures cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlc). We hypothesize that microglial activation is an early event in the Parkinson's disease (PD) spectrum and is independent of the amyloid pathology. The aim of this study is to evaluate in vivo the relationship between microglial activation, amyloid deposition, and glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and PD subjects without dementia. Here, we evaluated 11 PDD subjects, 8 PD subjects without dementia, and 24 control subjects. Subjects underwent T1 and T2 MRI, [11C](R)PK11195, [18F]FDG, and [11C]PIB PET scans. Parametric maps of [11C](R)PK11195 binding potential, rCMRGlc, and [11C]PIB uptake were interrogated using region of interest and SPM (statistical parametric mapping) analysis. The PDD patients showed a significant increase of microglial activation in anterior and posterior cingulate, striatum, frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital cortical regions compared with the controls. The PD subjects also showed a statistically significant increase in microglial activation in temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. [11C]PIB uptake was marginally increased in PDD and PD. There was a significant reduction in glucose metabolism in PDD and PD. We have also demonstrated pixel-by-pixel correlation between mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score and microglial activation, and MMSE score and rCMRGlc. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that cortical microglial activation and reduced glucose metabolism can be detected early on in this disease spectrum. Significant microglial activation may be a factor in driving the disease process in PDD. Given this, agents that affect microglial activation could have an influence on disease progression.
doi:10.1038/npp.2012.255
PMCID: PMC3629382  PMID: 23303049
Amyloid; Cognition; glucose metabolism; Imaging; Clinical or Preclinical; Microglia; Movement Disorders; Neurology; Parkinson's disease; Parkinson's disease dementia; PK11195; amyloid; microglia; Parkinson's disease; Parkinson's disease dementia; glucose metabolism
3.  A European multicentre PET study of fibrillar amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease 
Purpose
Amyloid PET tracers have been developed for in vivo detection of brain fibrillar amyloid deposition in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To serve as an early biomarker in AD the amyloid PET tracers need to be analysed in multicentre clinical studies.
Methods
In this study 238 [11C]Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) datasets from five different European centres were pooled. Of these 238 datasets, 18 were excluded, leaving [11C]PIB datasets from 97 patients with clinically diagnosed AD (mean age 69 ± 8 years), 72 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; mean age 67.5 ± 8 years) and 51 healthy controls (mean age 67.4 ± 6 years) available for analysis. Of the MCI patients, 64 were longitudinally followed for 28 ± 15 months. Most participants (175 out of 220) were also tested for apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype.
Results
[11C]PIB retention in the neocortical and subcortical brain regions was significantly higher in AD patients than in age-matched controls. Intermediate [11C]PIB retention was observed in MCI patients, with a bimodal distribution (64 % MCI PIB-positive and 36 % MCI PIB-negative), which was significantly different the pattern in both the AD patients and controls. Higher [11C]PIB retention was observed in MCI ApoE ε4 carriers compared to non-ApoE ε4 carriers (p < 0.005). Of the MCI PIB-positive patients, 67 % had converted to AD at follow-up while none of the MCI PIB-negative patients converted.
Conclusion
This study demonstrated the robustness of [11C]PIB PET as a marker of neocortical fibrillar amyloid deposition in brain when assessed in a multicentre setting. MCI PIB-positive patients showed more severe memory impairment than MCI PIB-negative patients and progressed to AD at an estimated rate of 25 % per year. None of the MCI PIB-negative patients converted to AD, and thus PIB negativity had a 100 % negative predictive value for progression to AD. This supports the notion that PIB-positive scans in MCI patients are an indicator of prodromal AD.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00259-012-2237-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00259-012-2237-2
PMCID: PMC3510420  PMID: 22961445
Amyloid; Multicentre PET; PIB; MCI; Alzheimer’s disease; Mild cognitive impairment; Cognition
4.  Technical aspects of amyloid imaging for Alzheimer's disease 
[11C]Pittsburgh Compound B positron emission tomography has now been extensively used to evaluate the amyloid load in different types of dementia and has become a powerful research tool in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present short review we discuss the properties of amyloid imaging agent [11C]Pittsburgh Compound B, the different modalities of molecular imaging, image processing and data analysis, and newer amyloid imaging agents.
doi:10.1186/alzrt87
PMCID: PMC3226280  PMID: 21888692

Results 1-4 (4)