AIM: To explore mutations in serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11) gene in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) with gastrointestinal (GI) hamartomatous polyps.
METHODS: Six Japanese PJS patients in 3 families were enrolled in this study. Each of the cases had hamartomatous polyposis in the gastrointestinal tract, including the small intestine, along with mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation. Narrow-band imaging (NBI)-magnification endoscopy was employed to detect microvascular and microsurface irregularities in the GI lesions. NBI magnification findings could be classified into three groups (type A, type B, or type C). Endoscopic polypectomy was performed using double-balloon enteroscopy or colonoscopy. Genomic DNA was extracted from a whole blood sample from each subject. All of the coding exons of STK11 gene, its boundary regions, and the promoter region containing the polymorphic regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and direct sequencing was performed to assess the germline mutations.
RESULTS: NBI-magnification endoscopic observation could detect the abnormalities in microvessels and microsurface structures of GI polyps. Overall, we found 5 cases of type A and one case without the examination for the gastric polyps, while there were 4 cases of type B and 2 case of type A for the colorectal polyps. Seventy-nine small-bowel and 115 colorectal polyps over 27 sessions for each were resected endoscopically without significant complications. The only delayed complication included the occurrence of bleeding in a case, and this was successfully managed with hemoclips. Resected polyps contained no malignant components. Based on mutation analysis, all 3 cases in Family I exhibited the +658C>T nonsense mutation in exon 5, which resulted in the production of a truncated protein (Q220X). In Family II, a case had -252C>A and -193C>A in the promoter region. In Family III, a case was found to have the +1062C>G (F342L) mutation in exon 8.
CONCLUSION: We found two novel mutations of STK11 in association with PJS. Endoscopic polypectomy of GI polyps in PJS patients appears to be useful to prevent emergency laparotomies and reduce the cancer risk.
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome; Serine/threonine kinase 11; Gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps; Double-balloon enteroscopy; Narrow-band imaging
Actinomyces graevenitzii is a newly recognized Actinomyces species that is seldom isolated from clinical specimens. A case of multiple pulmonary abscesses mimicking acute pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is described in this study, and the findings indicate that this organism is an opportunistic human pathogen.
This is the first report of a detailed relationship between triazole treatment history and triazole MICs for 154 Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates. The duration of itraconazole dosage increased as the itraconazole MIC increased, and a positive correlation was observed (r = 0.5700, P < 0.0001). The number of itraconazole-naïve isolates dramatically decreased as the itraconazole MIC increased, particularly for MICs exceeding 2 μg/ml (0.5 μg/ml versus 2 μg/ml, P = 0.03). We also examined the relationship between cumulative itraconazole usage and the MICs of other azoles. A positive correlation existed between itraconazole dosage period and posaconazole MIC (r = 0.5237, P < 0.0001). The number of itraconazole-naïve isolates also decreased as the posaconazole MIC increased, particularly for MICs exceeding 0.5 μg/ml (0.25 μg/ml versus 0.5 μg/ml, P = 0.004). Conversely, the correlation coefficient obtained from the scattergram of itraconazole usage and voriconazole MICs was small (r = −0.2627, P = 0.001). Susceptibility to three triazole agents did not change as the duration of voriconazole exposure changed. In addition, we carried out detailed analysis, including microsatellite genotyping, for isolates obtained from patients infected with azole-resistant A. fumigatus. We confirmed the presence of acquired resistance to itraconazole and posaconazole due to a G54 substitution in the cyp51A gene for a patient with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis after oral itraconazole therapy. We should consider the possible appearance of azole-resistant A. fumigatus if itraconazole is used for extended periods.
Proper protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is vital in all eukaryotes. When misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, the transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease Ire1 initiates splicing of HAC1 mRNA to generate the bZIP transcription factor Hac1, which subsequently activates its target genes to increase the protein-folding capacity of the ER. This cellular machinery, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), is believed to be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in eukaryotes. In this study, we comprehensively characterized mutant phenotypes of IRE1 and other related genes in the human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata. Unexpectedly, Ire1 was required for the ER stress response independently of Hac1 in this fungus. C. glabrata Ire1 did not cleave mRNAs encoding Hac1 and other bZIP transcription factors identified in the C. glabrata genome. Microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional response to ER stress is not mediated by Ire1, but instead is dependent largely on calcineurin signaling and partially on the Slt2 MAPK pathway. The loss of Ire1 alone did not confer increased antifungal susceptibility in C. glabrata contrary to UPR-defective mutants in other fungi. Taken together, our results suggest that the canonical Ire1-Hac1 UPR is not conserved in C. glabrata. It is known in metazoans that active Ire1 nonspecifically cleaves and degrades a subset of ER-localized mRNAs to reduce the ER load. Intriguingly, this cellular response could occur in an Ire1 nuclease-dependent fashion in C. glabrata. We also uncovered the attenuated virulence of the C. glabrata Δire1 mutant in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. This study has unveiled the unique evolution of ER stress response mechanisms in C. glabrata.
The majority of secretory and transmembrane proteins are structurally matured in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER (ER stress) activates the ER-resident stress transducer Ire1, which has two distinct outputs: the unfolded protein response (UPR) and regulated Ire1-dependent decay (RIDD). The UPR is a transcriptional response to increase the protein folding capacity of the ER. RIDD induces degradation of ER-localized mRNAs to reduce the ER load. To date, the UPR has been believed to be an evolutionarily conserved pathway in almost all eukaryotic species, while RIDD has been found only in metazoans. Recent studies in several pathogenic fungi revealed that the UPR is implicated in antifungal resistance and virulence, and thus it has attracted attention as a therapeutic target. Here, we demonstrate that the important fungal pathogen Candida glabrata has lost the canonical UPR, but instead possesses the RIDD pathway and is relatively tolerant to ER stress. The transcriptional response to ER stress was dependent mainly on calcium signaling mediated by the protein phosphatase calcineurin in C. glabrata. Our results provide novel insights into ER quality control mechanisms and are useful for understanding evolutionary biology and the development of antifungal agents targeting the UPR.
Imatinibmesylate (imatinib) is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor administered to patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Although imatinib-associated interstitial lung disease is uncommon, a few cases have been reported so far. However, in all these cases interstitial lung disease developed during the use of imatinib. The present case is the first report of imatinib-induced interstitial lung disease developing after discontinuation of the drug.
A 51-year-old woman was administered oral imatinib for gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Ten weeks later, imatinib was discontinued because of facial edema. On this occasion, chest radiography showed no abnormal findings. However, 2 weeks after discontinuation of imatinib, she developed fever, dry cough, and dyspnea. Chest radiography and computed tomography showed diffuse interstitial infiltrates in both lungs. Examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed an increased proportion of lymphocytes. Imatinib-induced interstitial lung disease was suspected, because no other cause was evident. After administration of corticosteroids, her clinical condition and chest radiographic findings improved.
We report a unique case of imatinib-induced interstitial lung disease that developed 2 weeks after discontinuation of the drug. Physicians should consider occurrence of imatinib-induced interstitial lung disease even after discontinuation of the drug.
Drug-induced interstitial lung disease; Drug-induced lung injury; Drug induced pneumonitis; Drug lymphocyte-stimulating test; Imatinibmesylate
CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) attracts CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6)-expressing cells. Using endoscopic biopsies taken from the gastric antrum of 42 subjects infected with H. pylori and 42 uninfected subjects, mucosal CCL20 mRNA and protein levels were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. CCL19 mRNA and protein levels, as well as CCL21 mRNA levels, were also measured. The CCL20 mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in H. pylori-positive patients and substantially decreased after successful eradication. CCL19 and CCL21 expression levels were comparable in the H. pylori-infected and the uninfected groups. The CCL20 concentrations correlated with the degree of chronic gastritis. Immunohistochemistry and the in vitro infection assay showed that CCL20 was principally produced by the gastric epithelium. CCR6-expressing cells, including CD45RO+ memory T lymphocytes and fascin+-CD1a+ immature dendritic cells, infiltrated close to the CCL20-expressing epithelial cells. The CCL20/CCR6 interaction may be involved in the development of H. pylori-associated gastritis.
CC chemokine ligand 20; CC chemokine receptor 6; H. pylori; Dendritic cells; cag pathogenicity island
We investigated the triazole, amphotericin B, and micafungin susceptibilities of 196 A. fumigatus clinical isolates in Nagasaki, Japan. The percentages of non-wild-type (non-WT) isolates for which MICs of itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole were above the ECV were 7.1%, 2.6%, and 4.1%, respectively. A G54 mutation in cyp51A was detected in 64.2% (9/14 isolates) and 100% (5/5 isolates) of non-WT isolates for itraconazole and posaconazole, respectively. Amphotericin B MICs of ≥2 μg/ml and micafungin minimum effective concentrations (MECs) of ≥16 μg/ml were recorded for two and one isolates, respectively.
Pirfenidone is a novel anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits the progression of fibrosis in animal models and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We previously showed that pirfenidone inhibits the over-expression of collagen type I and of heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, in human lung fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in vitro. The increased numbers of HSP47-positive type II pneumocytes as well as fibroblasts were also diminished by pirfenidone in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. The present study evaluates the effects of pirfenidone on collagen type I and HSP47 expression in the human alveolar epithelial cell line, A549 cells in vitro.
The expression of collagen type I, HSP47 and E-cadherin mRNAs in A549 cells stimulated with TGF-β1 was evaluated by Northern blotting or real-time PCR. The expression of collagen type I, HSP47 and fibronectin proteins was assessed by immunocytochemical staining.
TGF-β1 stimulated collagen type I and HSP47 mRNA and protein expression in A549 cells, and pirfenidone significantly inhibited this process. Pirfenidone also inhibited over-expression of the fibroblast phenotypic marker fibronectin in A549 cells induced by TGF-β1.
We concluded that the anti-fibrotic effects of pirfenidone might be mediated not only through the direct inhibition of collagen type I expression but also through the inhibition of HSP47 expression in alveolar epithelial cells, which results in reduced collagen synthesis in lung fibrosis. Furthermore, pirfenidone might partially inhibit the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Pneumocyte; Interstitial pneumonia; Epithelial cell; Epithelial mesenchymal transition; Pulmonary fibrosis
Peramivir is a new neuraminidase inhibitor for intravenous administration that was first introduced in clinical practice in Japan. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study in children with influenza virus infection ranging in age from ≥28 days to <16 years during the 2009 pandemic A (H1N1) influenza epidemic to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of peramivir in children after intravenous infusion of 10 mg/kg (600 mg maximum) once daily. Among the 106 children (125 days to 15 years old) confirmed to have been infected with the pH1N1 virus by the PCR who were treated with peramivir, the median time to alleviation of symptoms was 29.1 h (95% confidence interval = 22.1 to 32.4), and the proportion of the 106 children who were virus positive was 78.2% on day 2 after the start of treatment and had decreased to 7.1% on day 6. The results of the safety evaluation among 117 patients enrolled in this study showed that adverse events and adverse drug reactions were reported in 62.4 and 29.1%, respectively, of the patients. All of the adverse events and adverse drug reactions resolved or improved rapidly. A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on the basis of 297 observed plasma concentration data obtained from 115 children with influenza virus infection. Peramivir exposure in children was within the range of levels within which the efficacy and safety was confirmed in adults, and it is considered that peramivir is clinically and virologically effective and safe in children with pH1N1 virus infection.
Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) is a widely used medicine for asthma. Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are involved in the regulation of dendritic cell (DC) function. However, the effects of LTRA on DC-related antimicrobial immunity against harmful respiratory pathogens remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of LTRA administered in vivo on DC function against representative respiratory pathogens in vitro. Pulmonary DCs were isolated from four groups of mice: control, mite allergen sensitized (AS), and AS mice treated with the corticosteroid dexamethasone (Dex) or with the LTRA pranlukast (Prl). These DCs were incubated with mite allergen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Aspergillus fumigatus, or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). IL-10 and IL-12 production was then determined. Dex treatment significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-10 and IL-12 production as well as baseline IL-12 production in AS mice. The Prl did not significantly inhibit LPS-induced IL-10 and IL-12 production in AS mice. More importantly, Prl significantly increased IL-10 and IL-12 in AS mice after RSV infection. This study shows that LTRA that is used for asthma potentially up-regulates antimicrobial immunity through modulation of DC function against some respiratory infections without immunosuppression.
Allergic airway inflammation; Aspergillus fumigatus; asthma; corticosteroids; cysteinyl leukotrienes receptor antagonist; cytokines; dendritic cell; Dermatophagoides farinae; lipopolysaccharide; respiratory syncytial virus
Gefitinib and erlotinib have minor differences in their chemical structures, and thus it remains unclear whether the hepatotoxicity induced by one compound is affected by the other. The case of a patient who developed erlotinib-induced liver injury and was then treated with gefitinib without hepatic toxicity or disease progression is presented.
A 31-year-old Japanese woman, who never smoked and who was diagnosed as having lung adenocarcinoma with carcinomatous meningitis, was treated with erlotinib. She developed erlotinib-induced liver injury after four weeks of treatment. The treatment was stopped right away, but the symptoms of meningitis re-appeared immediately. Gefitinib treatment was started and continued without recurrence of drug-induced liver injury.
Gefitinib appears to be a potential treatment option after erlotinib-induced liver injury.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC of linezolid of 4 μg/ml, isolated from a patient who had undergone unsuccessful linezolid therapy, yielded linezolid-resistant mutants in blood agar at 48 h of incubation. The resistant clones showed a MIC of linezolid ranging from 8 to 64 μg/ml and accumulated the T2500A mutation(s) of the rRNA genes. Emergence of these resistant clones appears to be facilitated by a cryptic mutation or mutations associated with chloramphenicol resistance.
Antiviral medications with activity against influenza viruses are important in controlling influenza. We compared intravenous peramivir, a potent neuraminidase inhibitor, with oseltamivir in patients with seasonal influenza virus infection. In a multinational, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled study, patients aged ≥20 years with influenza A or B virus infection were randomly assigned to receive either a single intravenous infusion of peramivir (300 or 600 mg) or oral administration of oseltamivir (75 mg twice a day [b.i.d.] for 5 days). To demonstrate the noninferiority of peramivir in reducing the time to alleviation of influenza symptoms with hazard model analysis and a noninferiority margin of 0.170, we planned to recruit 1,050 patients in South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. A total of 1,091 patients (364 receiving 300 mg and 362 receiving 600 mg of peramivir; 365 receiving oseltamivir) were included in the intent-to-treat infected population. The median durations of influenza symptoms were 78.0, 81.0, and 81.8 h in the groups treated with 300 mg of peramivir, 600 mg of peramivir, and oseltamivir, respectively. The hazard ratios of the 300- and 600-mg-peramivir groups compared to the oseltamivir group were 0.946 (97.5% confidence interval [CI], 0.793, 1.129) and 0.970 (97.5% CI, 0.814, 1.157), respectively. Both peramivir groups were noninferior to the oseltamivir group (97.5% CI, <1.170). The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was significantly lower in the 300-mg-peramivir group, but the incidence of severe reactions in either peramivir group was not different from that in the oseltamivir group. Thus, a single intravenous dose of peramivir may be an alternative to a 5-day oral dose of oseltamivir for patients with seasonal influenza virus infection.
The type III secretion system of P. aeruginosa, responsible for acute infection, is composed of over twenty proteins that facilitate cytotoxin injection directly into host cells. Integral to this process is production and secretion of PcrV. Administration of a recently developed, anti-PcrV immunoglobulin, either as a therapeutic or prophylactic has previously demonstrated efficacy against laboratory strains of P. aeruginosa in a murine model. To determine if this therapy is universally applicable to a variety of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, genetic heterogeneity of pcrV was analyzed among strains collected from three geographically distinct regions; United States, France and Japan. Sequence analysis of PcrV demonstrated limited variation among the clinical isolates examined. Strains were grouped according to the presence of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms. Representative isolates from each mutant group were examined for the ability of anti-PcrV to bind the protein secreted by these strains. The protective effect of anti-PcrV IgG against each strain was determined using an epithelial cell line cytotoxicity assay. The majority of strains tested demonstrated reduced cytotoxicity in the presence of anti-PcrV IgG. This study provides insights into the natural sequence variability of PcrV and an initial indication of the amino acid residues that appear to be conserved across strains. It also demonstrates the protective effect of anti-PcrV immunotherapy against a multitude of P. aeruginosa strains from diverse global regions with a variety of mutations in PcrV.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa; type III secretion; anti-PcrV IgG; Single Nucleotide Polymorphism; Cytotoxicity
Influenza virus infections are known to persist longer in patients with underlying diseases, including respiratory tract diseases, and tend to become complicated by secondary influenza-associated infections, such as pneumonia. To assess the efficacy and safety of the novel anti-influenza virus drug peramivir in high-risk patients, we conducted a clinical trial of patients with diabetes or chronic respiratory tract diseases and patients being treated with drugs that suppress immune function. In this multicenter, uncontrolled, randomized, double-blind study, peramivir was intravenously administered at 300 or 600 mg/day for 1 to 5 days, as needed. Efficacy was investigated in 37 patients (300 mg, n = 18 patients; 600 mg, n = 19 patients). The median durations of influenza illness were 68.6 h (90% confidence interval, 41.5 to 113.4 h) overall, 114.4 h (90% confidence interval, 40.2 to 235.3 h) in the 300-mg group, and 42.3 h (90% confidence interval, 30.0 to 82.7 h) in the 600-mg group. The hazard ratio for the 600-mg group compared to the 300-mg group was 0.497 (90% confidence interval, 0.251 to 0.984), and the duration of influenza illness was significantly shorter in the 600-mg group than in the 300-mg group. Among the 42 patients in the safety analysis set, adverse events occurred in 73.8% and adverse drug reactions in 33.3%. No adverse events were particularly problematic clinically, and all patients recovered quickly from all events. The measured blood drug concentrations showed no tendency toward accumulation. Drug accumulation with repeated doses was thus considered to be of little concern. Intravenous peramivir appears to offer a potentially useful treatment for high-risk patients in the future.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) permits removal of esophageal epithelial neoplasms en bloc, but is associated with esophageal stenosis, particularly when ESD involves the entire circumference of the esophageal lumen. We examined the effectiveness of systemic steroid administration for control of postprocedural esophageal stricture after complete circular ESD.
Seven patients who underwent wholly circumferential ESD for superficially extended esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled in this study. In 3 patients, prophylactic endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) was started on the third post-ESD day and was performed twice a week for 8 weeks. In 4 patients, oral prednisolone was started with 30 mg daily on the third post-ESD day, tapered gradually (daily 30, 30, 25, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5 mg for 7 days each), and then discontinued at 8 weeks. EBD was used as needed whenever patients complained of dysphagia.
En bloc ESD with tumor-free margins was safely achieved in all cases. Patients in the prophylactic EBD group required a mean of 32.7 EBD sessions; the postprocedural stricture was dilated up to 18 mm in diameter in these patients. On the other hand, systemic steroid administration substantially reduced or eliminated the need for EBD. Corticosteroid therapy was not associated with any adverse events. Post-ESD esophageal stricture after complete circular ESD was persistent, requiring multiple EBD sessions.
Use of oral prednisolone administration may be an effective treatment strategy for reducing post-ESD esophageal stricture after complete circular ESD.
Thalidomide is clinically recognized as a therapeutic agent for multiple myeloma and has been known to exert anti-angiogenic actions. Recent studies have suggested the involvement of angiogenesis in the progression of peritoneal fibrosis. The present study investigated the effects of thalidomide on the development of peritoneal fibrosis induced by injection of chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) into the mouse peritoneal cavity every other day for 3 weeks. Thalidomide was given orally every day. Peritoneal tissues were dissected out 21 days after CG injection. Expression of CD31 (as a marker of endothelial cells), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), α-smooth muscle actin (as a marker of myofibroblasts), type III collagen and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was examined using immunohistochemistry. CG group showed thickening of the submesothelial zone and increased numbers of vessels and myofibroblasts. Large numbers of VEGF-, PCNA-, and TGF-β-positive cells were observed in the submesothelial area. Thalidomide treatment significantly ameliorated submesothelial thickening and angiogenesis, and decreased numbers of PCNA- and VEGF-expressing cells, myofibroblasts, and TGF-β-positive cells. Moreover, thalidomide attenuated peritoneal permeability for creatinine, compared to the CG group. Our results indicate the potential utility of thalidomide for preventing peritoneal fibrosis.
thalidomide; peritoneal fibrosis; PCNA; VEGF; TGF-β
Background & Aims
Saturated free fatty acids induce hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. This lipotoxicity involves an endoplasmic reticulum stress response, activation of JNK, and altered expression and function of Bcl-2 proteins. The mono-unsaturated free fatty acid, palmitoleate is an adipose-derived lipokine, which suppresses free fatty acid-mediated lipotoxicity by unclear mechanisms. Herein we examined the mechanisms responsible for cytoprotection.
We employed isolated human and mouse primary hepatocytes, and the Huh-7 and Hep 3B cell lines for these studies. Cells were incubated in presence and absence of palmitate (16:0), stearate (18:0), and or palmitoleate (16:1, n-7).
Palmitoleate significantly reduced lipoapoptosis by palmitate or stearate in both primary cells and cell lines. Palmitoleate accentuated palmitate-induced steatosis in Huh-7 cells excluding inhibition of steatosis as a mechanism for reduced apoptosis. Palmitoleate inhibited palmitate induction of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response as demonstrated by reductions in CHOP expression, eIF2-α phosphorylation, XBP-1 splicing, and JNK activation. Palmitate increased expression of the BH3-only proteins PUMA and Bim, which was attenuated by palmitoleate. Consistent with its inhibition of PUMA and Bim induction, palmitoleate prevented activation of the downstream death mediator Bax.
These data suggest palmitoleate inhibits lipoapoptosis by blocking endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated increases of the BH3-only proteins Bim and PUMA.
Apoptosis; Bcl-2 proteins; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Human hepatocytes; Nile Red, Steatosis
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is often diagnosed at later stages until they are incurable. MicroRNA (miR) is a small, non-coding RNA that negatively regulates gene expression mainly via translational repression. Accumulating evidence indicates that deregulation of miR is associated with human malignancies including ESCC. The aim of this study was to identify miR that could be specifically expressed and exert distinct biological actions in ESCC.
Total RNA was extracted from ESCC cell lines, OE21 and TE10, and a non-malignant human esophageal squamous cell line, Het-1A, and subjected to microarray analysis. Expression levels of miR that showed significant differences between the 2 ESCC and Het-1A cells based on the comprehensive analysis were analyzed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR method. Then, functional analyses, including cellular proliferation, apoptosis and Matrigel invasion and the wound healing assay, for the specific miR were conducted. Using ESCC tumor samples and paired surrounding non-cancerous tissue obtained endoscopically, the association with histopathological differentiation was examined with quantitative RT-PCR.
Based on the miR microarray analysis, there were 14 miRs that showed significant differences (more than 2-fold) in expression between the 2 ESCC cells and non-malignant Het-1A. Among the significantly altered miRs, miR-205 expression levels were exclusively higher in 5 ESCC cell lines examined than any other types of malignant cell lines and Het-1A. Thus, miR-205 could be a specific miR in ESCC. Modulation of miR-205 expression by transfection with its precursor or anti-miR-205 inhibitor did not affect ESCC cell proliferation and apoptosis, but miR-205 was found to be involved in cell invasion and migration. Western blot revealed that knockdown of miR-205 expression in ESCC cells substantially enhanced expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2, accompanied by reduction of E-cadherin, a regulator of epithelial mesenchymal transition. The miR-205 expression levels were not associated with histological differentiation of human ESCC.
These results imply that miR-205 is an ESCC-specific miR that exerts tumor-suppressive activities with EMT inhibition by targeting ZEB2.
Influenza virus is a common cause of respiratory infection and morbidity, which is often due to deleterious host immune responses directed against the pathogen. We investigated the role of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M), an inhibitor of MyD88-dependent TLR signaling, in modulating the innate inflammatory response during influenza pneumonia using a murine model. The intranasal administration of influenza resulted in the upregulation of IRAK-M mRNA and protein levels in the lungs within 2 d after infectious challenge. Pulmonary influenza infection in mice deficient in IRAK-M (IRAK-M−/−) resulted in substantially increased mortality compared with similarly treated wild-type animals. Increased mortality in IRAK-M−/− mice was associated with enhanced early influx of neutrophils, high permeability edema, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells, markedly increased expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and release of neutrophil-derived enzymes, including myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase. Early viral clearance was not different in mutant mice, whereas viral titers in lungs and blood were significantly higher in IRAK-M−/− mice compared with wild-type animals. Increased lethality observed in IRAK-M−/− mice after influenza challenge was abrogated by Ab-mediated blockade of CXCR2. Collectively, our findings indicate that IRAK-M is critical to preventing deleterious neutrophil-dependent lung injury during influenza infection of the respiratory tract.
Legionella pneumophila (LPN) can cause a lethal infectious disease with a marked inflammatory response in humans. However, the mechanism of this severe inflammation remains poorly understood. Since necrosis is known to induce inflammation, we investigated whether LPN induces necrosis in macrophages. We also analyzed the involvement of lysosomal cathepsin B in LPN-induced cell death.
The human monocytic cell line THP-1 was infected with LPN, NUL1 strain. MG132-treated cells were used as apoptotic control cells. After infection, the type of cell death was analyzed by using microscopy, LDH release and flow cytometry. As a proinflammatory mediator, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1), was measured. Cathepsin B activity was also measured and the inhibitory effects of cathepsin B on LPN-induced cell death were analyzed.
THP-1 cells after treatment with high dose of LPN showed necrotic features with releasing HMGB-1. This necrosis and the HMGB-1 release were inhibited by a specific lysosomal cathepsin B inhibitor and were characterized by a rapid and high activation of cathepsin B that was not observed in apoptotic control cells. The necrosis was also accompanied by cathepsin B-dependent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage.
We demonstrate here that L. pneumophila rapidly induces cathepsin B-dependent necrosis in a dose-dependent manner and releases a proinflammatory mediator, HMGB-1, from macrophages. This report describes a novel aspect of the pathogenesis of Legionnaires' disease and provides a possible therapeutic target for the regulation of inflammation.
A Candida glabrata calcineurin mutant exhibited increased susceptibility to both azole antifungal and cell wall-damaging agents and was also attenuated in virulence. Although a mutant lacking the downstream transcription factor Crz1 displayed a cell wall-associated phenotype intermediate to that of the calcineurin mutant and was modestly attenuated in virulence, it did not show increased azole susceptibility. These results suggest that calcineurin regulates both Crz1-dependent and -independent pathways depending on the type of stress.
This paper reports on the development of a one-step, real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay targeting the hemagglutinin (HA) gene for the rapid molecular-based detection of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. The detection limit of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus HA-specific RT-LAMP assay was same as that of the currently used real-time reverse transcription-PCR method. The assay detected the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus HA gene in 136 RNA samples extracted from nasopharyngeal swab specimens from Japanese and Vietnamese patients. No cross-reactive amplification with the RNA of other seasonal influenza viruses was observed, and the detection of specific viral genome targets in clinical specimens was achieved in less than 40 min. The sensitivity and specificity of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus HA-specific RT-LAMP assay obtained in this study were 97.8% and 100%, respectively. Use of the (H1N1) 2009 virus HA-specific RT-LAMP assay will enable the faster and easier diagnosis of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection, especially in resource-limited situations in developing countries.
Sepsis is a serious medical condition that requires rapidly administered, appropriate antibiotic treatment. Conventional methods take three or more days for final pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We organized a prospective observational multicenter study in three study sites to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and potential clinical utility of the SeptiFast system, a multiplex pathogen detection system used in the clinical setting to support early diagnosis of bloodstream infections.
A total of 212 patients, suspected of having systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by bacterial or fungal infection, were enrolled in the study. From these patients, 407 blood samples were taken and blood culture analysis was performed to identify pathogens. Whole blood was also collected for DNA Detection Kit analysis immediately after its collection for blood culture. The results of the DNA Detection Kit, blood culture and other culture tests were compared. The chosen antimicrobial treatment in patients whose samples tested positive in the DNA Detection Kit and/or blood culture analysis was examined to evaluate the effect of concomitant antibiotic exposure on the results of these analyses.
SeptiFast analysis gave a positive result for 55 samples, while 43 samples were positive in blood culture analysis. The DNA Detection Kit identified a pathogen in 11.3% (45/400) of the samples, compared to 8.0% (32/400) by blood culture analysis. Twenty-three pathogens were detected by SeptiFast only; conversely, this system missed five episodes of clinically significant bacteremia (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 2; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1; Klebsiella spp, 1; Enterococcus faecium, 1). The number of samples that tested positive was significantly increased by combining the result of the blood culture analysis with those of the DNA Detection Kit analysis (P = 0.01). Among antibiotic pre-treated patients (prevalence, 72%), SeptiFast analysis detected more bacteria/fungi, and was less influenced by antibiotic exposure, compared with blood culture analysis (P = 0.02).
This rapid multiplex pathogen detection system complemented traditional culture-based methods and offered some added diagnostic value for the timely detection of causative pathogens, particularly in antibiotic pre-treated patients. Adequately designed intervention studies are needed to prove its clinical effectiveness in improving appropriate antibiotic selection and patient outcomes.