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1.  Prognostic Value of Metabolic Tumor Volume Measured by 18F-FDG PET/CT in Esophageal Cancer Patients 
Objective: In this study, we aimed to explore prognostic importance of definition of preoperative metabolic tumor volume in esophageal cancer patients.
Methods: 22 patients who have histologically proven stage IIA-III esophageal cancer and underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging of disease were included to the study. After 18F-FDG PET/CT, all the patients underwent surgery within 4 weeks period. Patients have been followed up until death or Sept 15th, 2012. Dates of death were recorded for survival analysis. During evaluation of 18F-FDG PET/CT images, metabolic tumor volumes were calculated by drawing the isocontour region of interests from all visually positive FGD uptake lesions.
Results: 22 patients (15M, 7F; mean age: 65.1±8.4, min-max:48-80) underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging of esophageal cancer. Preoperative diagnosis was squamous cell and adeno cancer in 17 (%77) and 5 (%23) patients, respectively. Location of primary tumor is distal, proximal and mid-esophagus in 13 (%59), 6 (%27) and 3 (%13) patients, respectively. Primary tumor of all the patients were FDG avid (mean SUVmax: 18.85±7.0; range: 5.5-35.1). Additionally, 18F-FDG uptake was seen in mediastinal lymph nodes in 13 patients (5.45±8.15; range: 2.6-29.9). Mean metabolic tumor volumes of primary esophageal lesions were calculated as 8.77±8.46cm3 (range: 2.3-34.2). Mean MTV of lymph nodes was 2.44±1.01cm3 (range: 0.4-3.6). Mean total metabolic tumor volume was calculated as 9.99±8.58cm3 (range: 2.3-27.3). 10 patients died during 447±121 days follow-up period. Mean survival time was 11.9±1.5 months (95%CI: 8.99-14.74) for entire patient group. Total metabolic tumor volume had a significant effect on survival (p=0.045) according to Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. One unit increase in MTV caused 1.1 (95%CI:1.003-1.196) fold increase in hazard, at any time.
Conclusion: Definition of preoperative metabolic tumor volume has a prognostic value in the prediction of postoperative survival times. Patients who have higher preoperative metabolic tumor volumes could be good candidates for more aggressive chemo-radiation therapy regiments.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
PMCID: PMC3957965  PMID: 24653929
Esophageal cancer; positron-emission tomography/computed tomography; tumor volume
2.  A case of uncontrolled asthma 
Allergy & Rhinology  2011;2(2):e58-e62.
A 48-year-old female patient with uncontrolled severe asthma was referred to our hospital for anti-IgE therapy. She was suffering with persistent wheezing and dyspnea after a severe asthma attack that had taken place 5 months previously. Her asthma had not been controlled with adequate asthma treatment, including budesonide at 320 μg + formoterol at 9 μg b.i.d. combination, montelukast at 10 mg/day, and oral steroids (30–40 mg/day of prednisolone), during this period. She was hospitalized for evaluation for anti-IgE therapy. Chest radiography revealed a left-sided hilar opacity. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed and showed an endobronchial lesion obstructing the left lower bronchus lumen. Computed tomography also revealed a nodular lesion at the same location. The patient underwent left lower lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection. Pathological examination concluded the diagnosis of typical carcinoid tumor. After surgery, her symptoms disappeared and she has had no recurrence. In conclusion, a diagnosis of severe asthma requires confirmation of asthma. Uncontrolled symptoms that linger despite aggressive therapy warrant evaluation to rule out other etiologies, such as a carcinoid tumor, before selecting new treatment options.
PMCID: PMC3390118  PMID: 22852119
Asthma; carcinoid tumor; intrabronchial tumor; pulmonary carcinoids; severe allergic asthma; typical carcinoid tumor; uncontrolled asthma

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