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1.  Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial 
This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP) on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD).
We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS).
In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements.
This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention.
PMCID: PMC4924458  PMID: 27403134
Alzheimer's disease; Cognition; Nonpharmacologic treatment; Physical activity
2.  Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(2):e0148648.
Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise.
PMCID: PMC4739605  PMID: 26840532
3.  Chronic Running Exercise Alleviates Early Progression of Nephropathy with Upregulation of Nitric Oxide Synthases and Suppression of Glycation in Zucker Diabetic Rats 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(9):e0138037.
Exercise training is known to exert multiple beneficial effects including renal protection in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. However, the mechanisms regulating these actions remain unclear. The present study evaluated the effects of chronic running exercise on the early stage of diabetic nephropathy, focusing on nitric oxide synthase (NOS), oxidative stress and glycation in the kidneys of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Male ZDF rats (6 weeks old) underwent forced treadmill exercise for 8 weeks (Ex-ZDF). Sedentary ZDF (Sed-ZDF) and Zucker lean (Sed-ZL) rats served as controls. Exercise attenuated hyperglycemia (plasma glucose; 242 ± 43 mg/dL in Sed-ZDF and 115 ± 5 mg/dL in Ex-ZDF) with increased insulin secretion (plasma insulin; 2.3 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 0.9 ng/mL), reduced albumin excretion (urine albumin; 492 ± 70 and 176 ± 11 mg/g creatinine) and normalized creatinine clearance (9.7 ± 1.4 and 4.5 ± 0.8 mL/min per body weight) in ZDF rats. Endothelial (e) and neuronal (n) NOS expression in kidneys of Sed-ZDF rats were lower compared with Sed-ZL rats (p<0.01), while both eNOS and nNOS expression were upregulated by exercise (p<0.01). Furthermore, exercise decreased NADPH oxidase activity, p47phox expression (p<0.01) and α-oxoaldehydes (the precursors for advanced glycation end products) (p<0.01) in the kidneys of ZDF rats. Additionally, morphometric evidence indicated renal damage was reduced in response to exercise. These data suggest that upregulation of NOS expression, suppression of NADPH oxidase and α-oxoaldehydes in the kidneys may, at least in part, contribute to the renal protective effects of exercise in the early progression of diabetic nephropathy in ZDF rats. Moreover, this study supports the theory that chronic aerobic exercise could be recommended as an effective non-pharmacological therapy for renoprotection in the early stages of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.
PMCID: PMC4574951  PMID: 26379244
4.  The Effect of Synthetic C-Reactive Protein on the In Vitro Immune Response of Human PBMCs Stimulated with Bacterial Reagents 
Inflammation  2013;36(4):781-792.
Synthetic C-reactive protein (CRP) rescues mice from lethal endotoxin shock or bacterial infection by suppressing tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), but in turn, enhances Kupffer cell phagocytic activity. We herein assessed the influence of CRP in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). When human PBMCs were stimulated in vitro with penicillin-treated Streptococcus pyogenes, bacterial DNA motifs and lipopolysaccharide with or without synthetic CRP, CRP suppressed the production of TNF-α and IL-12, but not that of IFN-γ. This was also the case for the in vitro Shwartzman reaction induced in PBMCs. CRP also decreased high-mobility group box 1 production from macrophages, which is crucial in the later phase of endotoxin/septic shock. However, CRP upregulated the perforin expression by CD56+ NK cells and increased their antitumor cytotoxicity. CRP may thus be a potent immunomodulatory factor in the human immune system, suggesting its therapeutic potential for use against human septic shock.
PMCID: PMC3708291  PMID: 23407995
inflammation; C-reactive protein; tumor necrosis factor-α; high-mobility group box 1; human PBMCs
5.  Activation of CD11b+ Kupffer Cells/Macrophages as a Common Cause for Exacerbation of TNF/Fas-Ligand-Dependent Hepatitis in Hypercholesterolemic Mice 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e49339.
We have reported that the mouse hepatic injury induced by either α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) or bacterial DNA motifs (CpG-ODN) is mediated by the TNF/NKT cell/Fas-ligand (FasL) pathway. In addition, F4/80+ Kupffer cells can be subclassified into CD68+ subset with a phagocytosing capacity and CD11b+ subset with a TNF-producing capacity. CD11b+ subset increase if mice are fed high-fat and cholesterol diet (HFCD). The present study examined how a HFCD affects the function of NKT cells and F4/80+ CD11b+ subset and these hepatitis models. After the C57BL/6 mice received a HFCD, high-cholesterol diet (HCD), high-fat diet (HFD) and control diet (CD) for four weeks, the HFCD mice increased surface CD1d and intracellular TLR-9 expression by the CD11b+ population compared to CD mice. Hepatic injury induced either by α-GalCer or CpG-ODN was more severe in HCD and HFCD mice compared to CD mice, which was in proportion to the serum TNF levels. In addition, liver cholesterol levels but not serum cholesterol levels nor liver triglyceride levels were involved in the aggravation of hepatitis. The FasL expression of NKT cells induced by both reagents was upregulated in HFCD mice. Furthermore, the liver mononuclear cells and purified F4/80+ CD11b+ subset from HFCD mice stimulated with either reagent in vitro produced a larger amount of TNF than did those from CD mice. Intracellular TNF production in F4/80+ CD11b+ cells was confirmed. The increased number of F4/80+ CD11b+ Kupffer cells/macrophages by HFCD and their enhanced TNF production thus play a pivotal role in TNF/NKT cell/FasL dependent hepatic injury.
PMCID: PMC3553091  PMID: 23372642
6.  Point-of-purchase health information encourages customers to purchase vegetables: objective analysis by using a point-of-sales system 
Point-of-purchase (POP) information at food stores could help promote healthy dietary habits. However, it has been difficult to evaluate the effects of such intervention on customers’ behavior. We objectively evaluated the usefulness of POP health information for vegetables in the modification of customers’ purchasing behavior by using the database of a point-of-sales (POS) system.
Two supermarket stores belonging to the same chain were assigned as the intervention store (store I) and control store (store C). POP health information for vegetables was presented in store I for 60 days. The percent increase in daily sales of vegetables over the sales on the same date of the previous year was compared between the stores by using the database of the POS system, adjusting for the change in monthly visitors from the previous year (adjusted ∆sales).
The adjusted ∆sales significantly increased during the intervention period (Spearman’s ρ = 0.258, P for trend = 0.006) at store I but did not increase at store C (ρ = −0.037, P for trend = 0.728). The growth of the mean adjusted ∆sales of total vegetables from 30 days before the intervention period through the latter half of the intervention period was estimated to be greater at store I than at store C by 18.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval 1.6–35.9).
Health-related POP information for vegetables in supermarkets can encourage customers to purchase and, probably, consume vegetables.
PMCID: PMC3117216  PMID: 21431791
Point-of-purchase information; Vegetables; Intervention; Point-of-sales system; Behavior modification
7.  Adult seafood allergy in the Texas Medical Center: A 13-year experience 
Allergy & Rhinology  2011;2(2):e71-e77.
There is a paucity of data regarding prevalence and characteristics of adult seafood allergy in United States cohorts. This study was designed to determine the characteristics of patient-reported seafood allergy in a large allergy referral adult population. Retrospective analysis was performed of laboratory and clinical characteristics of seafood-allergic patients in three allergy clinics in the Texas Medical Center between January 1, 1997 and January 30, 2010. Of 5162 patients seen in this adult allergy referral population, 159 had physician-diagnosed seafood allergy with an average age of diagnosis of 50.2 (18–81 years) years. Shellfish allergy (59.1%) was more frequent than fish allergy (13.8%). Crustacean allergy (82.6%) was more frequent than mollusk allergy (7.2%). Shrimp (72.5%), crab (34.8%), and lobster (17.4%) were the most common shellfish allergies and tuna (28.6%), catfish (23.8%), and salmon (23.8%) were the most common fish allergies. One-third of seafood-allergic patients reported reactions to more than one seafood. Shellfish-allergic adults were more likely to experience respiratory symptoms than fish-allergic adults (p < 0.05). The likelihood of having anaphylaxis (32%) was not statistically different between shellfish- and fish-allergic subjects. Severe reactions were 12.9 times more likely to occur within the 1st hour of ingestion compared with nonsevere reactions (p < 0.005). The percentage of seafood allergy in this adult allergy referral population was 3.08%.
PMCID: PMC3390121  PMID: 22852122
Anaphylaxis; fish; food allergy; hypersensitivity; seafood; shrimp; urticaria

Results 1-7 (7)