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1.  Colliding tumor of the paranasal sinus 
Allergy & Rhinology  2013;4(1):e13-e16.
Sinonasal malignant neoplasms comprise only 3% of all head and neck malignancies. Synchronous and metachronous tumors of the head and neck have been described, but rarely have there been reports of a single tumor with two distinct histologies. Here, we describe a case of a sinonasal malignant neoplasm with two distinct histologies. A case report and literature review was performed. We present a case of paranasal sinus neoplasm involving two malignant cell types. An 83-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of symptoms suggestive of chronic sinusitis, which included nasal congestion and intermittent midface pressure. More recently, her symptoms progressed with the development of left-side epistaxis and she was found to have a mass in the left maxillary and ethmoid regions. A biopsy of the maxillary sinus mass revealed a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). She underwent complete resection of the lesion through an extended endoscopic approach. Final pathological analysis showed a malignant neoplasm with two distinct malignant morphologies; a moderately differentiated SCC and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of head and neck malignancy depends on accurate tumor classification and staging. We present a case of a sinonasal tumor with two distinct malignant entities and review the available literature on the subject. Additionally, we discuss the etiologic theories and challenges in planning the optimal approach to management in this scenario.
PMCID: PMC3679560  PMID: 23772319
Azzopardi; colliding; histology; paranasal; sinus; treatment; tumor
2.  Idiopathic sclerosing inflammation presenting as sinusitis 
Allergy & Rhinology  2012;3(2):e101-e104.
Idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation is a rare finding that is poorly delineated, immune mediated, and causes severe symptoms and disability. It has been described affecting the orbit in addition to other sites within the head and neck, but has rarely been described presenting as sinusitis. A case report and literature review were performed. A 14-year-old girl with right-sided face and eye pain and pressure for >1 month presented 3 days after endoscopic sinus surgery for presumed acute sinusitis. She subsequently developed ipsilateral vision loss and hypesthesia of the infraorbital nerve. MRI revealed a mildly enhancing soft tissue intensity lesion extending from the right maxillary sinus into the pterygopalatine fossa and orbital apex through the inferior orbital fissure. Biopsy specimens of the lesion were consistent with a sclerosing inflammatory lesion. High-dose steroids led to rapid improvement in vision and pain; however, the patient was unable to tolerate steroid weaning because of recurrence of eye pain and headache. Repeat imaging showed progression of the lesion. Rheumatology was consulted and the patient's steroid therapy was altered and her medications were expanded to include azathioprine. The patient's symptoms improved and subsequent imaging showed a reduction in the size and extent of the lesion. Idiopathic sclerosing inflammation is characterized by primary, chronic, and immunologically mediated fibrosis. Patients typically have a poor response to corticosteroid treatment or radiotherapy. Immunosuppressive therapy in addition to corticosteroids is the recommended treatment.
PMCID: PMC3548607  PMID: 23342288
Azathioprine; extraorbital; idiopathic; inflammation; orbital; sclerosing; sinusitis
3.  Congenital nasolacrimal duct cyst/dacryocystocele: An argument for a genetic basis 
Allergy & Rhinology  2012;3(1):e46-e49.
Embryogenesis of a congenital nasolacrimal duct (NLD) cyst is attributed to the failure of the Hasner membrane of the NLD system to cannulate. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital NLD cysts supports the argument for a developmental error, with a postnatal prevalence of 6%. The role of a genetic basis for this malformation has never been ascribed. We present a set of monozygotic twins with bilateral congenital NLD cysts as an argument for a genetic basis of this entity. A case report and literature review were performed. We present two cases of bilateral congenital NLD cysts occurring in a set of monozygotic twins. Patients were delivered at 37 weeks via cesarean section. The pregnancy was complicated by preterm labor at 33 weeks requiring administration of terbutaline and betamethasone. At presentation, twin A had bilateral eye discharge, erythema, and swelling medial to the medial canthi as well as nasal obstruction. Computed tomography (CT) showed classic bilateral cystic masses in the inferior meatus. The diagnosis of bilateral infected congenital dacryocystoceles was made. Twin B initially presented with only bilateral eye discharge and CT showed a dilated NLD system. Twin B subsequently developed early signs of bilateral dacryocystoceles the following day. Both patients underwent lacrimal probing and endoscopic marsupialization of the dacryocystoceles. Biopsies were consistent with dacryocystocele. Dacryocystocele is a common presentation of unresolved neonatal NLD obstruction. This case report in a set of identical twins is an argument for a genetic basis for the formation of this lesion.
PMCID: PMC3404478  PMID: 22852130
Congenital; cyst; dacryocystocele; dacryocystorhinostomy; genetic; Hasner; nasolacrimal

Results 1-3 (3)