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1.  Ventricular atrophy and its clinical correlates in the imaging cohort from the ADCS MCI Donepezil/Vitamin E study 
We analyzed the baseline and 3-year T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data of 110 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) participants with minimal hippocampal atrophy at baseline from the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study group (ADCS) MCI Donepezil/Vitamin E trial. 46 subjects converted to AD (MCIc) while 64 remained stable (MCInc). We used the radial distance technique to examine the differences in lateral ventricle shape and size between MCIc and MCInc and the associations between ventricular enlargement and cognitive decline.
MCIc group had significantly larger frontal and right body/occipital horns relative to MCInc at baseline and significantly larger bilateral frontal, body/occipital and left temporal horns at follow-up. Global cognitive decline measured with ADAScog and MMSE and decline in activities of daily living (ADL) were associated with posterior lateral ventricle enlargement. Decline in ADAScog and ADL were associated with left temporal and decline in MMSE with right temporal horn enlargement. After correction for baseline hippocampal volume decline in ADL showed a significant association with right frontal horn enlargement. Executive decline was associated with right frontal and left temporal horn enlargement.
doi:10.1097/WAD.0b013e3182677b3d
PMCID: PMC3662002  PMID: 23694947
Alzheimer’s disease; AD; mild cognitive impairment; MCI; imaging; MRI; brain atrophy; ventricular enlargement
2.  Frontotemporal Degeneration, the Next Therapeutic Frontier: Molecules and Animal Models for FTD drug development (Part 1 of 2 articles) 
Frontotemporal Degeneration (FTD) is a common cause of dementia for which there are currently no approved therapies. Over the past decade there has been an explosion of knowledge about the biology and clinical features of FTD that has identified a number of promising therapeutic targets as well as animal models in which to develop drugs. The close association of some forms of FTD with neuropathological accumulation of tau protein or increased neuroinflammation due to progranulin protein deficiency suggests that a drug’s success in treating FTD may predict efficacy in more common diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A variety of regulatory incentives, clinical features of FTD, such as rapid disease progression, and relatively pure molecular pathology, suggest that there are advantages to developing drugs for FTD as compared to other more common neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. In March 2011, the Frontotemporal Dementia Treatment Study Group (FTSG) sponsored a conference entitled,“ FTD, the Next Therapeutic Frontier,” focused on pre-clinical aspects of FTD drug development. The goal of the meeting was to promote collaborations between academic researchers and biotechnology and pharmaceutical researchers to accelerate the development of new treatments for FTD. Here we report the key findings from the conference, including the rationale for FTD drug development, epidemiological, genetic and neuropathological features of FTD, FTD animal models and how best to use them and examples of successful drug-development collaborations in other neurodegenerative diseases.
doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2012.03.002
PMCID: PMC3542408  PMID: 23043900
3.  The Advantages of FTD Drug Development (Part 2 of FTD: The Next Therapeutic Frontier) 
Frontotemporal Degeneration (FTD) encompasses a spectrum of related neurodegenerative disorders with behavioral, language and motor phenotypes for which there are currently no effective therapies. This manuscript is the second of two articles that summarize the presentations and discussions that occurred at two symposia in 2011 sponsored by the Frontotemporal Dementia Treatment Study Group (FTSG), a collaborative group of academic and industry researchers that is devoted to developing treatments for FTD. This manuscript discusses the current status of FTD clinical research that is relevant to the conduct of clinical trials and why FTD research may be an attractive pathway for developing therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. The clinical and molecular features of FTD, including rapid disease progression and relatively pure molecular pathology, suggest that there are advantages to developing drugs for FTD as compared to other dementias. FTD qualifies as orphan indication, providing additional advantages for drug development. Two recent sets of consensus diagnostic criteria will facilitate the identification of patients with FTD, and a variety of neuropsychological, functional and behavioral scales have been shown to be sensitive to disease progression. Moreover, quantitative neuroimaging measurements demonstrate progressive brain atrophy in FTD at rates that may surpass Alzheimer's disease (AD). Finally, the similarities between FTD and other neurodegenerative diseases with drug development efforts already underway suggest that FTD researchers will be able to draw upon this experience to create a roadmap for FTD drug development. We conclude that FTD research has reached sufficient maturity to pursue clinical development of specific FTD therapies.
doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2012.03.003
PMCID: PMC3562382  PMID: 23062850
4.  Estimating sample sizes for pre-dementia Alzheimer’s trials based on the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 
Neurobiology of aging  2012;34(1):62-72.
This study modeled predementia Alzheimer’s disease (AD) clinical trials. Longitudinal data from cognitively normal (CN) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) participants in the AD Neuroimaging Initiative were used to calculate sample size requirements for trials using outcome measures including: the Clinical Dementia Rating scale sum of boxes (CDR-sb), Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), AD assessment scale-cognitive subscale with and without delayed recall, and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning task (RAVLT). We examined the impact on sample sizes of enrichment for genetic and biomarker criteria, including cerebrospinal fluid protein and neuroimaging analyses. We observed little cognitive decline in the CN population at 36 months, regardless of the enrichment strategy. Nonetheless, in CN subjects, using RAVLT total as an outcome at 36 months required the fewest subjects across enrichment strategies, with apolipoprotein E genotype ε4 carrier status requiring the fewest (n=499 per arm to demonstrate a 25% reduction in disease progression). In MCI, enrichment reduced the required sample sizes for trials, relative to estimates based on all subjects. For MCI, the CDR-sb consistently required the smallest sample sizes. We conclude that predementia clinical trial conduct in AD is enhanced by the use of biomarker inclusion criteria.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012.03.006
PMCID: PMC3412892  PMID: 22503160
Alzheimer’s disease; clinical trials; mild cognitive impairment; preclinical; predementia; sample size; enrichment
5.  Memory Performance and fMRI Signal in Presymptomatic Familial Alzheimer’s Disease 
Human brain mapping  2012;34(12):10.1002/hbm.22141.
Rare autosomal dominant mutations result in familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD) with a relatively consistent age of onset within families. This provides an estimate of years until disease onset (relative age) in mutation carriers. Increased AD risk has been associated with differences in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity during memory tasks, but most of these studies have focused on possession of apolipoprotein E allele 4 (APOE4), a risk factor, but not causative variant, of late-onset AD. Evaluation of fMRI activity in presymptomatic FAD mutation carriers versus noncarriers provides insight into preclinical changes in those who will certainly develop AD in a prescribed period of time. Adults from FAD mutation-carrying families (nine mutation carriers, eight noncarriers) underwent fMRI scanning while performing a memory task. We examined fMRI signal differences between carriers and noncarriers, and how signal related to fMRI task performance within mutation status group, controlling for relative age and education. Mutation noncarriers had greater retrieval period activity than carriers in several AD-relevant regions, including the left hippocampus. Better performing noncarriers showed greater encoding period activity including in the parahippocampal gyrus. Poorer performing carriers showed greater retrieval period signal, including in the frontal and temporal lobes, suggesting underlying pathological processes.
doi:10.1002/hbm.22141
PMCID: PMC3812259  PMID: 22806961
early onset; functional magnetic resonance imaging; PSEN1; APP; mutation; hippocampus; medial temporal lobe; volume
6.  Method validation of circulating tumour cell enumeration at low cell counts 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:415.
Background
Circulating tumour cells (CTC) are receiving increasing attention as prognostic, predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers in cancer patients. However, their clinical significance can be dependent on an accurate determination of CTC around cut-off values at low cell counts (<10 cells/7.5 ml). Consequently, we have conducted method validation of the CellSearch™ system focusing on clinical samples containing CTC in the cut-off region.
Methods
Analytical accuracy was first assessed employing quality controls (QC) and spiked healthy volunteer blood specimens. Results were analysed by β-expectation tolerance intervals (BETI). Inter-operator error (6 different readers) was then characterised in 38 different patient samples, 68% of which had ≤5 CTC and data were analysed by β-content γ-confidence tolerance intervals (BCTI).
Results
Results from QCs and spiked blood confirmed a 3-4-fold higher degree of imprecision at the low (48 cells, BETI = + 0.288/-0.345, β = 95%) compared to the high QC (987 cells, BETI = +0.065/-0.140, β = 95%). However, when data for individual analysts were interrogated characteristic systematic errors were detected. In the analysis of patient samples again individual analysts introduced a highly specific error into the interpretation of CTC images, which correlated to the level of training and experience. When readers were selected based on BETI and BCTI results, the high level of between-operator error (up to 170%) observed at CTC of ≤ 5 was reduced to < 30%.
Conclusions
Inter-operator variability in enumeration of CTC at low cell counts can be considerable, but is also potentially avoidable by following simple guidance steps.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-415
PMCID: PMC3848977  PMID: 24024881
Circulating tumour cells; Predictive biomarker; Enumeration; Low cell counts; Method validation; Statistical analysis
7.  Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers in animal models: closing the translational gap 
The rising prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is rapidly becoming one of the largest health and economic challenges in the world. There is a growing need for the development and implementation of reliable biomarkers for AD that can be used to assist in diagnosis, inform disease progression, and monitor therapeutic efficacy. Preclinical models permit the evaluation of candidate biomarkers and assessment of pipeline agents before clinical trials are initiated and provide a translational opportunity to advance biomarker discovery. Fast and inexpensive data can be obtained from examination of peripheral markers, though they currently lack the sensitivity and consistency of imaging techniques such as MRI or PET. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in animal models can assist in development and implementation of similar approaches in clinical populations. These biomarkers may also be invaluable in decisions to advance a treatment to human testing. Longitudinal studies in AD models can determine initial presentation and progression of biomarkers that may also be used to evaluate disease-modifying efficacy of drugs. The refinement of biomarker approaches in preclinical systems will not only aid in drug development, but may facilitate diagnosis and disease monitoring in AD patients.
PMCID: PMC3703123  PMID: 23844335
Alzheimer’s disease; biomarkers; animal models; drug development
8.  Evaluating the cognitive effects of donepezil 23 mg/d in moderate and severe Alzheimer’s disease: analysis of effects of baseline features on treatment response 
BMC Geriatrics  2013;13:56.
Background
Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can result in symptomatic benefits, but patients often show variable responses. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to investigate relationships between easily identifiable baseline characteristics/demographics and cognitive response in patients treated with either donepezil 23 mg/d or 10 mg/d and to identify factors potentially influencing response.
Methods
A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from a large, 24-week, randomized, double-blind, international study enrolling patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease (baseline Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE], 0-20) (NCT 00478205). Cognitive changes in subgroups of patients based on selected baseline and demographic characteristics were compared using the least squares mean changes in Severe Impairment Battery scores at Week 24. Univariate and multivariate analyses were also performed.
Results
Donepezil 23 mg/d provided statistically significant incremental cognitive benefits over donepezil 10 mg/d irrespective of baseline functional severity, measured by scores on the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living-severe version (P < 0.05). When patients were categorized by baseline cognitive severity (MMSE score), significant benefits of donepezil 23 mg/d over 10 mg/d were seen in both subgroups when based on MMSE scores of 0-9 versus 10-20 (P < 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively), and in the more severe subgroup when based on MMSE scores of 0-16 versus 17-20 (P < 0.0001 and P > 0.05). Statistically significant incremental cognitive benefits of donepezil 23 mg/d over 10 mg/d were also observed regardless of age, gender, weight, or prestudy donepezil 10 mg/d treatment duration (P < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, the only significant interaction was between treatment and baseline MMSE score.
Conclusions
The cognitive benefits of donepezil 23 mg/d over 10 mg/d were achieved regardless of the patient’s age, gender, weight, duration of prior donepezil 10 mg/d, and functional severity. The influence of baseline cognitive severity on response seemed to be dependent on the level of impairment, with cognitive benefits of donepezil 23 mg/d over 10 mg/d most apparent in those patients at a more advanced stage of disease. These data may be useful in helping practicing physicians make informed decisions for their patients with advanced Alzheimer’s disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-56
PMCID: PMC3681558  PMID: 23742728
Alzheimer’s disease; Cognitive dysfunction; Donepezil; Severe impairment battery (SIB)
9.  Plasma Signaling Proteins in Persons at Genetic Risk for Alzheimer Disease 
Archives of neurology  2012;69(6):757-764.
Objective
To study the effect of familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) mutations and APOE genotype on plasma signaling protein levels.
Design
Cross-sectional comparison of plasma levels of 77 proteins measured using multiplex immune assays.
Setting
A tertiary referral dementia research center.
Participants
Thirty-three persons from families harboring PSEN1 or APP mutations, aged 19 to 59 years.
Main Outcome Measures
Protein levels were compared between FAD mutation carriers (MCs) and non-carriers (NCs) and among APOE genotype groups, using multiple linear regression models.
Results
Twenty-one participants were FAD MCs and 12 were NCs. Six had the APOE ε2/3, 6 had the ε3/4, and 21 had the ε3/3 genotype. Levels of 17 proteins differed among APOE genotype groups, and there were significant interactions between age and APOE genotype for 12 proteins. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and superoxide dismutase 1 were highest in the ε2 carriers, lowest in ε4 carriers, and intermediate in the ε3 carriers. Levels of multiple interleukins showed the opposite pattern and, among the ε4 carriers, demonstrated significant negative correlations with age. Although there were no significant differences between FAD MCs and NCs, there were interactions between mutation status and APOE genotype for 13 proteins.
Conclusions
We found different patterns of inflammatory markers in young and middle-aged persons among APOE genotype groups. The APOE ε4 carriers had the lowest levels of apolipoprotein E. Young ε4 carriers have increased inflammatory markers that diminish with age. We demonstrated altered inflammatory responses in young and middle adulthood in ε4 carriers that may relate to AD risk later in life.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2012.277
PMCID: PMC3668092  PMID: 22689192
10.  Plasma methionine sulfoxide in persons with familial Alzheimer’s disease mutations 
Background
Convergent evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We asked if consequently, oxidation of methionine residues to methionine sulfoxide (MetO) increased in plasma proteins of persons carrying familial AD (FAD) mutations.
Methods
Plasma was collected from 31 persons from families harboring PSEN1 or APP mutations. Using Western blot analysis with a novel anti-MetO polyclonal antibody, MetO levels were measured and compared between FAD mutation carriers (MCs) and non-mutation carrying (NCs) kin.
Results
A MetO-positive 120 kDa gel band distinguished FAD MCs and NCs (mean 11.4 ± 2.8 vs. 4.0 ± 3.1, p = 0.02). In a subset of subjects for whom both measurements were available, MetO levels correlated well with plasma F2-isoprostane (r = 0.81, p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase 1 (r = 0.52, p = 0.004) levels.
Conclusion
Our data provide evidence for elevated MetO levels in persons carrying FAD mutations that correlate with other indices of oxidative stress and suggest that plasma oxidative stress markers may be useful for diagnosis of AD.
doi:10.1159/000338546
PMCID: PMC3568669  PMID: 22584618
oxidative stress; isoprostanes; plasma; superoxide dismutase; presenilin-1; amyloid β-protein precursor
11.  Effects of ApoE4 and maternal history of dementia on hippocampal atrophy 
Neurobiology of Aging  2010;33(5):856-866.
We applied an automated hippocampal segmentation technique based on adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) to the 1.5T MRI baseline and 1-year follow-up data of 243 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 96 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 145 normal controls (NC) scanned as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). MCI subjects with positive maternal history of dementia had smaller hippocampal volumes at baseline and at follow-up, and greater 12-month atrophy rates than subjects with negative maternal history. 3D maps and volumetric multiple regression analyses demonstrated a significant effect of positive maternal history of dementia on hippocampal atrophy in MCI and AD after controlling for age, ApoE4 genotype and paternal history of dementia, resp. ApoE4 showed an independent effect on hippocampal atrophy in MCI and AD and in the pooled sample.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.07.020
PMCID: PMC3010297  PMID: 20833446
Alzheimer's Disease; AD; Magnetic resonance imaging; MRI; Imaging; Maternal history; Hippocampus; Atrophy; Biomarker; Hereditary; Genetic
12.  Proteomic Changes in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Presymptomatic and Affected Persons Carrying Familial Alzheimer Disease Mutations 
Archives of neurology  2012;69(1):96-104.
Objective
To identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein changes in persons who will develop familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) due to PSEN1 and APP mutations, using unbiased proteomics.
Design
We compared proteomic profiles of CSF from individuals with FAD who were mutation carriers (MCs) and related noncarriers (NCs). Abundant proteins were depleted and samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography– electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry on a high-resolution time-of-flight instrument. Tryptic peptides were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Proteins differing in concentration between the MCs and NCs were identified.
Setting
A tertiary dementia referral center and a proteomic biomarker discovery laboratory.
Participants
Fourteen FAD MCs (mean age, 34.2 years; 10 are asymptomatic, 12 have presenilin-1 [PSEN1] gene mutations, and 2 have amyloid precursor protein [APP] gene mutations) and 5 related NCs (mean age, 37.6 years).
Results
Fifty-six proteins were identified, represented by multiple tryptic peptides showing significant differences between MCs and NCs (46 upregulated and 10 downregulated); 40 of these proteins differed when the analysis was restricted to asymptomatic individuals. Fourteen proteins have been reported in prior proteomic studies in late-onset AD, including amyloid precursor protein, transferrin, α1β-glycoprotein, complement components, afamin precursor, spondin 1, plasminogen, hemopexin, and neuronal pentraxin receptor. Many other proteins were unique to our study, including calsyntenin 3, AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) 4 glutamate receptor, CD99 antigen, di-N-acetyl-chitobiase, and secreted phosphoprotein 1.
Conclusions
We found much overlap in CSF protein changes between individuals with presymptomatic and symptomatic FAD and those with late-onset AD. Our results are consistent with inflammation and synaptic loss early in FAD and suggest new presymptomatic biomarkers of potential usefulness in drug development.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.642
PMCID: PMC3632731  PMID: 22232349
13.  Alzheimer's disease diagnostic criteria: practical applications 
Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be identified prior to the occurrence of dementia by using biomarkers. Three phases of AD are recognized: an asymptomatic biomarker-positive phase, a phase with positive biomarkers and mild cognitive deficits, and a dementia phase. Codification of these phases was first accomplished in 2007 by an International Work Group (IWG) led by Bruno Dubois. The definitions relevant to the approach were further clarified in 2010. In 2011, the National Institute on Aging/Alzheimer's Association (NIA/AA) established three work groups to develop definitions and criteria for these three phases of AD. The criteria of the IWG and those of the NIA/AA have many similarities and important differences. The two sets of criteria concur in recognizing the onset of AD prior to dementia. The three phases of AD described in both sets of criteria embrace the same clinical entities but with different terminologies and emphases. IWG criteria emphasize a single clinico-biological approach that includes all symptomatic phases of AD and uses the same diagnostic framework across the spectrum of symptomatic disease; the NIA/AA criteria apply different diagnostic approaches to the three phases. Biomarkers are an integrated and required part of the IWG criteria and are optional in the NIA/AA approach. Both sets of criteria have substantial strengths, but new information demonstrates shortcomings that can be addressed in future revisions of the criteria. These new criteria have profound implications, including greatly increasing the number of people identified as suffering from AD and increasing the time that patients will spend with knowledge of the presence of the disease.
doi:10.1186/alzrt138
PMCID: PMC3580392  PMID: 22947665
14.  Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers and Proximity to Diagnosis in Preclinical Familial Alzheimer's Disease 
Background/Aims:
Biological markers of utility in tracking Alzheimer's disease (AD) during the presymptomatic prodromal phase are important for prevention studies. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of 42-amino-acid β-amyloid (Aβ42), total tau protein (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau at residue 181 (p-tau181) during this state are incompletely characterized.
Methods
We measured CSF markers in 13 carriers of familial AD (FAD) mutations that are fully penetrant for causing AD (PSEN1 and APP) and in 5 non-mutation-carrying family members.
Results
Even among the entirely presymptomatic mutation carriers (n = 9), Aβ42 was diminished (388.7 vs. 618.4 pg/ml, p = 0.004), and t-tau (138.5 vs. 50.5 pg/ml, p = 0.002) and p-tau181 (71.7 vs. 24.6 pg/ml, p = 0.003) were elevated. There was a negative correlation between Aβ42 levels and age relative to the family-specific age of dementia diagnosis.
Conclusions
Our data are consistent with a decline in CSF Aβ42 levels occurring at least 20 years prior to clinical dementia in FAD.
doi:10.1159/000335729
PMCID: PMC3696356  PMID: 22343824
Cerebrospinal fluid; Biomarkers; Familial Alzheimer's disease, presymptomatic; PSEN1 gene; APP gene; tau protein; β-Amyloid, 42-amino-acid form
15.  Increased fMRI signal with age in familial Alzheimer’s disease mutation carriers 
Neurobiology of aging  2010;33(2):424.e11-424.e21.
Although many Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients have a family history of the disease, it is rarely inherited in a predictable way. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of non-demented adults carrying familial AD mutations provide an opportunity to prospectively identify brain differences associated with early AD-related changes. We compared fMRI activity of 18 non-demented autosomal dominant AD mutation carriers with fMRI activity in 8 of their non-carrier relatives as they performed a novelty encoding task in which they viewed novel and repeated images. Because age of disease onset is relatively consistent within families, we also correlated fMRI activity with subjects’ distance from the median age of diagnosis for their family. Mutation carriers did not show significantly different voxelwise fMRI activity from non-carriers as a group. However, as they approached their family age of disease diagnosis, only mutation carriers showed increased fMRI activity in the fusiform and middle temporal gyri. This suggests that during novelty encoding, increased fMRI activity in the temporal lobe may relate to incipient AD processes.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.09.028
PMCID: PMC3097258  PMID: 21129823
PSEN1; APP; fMRI; familial Alzheimer’s disease
16.  The dementia and disability project in Thai elderly: rational, design, methodology and early results 
BMC Neurology  2013;13:3.
Background
A strong inverse relationship of functional limitation and socioeconomic status has been established in western ageing society. Functional limitation can be related to chronic diseases, disuse, cognitive decline, and ageing. Among chronic diseases in the Thai population, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and arthritis are common. These factors are known to contribute to disability and poor quality of life in the elder population. Neuropsychiatric problems, cognitive decline, dementia, and cultural issues in elderly people also can alter the quality of life of the elderly.
Methods
The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly (DDP) aims at comprehensively assessing community dwelling Thai elderly to understand the relationship between disability and motor function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and chronic diseases. The DDP is the first study to look at the prevalence and etiology of dementia and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Thai elders and to explore the relationship of cognition, disability, small vessel diseases and cortical degeneration with neuroimaging in Thai elderly people. 1998 Thai elders were screened in 2004–2006 and diagnosed as having MCI or dementia. 223 elders with MCI or dementia and cognitively normal elderly had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or at baseline. 319 elders from the 3 groups had blood tests to investigate the risks and possible etiologies of dementia including genotyping at baseline.
Results
The mean age of elders in this study is 69.51(SD=6.71, min=60, max=95) years. 689(34.9%) are men and 1284(65.1%) are women. Mean body weight was 58.36(SD=11.20) kgs. The regression model reveals that performance on gait and balance and serum triglyceride predicts activity of daily living performance (adjusted r2 = 0.280, f=2.644, p=0.003). The majority of abnormal gait in Thai elders was lower level gait disturbance. Only 1.5% (29/1952) had highest level gait disorders. 39.5% of 1964 subjects were free of chronic diseases. Treatment gap (indicating those who have untreated or inadequate treatment) of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in Thai elders in this study was 37% and 55.5% respectively. 62.6% of Thai elders have ApoE3E3 allele. Prevalence of positive ApoE4 gene in this study is 22.85%. 38.6% of Thai elders who had MRI brain study have moderate to severe white matter lesions.
Conclusion
The large and comprehensive set of measurements in DDP allows a wide-ranging explanation of the functional and clinical features to be investigated in relation to white matter lesions or cortical atrophy of the brain in Thai elderly population. An almost 2 year follow up was made available to those with MCI and dementia and some of the cognitively normal elderly. The longitudinal design will provide great understanding of the possible contributors to disability in the elderly and to the progression of cognitive decline in Thai elders.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-13-3
PMCID: PMC3552988  PMID: 23305293
Mild cognitive impairment; Dementia; Alzheimer disease; Disability; White matter lesions; Thailand
17.  Spanish Instrument Protocol: New Treatment Efficacy Instruments for Spanish-speaking Patients in Alzheimer Disease Clinical Trials 
Objective
To evaluate the feasibility of longitudinal assessment and the psychometric properties of both established and new outcome measures used in clinical trials of patients with dementia in a cohort of Spanish-speaking elders in the United States.
Methods
This is a prospectively collected multicenter study comparing patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) (N = 77) and elderly controls (N = 17) who are primary Spanish speakers. Spanish-speaking individuals with AD (SSI AD) were selected to represent predefined categories of impairment as determined by a Mini-Mental State Examination score. Controls were selected to approximately match by age and education (SSI C). Subjects were administered a series of Spanish translations of established outcome measures (Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating, Geriatric Dementia Scale), and Functional Assessment Staging (FAST)] and new outcome measures developed for United States in clinical trials to assess cognition, function, behavioral disturbance, and clinical global change. Half of the subjects were assessed at 1 and 2 months to evaluate reliability; all subjects were assessed at 6 and 12 months. Comparisons were made between patients and controls and between the Spanish-speaking cohort and a similar English-speaking cohort.
Results
The 12-month completion rate was 77%, with a trend toward greater impairment in those with full retention. Both established and new measures demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability in this cohort. All but one measure of cognition demonstrated excellent discriminability between AD subjects and controls. The SSI AD cohort declined significantly on measures of cognition, function, and clinical global change over the 12-month assessment period. The SSI AD and English AD (ESI AD) cohorts declined equivalently on the most common outcomes in clinical trials of AD (delayed recall, clinical global change). Likewise, the most common behavioral changes were also similar in the ESI and SSI groups. However, the annual change was lower in SSI AD than in the ESI AD on several other measures of cognition and function.
Conclusions
These results support the recruitment of Spanish-speaking patients and the use of Spanish language translations for use in the clinical trials for AD.
doi:10.1097/01.wad.0000213862.20108.f5
PMCID: PMC3526370  PMID: 17132967
Alzheimer disease; Spanish language assessment; outcome measures; clinical trials
18.  Propositional Density and Apolipoprotein E Genotype among Persons at Risk for Familial Alzheimer's Disease 
Background/Aims
A relationship between decreased propositional density (p-density) in young adulthood and future risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been postulated, but multiple interpretations of the nature of this relationship are possible. This study explored the relationship between familial AD (FAD) mutation status, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, and p-density.
Methods
Thirty-five non-demented persons at risk for FAD mutations were recruited. Subjects wrote brief biographical essays from which p-density, the ratio of the number of unique ideas to the number of words in the text, was calculated. Mixed-effects regression models were used to examine the relationship of p-density and FAD mutation status and APOE genotype.
Results
FAD mutation status was not significantly associated with p-density. However, results from both models indicated that the presence of the APOE ∊4 allele was significantly associated with p-density (p < 0.0001), with APOE ∊4 carriers having lower p-density than non-carriers.
Conclusions
Our results are consistent with an influence of APOE status on p-density in young adulthood that is independent of the AD risk per se and suggest the previous finding of increased risk for the development of AD in persons with decreased p-density may be related to APOE genotype.
doi:10.1159/000333023
PMCID: PMC3542946  PMID: 22134129
Presenilin 1; Amyloid precursor protein; Early-onset Alzheimer's disease; Preclinical dementia; Alzheimer's disease; Linguistic ability
19.  Advances in designs for Alzheimer’s disease clinical trials 
There is an urgent need to identify new treatments for the rapidly growing population of people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Innovations in clinical trial designs many help to reduce development time, provide more definitive answers regarding drug efficacy, and facilitate prioritizing compounds to be advanced to Phase III clinical trials. Standard designs compare drug and placebo changes from baseline on a rating scale. Baysian adaptive clinical trials allow the use of data collected in the trial to modify doses, sample size, trial duration, and entry criteria in an ongoing way as the data are collected. Disease-modification is supported by findings on staggered start and delayed withdrawal designs. Futility designs can use historical controls and may shorten trial duration. Combination therapy designs may allow investigation of additive or synergistic treatment effects. Novel trial selection criteria allow investigation of treatment effects in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, prodromal AD populations. The Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) can be considered as a single trial outcome in early disease populations. Alternate forms of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Portion (ADAS-cog), computerized measures, and pharmacoeconomic scales provide new and relevant information on drug effects. Comparative dose strategies are used in trials of symptomatic agents, and novel methods including withdrawal designs, symptom emergence analyses, and sequential designs are being utilized to assess the efficacy of putative psychotropic agents. The choice of trial design is driven by the question to be answered by the clinical trial; an increasing number of design approaches are available and may be useful in accelerating and refining AD drug development.
PMCID: PMC3560467  PMID: 23383393
Clinical trials; Alzheimer’s disease; designs; drug development
20.  Oral curcumin for Alzheimer's disease: tolerability and efficacy in a 24-week randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study 
Introduction
Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound derived from the plant Curcuma Long Lin that has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as effects on reducing beta-amyloid aggregation. It reduces pathology in transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is a promising candidate for treating human AD. The purpose of the current study is to generate tolerability and preliminary clinical and biomarker efficacy data on curcumin in persons with AD.
Methods
We performed a 24-week randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study of Curcumin C3 Complex® with an open-label extension to 48 weeks. Thirty-six persons with mild-to-moderate AD were randomized to receive placebo, 2 grams/day, or 4 grams/day of oral curcumin for 24 weeks. For weeks 24 through 48, subjects that were receiving curcumin continued with the same dose, while subjects previously receiving placebo were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 2 grams/day or 4 grams/day. The primary outcome measures were incidence of adverse events, changes in clinical laboratory tests and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) at 24 weeks in those completing the study. Secondary outcome measures included the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study - Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) scale, levels of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 in plasma and levels of Aβ1-42, t-tau, p-tau181 and F2-isoprostanes in cerebrospinal fluid. Plasma levels of curcumin and its metabolites up to four hours after drug administration were also measured.
Results
Mean age of completers (n = 30) was 73.5 years and mean Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score was 22.5. One subject withdrew in the placebo (8%, worsened memory) and 5/24 subjects withdrew in the curcumin group (21%, 3 due to gastrointestinal symptoms). Curcumin C3 Complex® was associated with lowered hematocrit and increased glucose levels that were clinically insignificant. There were no differences between treatment groups in clinical or biomarker efficacy measures. The levels of native curcumin measured in plasma were low (7.32 ng/mL).
Conclusions
Curcumin was generally well-tolerated although three subjects on curcumin withdrew due to gastrointestinal symptoms. We were unable to demonstrate clinical or biochemical evidence of efficacy of Curcumin C3 Complex® in AD in this 24-week placebo-controlled trial although preliminary data suggest limited bioavailability of this compound.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00099710.
doi:10.1186/alzrt146
PMCID: PMC3580400  PMID: 23107780
21.  Cortical and Hippocampal Atrophy in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Familial Alzheimer's Disease 
Background
Both familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) result in progressive cortical and subcortical atrophy. Familial autosomal dominant AD (FAD) allows us to study AD brain changes presymptomatically.
Methods
33 subjects at risk for FAD (25 for PSEN1 and 8 for APP mutations; 22 mutation carriers and 11 controls) and 3 demented PSEN1 mutation carriers underwent T1-weighted MPRAGE 1.5T MRI. Using the hippocampal radial distance and cortical pattern matching techniques, we investigated the effects of carrier status and dementia diagnosis on cortical and hippocampal atrophy. All analyses were corrected for age and relative age (years to median age of disease onset in the family).
Results
The dementia cases had pronounced cortical atrophy in the lateral and medial parietal, posterior cingulate and frontal cortices and hippocampal atrophy bilaterally relative to both nondemented carriers and controls. Nondemented carriers did not show significant cortical thinning or hippocampal atrophy relative to controls.
Conclusions
FAD is associated with thinning of the posterior association and frontal cortices and hippocampal atrophy. Larger sample sizes may be necessary to reliably identify cortical atrophy in presymptomatic carriers.
doi:10.1159/000330471
PMCID: PMC3222115  PMID: 21952501
Familial Alzheimer's disease; Familial autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease; Presenilin; Amyloid precursor protein; Hippocampal atrophy; Cortical atrophy; Mutation carriers
22.  The A431E mutation in PSEN1 causing Familial Alzheimer’s Disease originating in Jalisco State, Mexico: an additional fifteen families 
Neurogenetics  2006;7(4):277-279.
Nine families with autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease (AD), all of whom had the Ala431Glu substitution in the PSEN1 gene and came from Jalisco State in Mexico, have been previously reported. As they shared highly polymorphic flanking dinucleotide marker alleles, this strongly suggests that this mutation arose from a common founder. In the current letter, we expand this observation by describing an additional 15 independent families with the Ala431Glu substitution in the PSEN1 gene and conclude that this mutation is not an uncommon cause of early-onset autosomal dominant AD in persons of Mexican origin.
doi:10.1007/s10048-006-0053-1
PMCID: PMC3378247  PMID: 16897084
Presenilin-1; Mexican; Founder effect; A431E; Ala431Glu; Alzheimer’s disease
23.  Effects of Risk Genes on BOLD Activation in Presymptomatic Carriers of Familial Alzheimer's Disease Mutations during a Novelty Encoding Task 
Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY)  2010;21(4):877-883.
Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have found increased activity-related blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) signal in cognitively normal persons at genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This has been interpreted as a compensatory response to incipient AD pathology. We studied the effects of fully penetrant familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutations and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on BOLD fMRI during a novelty encoding task in presymptomatic subjects. Twenty-three Mexican or Mexican-American persons at-risk for inheriting FAD mutations performed a block design novelty encoding task, and activation exhibited by FAD mutation carriers (MCs) was contrasted with that of noncarriers (NCs) and among APOE genotype groups. FAD MCs (n = 14) showed decreased BOLD activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus relative to 9 NCs. No increased activation was seen in MCs relative to NCs. Four APOE ε3/4 carriers demonstrated increased BOLD signal compared with 14 ε3/3 carriers in the occipital and perisylvian cortices bilaterally. There were no areas where ε3/3 carriers activated more than ε3/4 carriers. Our findings of increased fMRI activation associated with APOE genotype but not with FAD mutations suggest that APOE exerts an effect on the BOLD signal that is not readily explained as a compensatory phenomenon.
doi:10.1093/cercor/bhq158
PMCID: PMC3059887  PMID: 20729396
Alzheimer's disease; apolipoprotein E; familial; functional magnetic resonance imaging; presymptomatic
24.  Symptomatic and Nonamyloid/Tau Based Pharmacologic Treatment for Alzheimer Disease 
In this work we consider marketed drugs for Alzheimer disease (AD) including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-Is) and antiglutamatergic treatment involving the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. We discuss medications and substances available for use as cognitive enhancers that are not approved for AD or cognitive impairment, and other neurotransmitter-related therapies in development or currently being researched. We also review putative therapies that aim to slow disease progression by mechanisms not directly related to amyloid or tau.
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (e.g., tacrine) and the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine are FDA-approved for treating Alzheimer disease. Numerous additional medications and substances also aim to slow disease progression.
doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a006395
PMCID: PMC3282492  PMID: 22393531
25.  Globalization of Alzheimer's disease clinical trials 
Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapies are increasingly being tested in global clinical trials. A search of ClincalTrials.gov revealed that of 269 currently active trials, 28% are currently being conducted in the United States; the majority of trials and the majority of trial sites are ex-US. The US has the largest number of trial sites of any single country; cumulatively, nearly half of all sites are outside the US. The US conducts more trials in all phases of drug development but has a greater proportion of phase 3 trials. The increasing importance of global participants in clinical trials emphasizes the importance of considering the ethnic and international factors that may influence trial outcome. The International Conference on Harmonization guidelines divide ethnic factors that may affect drug development into intrinsic and extrinsic influences. These include language, cultural factors, educational levels, the general level of health and standard of care, as well as nutrition and diet. Ethnic influences on pharmacokinetics are known for some metabolic pathways. The biology of AD may also differ among the world's populations. The frequency of the apolipoprotein e4 allele, a major risk factor for AD, differs internationally. Genetic variations might also affect inflammatory, excitotoxic, and oxidative components of AD. Diagnostic standards and experience vary from country to country. Levels of practitioner training and experience, diagnostic approaches to AD, and attitudes regarding aging and AD may differ. Experience and sophistication with regard to clinical trial conduct also vary within and between countries. Experience with conducting the necessary examinations, as well as the linguistic and cultural validity of instrument translations, may affect trial outcomes. Operational and regulatory aspects of clinical trials vary and provide important barriers to seamless conduct of multiregional clinical trials. Collection and testing of biological samples, continuous provision of drug substance, and protection of the integrity of supply lines may be difficult in some international circumstances. Attention to these potential influences on clinical trials will determine the success of global drug development programs and the utility of global trials for developing new AD therapeutics.
doi:10.1186/alzrt86
PMCID: PMC3226279  PMID: 21861855

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