10,11-Dehydrocurvularin is a prevalent fungal phytotoxin with heat shock response and immune-modulatory activities. It features a dihydroxyphenylacetic acid lactone polyketide framework with structural similarities to resorcylic acid lactones like radicicol or zearalenone. A genomic locus was identified from the dehydrocurvularin producer strain Aspergillus terreus AH-02-30-F7 to reveal genes encoding a pair of iterative polyketide synthases (A. terreus CURS1 [AtCURS1] and AtCURS2) that are predicted to collaborate in the biosynthesis of 10,11-dehydrocurvularin. Additional genes in this locus encode putative proteins that may be involved in the export of the compound from the cell and in the transcriptional regulation of the cluster. 10,11-Dehydrocurvularin biosynthesis was reconstituted in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by heterologous expression of the polyketide synthases. Bioinformatic analysis of the highly reducing polyketide synthase AtCURS1 and the nonreducing polyketide synthase AtCURS2 highlights crucial biosynthetic programming differences compared to similar synthases involved in resorcylic acid lactone biosynthesis. These differences lead to the synthesis of a predicted tetraketide starter unit that forms part of the 12-membered lactone ring of dehydrocurvularin, as opposed to the penta- or hexaketide starters in the 14-membered rings of resorcylic acid lactones. Tetraketide N-acetylcysteamine thioester analogues of the starter unit were shown to support the biosynthesis of dehydrocurvularin and its analogues, with yeast expressing AtCURS2 alone. Differential programming of the product template domain of the nonreducing polyketide synthase AtCURS2 results in an aldol condensation with a different regiospecificity than that of resorcylic acid lactones, yielding the dihydroxyphenylacetic acid scaffold characterized by an S-type cyclization pattern atypical for fungal polyketides.
Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is the major component of pathological deposits in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP) and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It has been reported that TDP-43 transgenic mouse models expressing human TDP-43 wild-type or ALS-associated mutations recapitulate certain ALS and FTLD pathological phenotypes. Of note, expression of human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) reduces the levels of mouse Tdp-43 (mTdp-43). However, it remained unclear whether the mechanisms through which TDP-43 induces ALS or FTLD-like pathologies resulted from a reduction in mTdp-43, an increase in hTDP-43, or a combination of both. In elucidating the role of mTdp-43 and hTDP-43 in hTDP-43 transgenic mice, we observed that reduction of mTdp-43 in non-transgenic mice by intraventricular brain injection of AAV1-shTardbp leads to a dramatic increase in the levels of splicing variants of mouse sortilin 1 and translin. However, the levels of these two abnormal splicing variants are not increased in hTDP-43 transgenic mice despite significant downregulation of mTdp-43 in these mice. Moreover, further downregulation of mTdp-43 in hTDP-43 hemizygous mice, which are asymptomatic, to the levels equivalent to that of mTdp-43 in hTDP-43 homozygous mice does not induce the pathological phenotypes observed in the homozygous mice. Lastly, the number of dendritic spines and the RNA levels of TDP-43 RNA targets critical for synapse formation and function are significantly decreased in symptomatic homozygous mice. Together, our findings indicate that mTdp-43 downregulation does not lead to a loss of function mechanism or account for the pathological phenotypes observed in hTDP-43 homozygous mice because hTDP-43 compensates for the reduction, and associated functions of mTdp-43. Rather, expression of hTDP-43 beyond a certain threshold leads to abnormal metabolism of TDP-43 RNA targets critical for neuronal structure and function, which might be responsible for the ALS or FTLD-like pathologies observed in homozygous hTDP-43 transgenic mice.
Mechanical properties of the myocardium at end diastole have been thought to be dominated by passive material properties rather than by active sarcomere cross-bridge interactions. This study tested the hypothesis that residual cross-bridges significantly contribute to end-diastolic mechanics in vivo and that changes in end-diastolic cross-bridge interaction parallel concurrent changes in systolic cross-bridge interaction. Open-chest anesthetized pigs were treated with intracoronary verapamil (n = 7) or 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM; n = 8). Regional left ventricular external work and end-diastolic pressure (EDP) versus end-diastolic segment length (EDL) relations were determined in the treated and untreated regions of each heart. Both agents reduced external work of treated regions to 31–38% of baseline and concurrently shifted EDP versus EDL relations to the right (i.e., greater EDL at a given EDP) by an average of 5% (P < 0.05). During washout of the drugs, EDP versus EDL returned to baseline in parallel with recovery of external work. Sarcomere length, measured by transmission electron microscopy in BDM-treated and untreated regions of the same hearts after diastolic arrest and perfusion fixation, was 8% greater in BDM-treated regions (P < 0.01). We concluded that residual diastolic cross-bridges significantly and reversibly influence end-diastolic mechanics in vivo. Alterations of end-diastolic and systolic cross-bridge interactions occur in parallel.
diastole; ventricular function; calcium channel blockers; di-acetyl analogs and derivatives; sarcomeres
Clinical and experimental studies have suggested benefit of treatment with intravenous glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) in acute myocardial infarction. However, patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes often experience recurrent myocardial ischemia without infarction that may cause progressive left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. This study tested the hypothesis that anticipatory treatment with GIK attenuates both systolic and diastolic LV dysfunction resulting from ischemia and reperfusion without infarction in vivo. Open-chest, anesthetized pigs underwent 90 min of moderate regional ischemia (mean subendocardial blood flow 0.3 ml·g−1·min−1) and 90 min reperfusion. Eight pigs were treated with GIK (300 g/l glucose, 50 U/l insulin, and 80 meq/l KCl; infused at 2 ml·kg−1·h−1) beginning 30 min before ischemia and continuing through reperfusion. Eight untreated pigs comprised the control group. Regional LV wall area was measured with orthogonal pairs of sonomicrometry crystals. GIK significantly increased myocardial glucose uptake and lactate release during ischemia. After reperfusion, indexes of regional systolic function (external work and fractional systolic wall area reduction), regional diastolic function (maximum rate of diastolic wall area expansion), and global LV function (LV positive and negative maximum rate of change in pressure with respect to time) recovered to a significantly greater extent in GIK-treated pigs than in control pigs (all P < 0.05). The findings suggest that the clinical utility of GIK may extend beyond treatment of acute myocardial infarction to anticipatory metabolic protection of myocardium in patients at risk for recurrent episodes of ischemia.
ventricular function; energy metabolism; substrates
Thiazolidinediones exert electrophysiologic effects in noncardiac cells in vitro, but to date there have been no reports of effects on cardiac rhythm. We previously demonstrated that chronic pretreatment with a thiazolidinedione peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activator, troglitazone, improves recovery of left ventricular (LV) function and substrate metabolism after ischemia and reperfusion, without causing arrhythmias. In this study, we determined whether similar salutary effects are achieved with acute treatment with troglitazone. Anesthetized pigs underwent 90 min of regional LV ischemia and 90 min of reperfusion. Fifteen pigs were treated with troglitazone (10 mg/kg load, 5 mg · kg−1 · h−1 infusion i.v.) beginning 1 h before ischemia. Seven pigs received corresponding vehicle. Plasma troglitazone concentration (mean 5 µg/ml) was similar to that achieved in clinical use of this agent. Before ischemia, acute troglitazone treatment had no effect on LV function, electrocardiogram, or substrate utilization. During ischemia or reperfusion, eight pigs in the troglitazone group died of ventricular fibrillation, compared with no pigs in the vehicle group (P < 0.05). Pigs that developed ventricular fibrillation had shorter QT intervals than survivors of either group. Among survivors, neither LV function nor substrate utilization differed between groups. Acute treatment with troglitazone increases susceptibility to ventricular fibrillation during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Whether thiazolidinediones have proarrhythmic potential in clinical use requires further investigation.
Rodent studies suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and infarct size; however, effects of PPAR-α activation in large animal models of myocardial I/R are unknown. We determined whether chronic treatment with the PPAR-α activator fenofibrate affects myocardial I/R injury in pigs. Domestic farm pigs were assigned to treatment with fenofibrate 50 mg·kg−1 ·day−1 orally or no drug treatment, and either a low-fat (4% by weight) or a high-fat (20% by weight) diet. After 4 wk, 66 pigs underwent 90 min low-flow regional myocardial ischemia and 120 min reperfusion under anesthetized open-chest conditions, resulting in myocardial stunning. The high-fat group received an infusion of triglyceride emulsion and heparin during this terminal experiment to maintain elevated arterial free fatty acid (FFA) levels. An additional 21 pigs underwent 60 min no-flow ischemia and 180 min reperfusion, resulting in myocardial infarction. Plasma concentration of fenofibric acid was similar to the EC50 for activation of PPAR-α in vitro and to maximal concentrations achieved in clinical use. Myocardial expression of PPAR-α mRNA was prominent but unaffected by fenofibrate treatment. Fenofibrate increased expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-I mRNA in liver and decreased arterial FFA and lactate concentrations (each P < 0.01). However, fenofibrate did not affect myocardial CPT-I expression, substrate uptake, lipid accumulation, or contractile function during low-flow I/R in either the low- or high-fat group, nor did it affect myocardial infarct size. Despite expression of PPAR-α in porcine myocardium and effects of fenofibrate on systemic metabolism, treatment with this PPAR-α activator does not alter myocardial metabolic or contractile responses to I/R in pigs.
nuclear receptor; fibric acid derivative; energy metabolism; cytokine; ventricular function
This study determined whether treatment of normal (nondiabetic) pigs with the insulin-sensitizing agent troglitazone improves recovery of left ventricular (LV) function after acute ischemia and whether such effects are associated with altered myocardial substrate metabolism.
Methods and Results
Juvenile pigs (n=6) were treated with troglitazone (75 mg · kg−1 · d−1 PO) for 8 weeks. Untreated pigs (n=8) served as controls. Under anesthetized, open-chest conditions, pigs underwent 90 minutes of moderate regional LV ischemia and 90 minutes of reperfusion. Regional LV function was assessed with subendocardial sonomicrometry crystals. Fasting plasma insulin and free fatty acid levels were lower in troglitazone-treated pigs than in untreated pigs, whereas blood glucose did not differ between groups. These findings suggest that treatment enhanced systemic insulin sensitivity. Baseline hemodynamics and regional LV function did not differ between groups. After ischemia and reperfusion, systolic function (external work) of the ischemic region recovered to 44±6% of baseline in troglitazone-treated pigs versus 18±6% of baseline in untreated pigs (P<0.05). Regional diastolic function (maximum rate of wall expansion) recovered to 78±7% of baseline in treated pigs versus 52±7% of baseline in untreated pigs (P<0.05). Recovery of global LV systolic and diastolic function was also significantly greater in treated pigs. Myocardial glucose uptake did not differ between groups under any condition; however, net myocardial lactate uptake after reperfusion was 7 times greater in troglitazone-treated pigs than in untreated pigs, suggesting that treatment enhanced myocardial carbohydrate oxidation after reperfusion.
In nondiabetic pigs, chronic troglitazone treatment improves recovery of LV systolic and diastolic function after acute ischemia.
metabolism; drugs; ischemia; myocardial contraction; diastole
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ modulates substrate metabolism and inflammatory responses. In experimental rats subjected to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), thiazolidinedione PPAR-γ activators reduce infarct size and preserve left ventricular function. Troglitazone is the only PPAR-γ activator that has been shown to be protective in I/R in large animals. However, because troglitazone contains both α-tocopherol and thiazolidinedione moieties, whether PPAR-γ activation per se is protective in myocardial I/R in large animals remains uncertain. To address this question, 56 pigs were treated orally for 8 wk with troglitazone (75 mg·kg−1 ·day−1), rosiglitazone (3 mg·kg−1 ·day−1), or α-tocopherol (73 mg·kg−1 ·day−1, equimolar to troglitazone dose) or received no treatment. Pigs were then anesthetized and subjected to 90 min of low-flow regional myocardial ischemia and 90 min of reperfusion. Myocardial expression of PPAR-γ, determined by ribonuclease protection assay, increased with troglitazone and rosiglitazone compared with no treatment. Rosiglitazone had no significant effect on myocardial contractile function (Frank-Starling relations), substrate uptake, or expression of proinflammatory cytokines during I/R compared with untreated pigs. In contrast, preservation of myocardial contractile function and lactate uptake were greater and cytokine expression was attenuated in pigs treated with troglitazone or α-tocopherol compared with untreated pigs. Multivariate analysis indicated that presence of an α-tocopherol, but not a thiazolidinedione, moiety in the test compound was significantly related to greater contractile function and lactate uptake and lower cytokine expression during I/R. We conclude that PPAR-γ activation is not protective in a porcine model of myocardial I/R. Protective effects of troglitazone are attributable to its α-tocopherol moiety. These findings, in conjunction with prior rat studies, suggest interspecies differences in the response to PPAR-γ activation in the heart.
nuclear receptor; thiazolidinedione; energy metabolism; cytokine; ventricular function
Volume expansion and inotropic stimulation are used clinically to augment cardiac output during acute right ventricular (RV) pressure overload. We previously showed that a brief period of RV pressure overload causes RV free wall dysfunction that persists after normal loading conditions have been restored. However, the impact of volume expansion and inotropic stimulation on the severity of RV dysfunction after acute pressure overload is unknown. We hypothesized that the severity of RV dysfunction after RV pressure overload would be related to the level of RV free wall systolic stress during RV pressure overload, rather than to the specific interventions used to augment RV function. Chloralose-anesthetized, open-chest pigs were subjected to 1 h of RV pressure overload caused by pulmonary artery constriction, followed by 1 h of recovery after release of pulmonary artery constriction. A wide range of RV free wall systolic stress during RV pressure overload was achieved by either closing or opening the pericardium (to simulate volume expansion) and by administering or not administering dobutamine. The severity of RV free wall dysfunction 1 h after RV pressure overload was strongly and directly correlated with the values of two hemodynamic variables during RV pressure overload: RV free wall area at peak RV systolic pressure (determined by sonomicrometry) and peak RV systolic pressure, two of the major determinants of peak RV free wall systolic stress. Opening or closing the pericardium, and using or not using dobutamine during RV pressure overload, had no independent effects on the severity of RV dysfunction. The findings suggest that the goal of therapeutic intervention during RV pressure overload should be to achieve the required augmentation of cardiac output with the smallest possible increase in RV free wall systolic stress.
pressure-volume relation; mechanics; pericardium; dobutamine; pig
AIM: To compare the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic papillary balloon intermittent dilatation (EPBID) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) in the treatment of common bile duct stones.
METHODS: From March 2011 to May 2012, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed in 560 patients, 262 with common bile duct stones. A total of 206 patients with common bile duct stones were enrolled in the study and randomized to receive either EPBID with a 10-12 mm dilated balloon or EST (103 patients in each group). For both groups a conventional reticular basket or balloon was used to remove the stones. After the procedure, routine endoscopic nasobiliary drainage was performed.
RESULTS: First-time stone removal was successfully performed in 94 patients in the EPBID group (91.3%) and 75 patients in the EST group (72.8%). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of operation time between the two groups. The overall incidence of early complications in the EPBID and EST groups was 2.9% and 13.6%, respectively, with no deaths reported during the course of the study and follow-up. Multiple regression analysis showed that the success rate of stone removal was associated with stone removal method [odds ratio (OR): 5.35; 95%CI: 2.24-12.77; P = 0.00], the transverse diameter of the stone (OR: 2.63; 95%CI: 1.19-5.80; P = 0.02) and the presence or absence of diverticulum (OR: 2.35; 95%CI: 1.03-5.37; P = 0.04). Postoperative pancreatitis was associated with the EST method of stone removal (OR: 5.00; 95%CI: 1.23-20.28; P = 0.02) and whether or not pancreatography was performed (OR: 0.10; 95%CI: 0.03-0.35; P = 0.00).
CONCLUSION: The EPBID group had a higher success rate of stone removal with a lower incidence of pancreatitis compared with the EST group.
Endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Endoscopic sphincterotomy; Common bile duct stones; Success rate
TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is the principal component of ubiquitinated inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the most common pathological subtype of frontotemporal dementia—frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP). To date, the C-terminus of TDP-43, which is aggregation-prone and contains almost all ALS-associated mutations, has garnered much attention while the functions of the N-terminus of TDP-43 remain largely unknown. To bridge this gap in our knowledge, we utilized novel cell culture and computer-assisted models to evaluate which region(s) of TDP-43 regulate its folding, self-interaction, biological activity and aggregation. We determined that the extreme N-terminus of TDP-43, specifically the first 10 residues, regulates folding of TDP-43 monomers necessary for proper homodimerization and TDP-43-regulated splicing. Despite such beneficial functions, we discovered an interesting dichotomy: full-length TDP-43 aggregation, which is believed to be a pathogenic process, also requires the extreme N-terminus of TDP-43. As such, we provide new insight into the structural basis for TDP-43 function and aggregation, and we suggest that stabilization of TDP-43 homodimers, the physiologically active form of TDP-43, may be a promising therapeutic strategy for ALS and FTLD-TDP.
The anti-tumor antibiotic salinomycin (Sal) was recently identified as a selective inhibitor of breast cancer stem cells; however, the effect of Sal on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not clear. This study aimed to determine the anti-tumor efficacy and mechanism of Sal on HCC. HCC cell lines (HepG2, SMMC-7721, and BEL-7402) were treated with Sal. Cell doubling time was determinated by drawing growth curve, cell viability was evaluated using the Cell Counting Kit 8. The fraction of CD133+ cell subpopulations was assessed by flow cytometry. We found that Sal inhibits proliferation and decreases PCNA levels as well as the proportion of HCC CD133+cell subpopulations in HCC cells. Cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry and showed that Sal caused cell cycle arrest of the various HCC cell lines in different phases. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 staining. Sal induced apoptosis as characterized by an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Several signaling pathways were selected for further mechanistic analyses using real time-PCR and Western blot assays. Compared to control, β-catenin expression is significantly down-regulated upon Sal addition. The Ca2+ concentration in HCC cells was examined by flow cytometry and higher Ca2+ concentrations were observed in Sal treatment groups. The anti-tumor effect of Sal was further verified in vivo using the hepatoma orthotopic tumor model and the data obtained showed that the size of liver tumors in Sal-treated groups decreased compared to controls. Immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining also demonstrated that Sal inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in vivo. Finally, the role of Sal on in vivo Wnt/β-catenin signaling was evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. This study demonstrates Sal inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo and one potential mechanism is inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling via increased intracellular Ca2+ levels.
Salidroside is isolated from Rhodiola rosea and is one of the main active components in Rhodiola species. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Salidroside on atherosclerotic plaque formation in high-fat diet-(HFD-) fed female LDL receptor knockout (LDLr−/−) mice. LDLr−/− mice fed an atherogenic HFD for 12 weeks were divided into two groups. One group was administered Salidroside (50 mg/kg/oral gavage) daily for 8 weeks, while the control group was administered saline. Salidroside treatment reduced serum lipids levels and the plaque area through the arch to the abdominal aorta. Furthermore, Salidroside improved macrophage content and enhanced collagen and smooth muscle cells contents in the aortic sinus. These changes were associated with reduced MCP-1, VCAM-1, and VCAM-1 protein expression in atherosclerotic aortas. All these results suggest that Salidroside decreases atherosclerotic plaques formation via effects on lipid lowering and anti-inflammation in HFD-fed LDLr−/− mice.
Paenibacillus sp. strain Aloe-11, a Gram-positive, spore-forming, facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from the root of Aloe chinensis in the southwest region of China, has excellent antibiotic activity and intestine colonization ability. Here, we present the 5.8-Mb draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain Aloe-11.
AIM: To compare ghrelin levels in plasma and gastric mucosa before and after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment in children with H. pylori-associated functional dyspepsia.
METHODS: Children with H. pylori-associated functional dyspepsia were enrolled in this study. H. pylori infection was confirmed by positive bacterial culture results. All of the children received triple H. pylori eradication therapy (a 2 wk course of omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin). The children were divided into two groups based on the success of the H. pylori treatment: group 1 (eradicated) - patients who had a negative 13C-urea breath test 2 mo after the end of therapy; and group 2 (non-eradicated) - patients who had a positive 13C-urea breath test. Plasma ghrelin, gastric ghrelin mRNA, and the body mass index were evaluated in both groups before and after the H. pylori treatment. The plasma ghrelin levels were measured by a radioimmunoassay. The expression of gastric ghrelin mRNA was determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: A total of 50 children with H. pylori-associated functional dyspepsia were treated with triple H. pylori eradication therapy. The mean age of the children was 5.52 ± 0.83 years, and there were 28 males and 22 females. Among the 50 H. pylori-positive children, 30 successfully achieved eradication, and 20 did not. The mean plasma ghrelin levels of group 1 were 22.17 ± 1.73 ng/L and 26.59 ± 2.05 ng/L before and after the treatment, respectively, which was a significant increase (P = 0.001). However, the mean plasma ghrelin level of group 2 before and after the H. pylori treatment was 21.34 ± 2.40 ng/L and 22.24 ± 2.10 ng/L (P = 0.785). The plasma ghrelin levels increased substantially after treatment in group 1 but showed only minor changes in group 2. Similarly, the gastric ghrelin mRNA expression in group 1 before treatment was 2.84 ± 0.08. After treatment, the level was 3.11 ± 0.65, which was significantly different (P = 0.023). The gastric ghrelin mRNA expression in group 2 did not change significantly during the treatment (2.82 ± 0.44 vs 2.79 ± 0.31, P = 0.875). The plasma ghrelin and gastric ghrelin mRNA levels in group 1 increased substantially after the treatment but did not do so in group 2. In addition, the body mass index the two groups did not differ significantly 2 mo before and after the H. pylori treatment.
CONCLUSION: H. pylori eradication increases the plasma and tissue ghrelin levels in children with H. pylori-associated functional dyspepsia.
Helicobacter pylori; Functional dyspepsia; Ghrelin; Eradication; Children
Previous research has demonstrated that the dual PPARα/γ agonist tesaglitazar reduces atherosclerosis in a mouse model of hyperlipidemia by reducing both lipid content and inflammation in the aorta. However, much of the underlying mechanism of tesaglitazar in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains less clear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether tesaglitazar attenuates NAFLD and atherosclerosis development in diabetic low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr−/−) mice. Female LDLr−/− mice (3 weeks old) were induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) combined with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection to develop an animal model of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The mice were randomly divided into two groups: diabetic group (untreated diabetic mice, n=15) and tesaglitazar therapeutic group (n=15, 20 μg/kg/day oral treatment for 6 weeks). Fifteen LDLr−/− mice were fed with an HFD as the control group. Tesaglitazar decreased serum glucose and lipid levels compared with the diabetic mice. Tesaglitazar significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions, lipid accumulation in the liver, macrophage infiltration, and decreased total hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride content compared to the diabetic mice. In addition, tesaglitazar reduced inflammatory markers at both the serum and mRNA levels. Our data suggest that tesaglitazar may be effective in preventing NAFLD and atherosclerosis in a pre-existing diabetic condition by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism, and the inflammatory response.
atherosclerosis; type 2 diabetes; mice; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; inflammation
Unlike normal tissues, cancers experience profound alterations in protein homeostasis. Powerful innate adaptive mechanisms, especially the transcriptional response regulated by Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1), are activated in cancers to enable survival under these stressful conditions. Natural products that further tax these stress responses can overwhelm the ability to cope and could provide leads for the development of new, broadly effective anticancer drugs. To identify compounds that drive the HSF1-dependent stress response, we evaluated over 80,000 natural and synthetic compounds as well as partially purified natural product extracts using a reporter cell line optimized for high-throughput screening. Surprisingly, many of the strongly active compounds identified were natural products representing five diverse chemical classes (limonoids, curvularins, withanolides, celastraloids and colletofragarones). All of these compounds share the same chemical motif, an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl functionality, with strong potential for thiol-reactivity. Despite the lack of a priori mechanistic requirements in our primary phenotypic screen, this motif was found to be necessary albeit not sufficient, for both heat-shock activation and inhibition of glioma tumor cell growth. Within the withanolide class, a promising therapeutic index for the compound withaferin A was demonstrated in vivo using a stringent orthotopic human glioma xenograft model in mice. Our findings reveal that diverse organisms elaborate structurally complex thiol-reactive metabolites that act on the stress responses of heterologous organisms including humans. From a chemical biology perspective, they define a robust approach for discovering candidate compounds that target the malignant phenotype by disrupting protein homeostasis.
HSP70; HSP90; dehydrocurvularin; celastrol; colletofragarone; glioblastoma; piperlongumine; ROS
Bloom (BLM) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an increased risk for many types of cancers. Previous studies have shown that BLM protein forms a hexameric ring structure, but its oligomeric form in DNA unwinding is still not well clarified. In this work, we have used dynamic light scattering and various stopped-flow assays to study the active form and kinetic mechanism of BLM in DNA unwinding. It was found that BLM multimers were dissociated upon ATP hydrolysis. Steady-state and single-turnover kinetic studies revealed that BLM helicase always unwound duplex DNA in the monomeric form under conditions of varying enzyme and ATP concentrations as well as 3′-ssDNA tail lengths, with no sign of oligomerization being discerned. Measurements of ATPase activity further indicated that BLM helicase might still function as monomers in resolving highly structured DNAs such as Holliday junctions and D-loops. These results shed new light on the underlying mechanism of BLM-mediated DNA unwinding and on the molecular and functional basis for the phenotype of heterozygous carriers of BLM syndrome.
Bioassay-guided fractionation of a solid tumor selective extract of the leaves and twigs of Antheroporum pierrei acquired from the U.S. National Cancer Institute extract repository afforded four new pyranoisoflavones, pierreiones A–D (1 – 4), together with rotenone (5), 12a-hydroxyrotenone (6), and tephrosin (7). The structures of all new compounds were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned with the help of 1H NMR analysis of its Mosher's ester derivatives. Compounds 1, and 5–7 accounted for the majority of the biological activity in terms of either cytotoxicity and/or selective toxicity to solid tumor cell lines. Pierreiones A (1) and B (2) demonstrated solid tumor selectivity with minimal cytotoxicity while pierreione C (3) exhibited no activity.
To screen the risk factors associated with breast cancer among Chinese women in order to evaluate the individual risk of developing breast cancer among women in China.
Material and methods
A case-control study on 416 breast cancer patients and 1156 matched controls was conducted in 14 hospitals in 8 provinces of China in 2008. Controls were age- and region-matched to the cases. Clinicians conducted in-person interviews with the subjects to collect information on demographics and suspected risk factors for breast cancer that are known worldwide. Conditional logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between risk factors and breast cancer.
Compared with matched controls, women with breast cancer were significantly more likely to have higher body mass index (BMI, OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 2.98-5.55), history of benign breast disease (BBD) biopsy (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.19-2.38), older age of menarche (AOM) (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.07-1.87), stress anticipation (SA), for grade 1-4, OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.26-3.66; for grade 5-9, OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 2.03-5.95) and menopause (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.50-3.282) at the level of p < 0.05. Family history of breast cancer (FHBC) in first-degree relatives (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 0.77-3.59) and use of oral contraceptives (OC) (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.83-3.05) were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer at the level of p < 0.20.
Our results showed that BMI, history of BBD biopsy, older AOM, SA and menopause were associated with increased risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. The findings derived from the study provided some suggestions for population-based prevention and control of breast cancer in China.
breast cancer; risk factors; case-control study
Abnormal distribution, modification and aggregation of transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are the hallmarks of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, especially frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Researchers have identified 44 mutations in the TARDBP gene that encode TDP-43 as causative for cases of sporadic and familial ALS http://www.molgen.ua.ac.be/FTDMutations/. Certain mutant forms of TDP-43, such as M337V, are associated with increased low molecular weight (LMW) fragments compared to wild-type (WT) TDP-43 and cause neuronal apoptosis and developmental delay in chick embryos. Such findings support a direct link between altered TDP-43 function and neurodegeneration.
To explore the pathogenic properties of the M337V mutation, we generated and characterized two mouse lines expressing human TDP-43 (hTDP-43M337V) carrying this mutation. hTDP-43M337V was expressed primarily in the nuclei of neurons in the brain and spinal cord, and intranuclear and cytoplasmic phosphorylated TDP-43 aggregates were frequently detected. The levels of TDP-43 LMW products of ~25 kDa and ~35 kDa species were also increased in the transgenic mice. Moreover, overexpression of hTDP-43M337V dramatically down regulated the levels of mouse TDP-43 (mTDP-43) protein and RNA, indicating TDP-43 levels are tightly controlled in mammalian systems. TDP-43M337V mice displayed reactive gliosis, widespread ubiquitination, chromatolysis, gait abnormalities, and early lethality. Abnormal cytoplasmic mitochondrial aggregates and abnormal phosphorylated tau were also detected in the mice.
Our novel TDP-43M337V mouse model indicates that overexpression of hTDP-43M337V alone is toxic in vivo. Because overexpression of hTDP-43 in wild-type TDP-43 and TDP-43M337V mouse models produces similar phenotypes, the mechanisms causing pathogenesis in the mutant model remain unknown. However, our results suggest that overexpression of the hTDP-43M337V can cause neuronal dysfunction due to its effect on a number of cell organelles and proteins, such as mitochondria and TDP-43, that are critical for neuronal activity. The mutant model will serve as a valuable tool in the development of future studies designed to uncover pathways associated with TDP-43 neurotoxicity and the precise roles TDP-43 RNA targets play in neurodegeneration.
aggregation; ALS; mitochondria; mouse model; tau
Closed edges bilayer graphene (CEBG) is a recent discovered novel form of graphene structures, whose regulated edge states may critically change the overall electronic behaviors. If stacked properly with the AB style, the bilayer graphene with closed zigzag edges may even present amazing electronic properties of bandgap opening and charge separation. Experimentally, the CEBG has been confirmed recently with HRTEM observations after extremely high temperature annealing (2000 °C). From the application point of view, the low temperature closing of the graphene edges would be much more feasible for large-scale graphene-based electronic devices fabrication. Here, we demonstrate that the zigzag edges of AB-stacked bilayer graphene will form curved close structure naturally at low annealing temperature (< 500 °C) based on Raman observation and first principles analysis. Such findings may illuminate a simple and easy way to engineer graphene electronics.
Myeloid-related protein 8/14 (MRP8/14) is a stable heterodimer formed by two different calcium-binding proteins (MRP8 and MRP14). Studies have identified that MRP8/14 regulates vascular inflammation and serves as a novel marker of acute coronary syndrome. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between serum levels of MRP8/14, hsCRP, endogenous secretory receptor for advanced glycation end-products (esRAGE) and the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD), or carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) when CAD was not yet developed in diabetic patients.
Serum levels of MRP8/14, esRAGE and hsCRP were measured in 375 diabetic patients. Then the results of those who had CAD were compared against who had not. Also, we investigated the associations between above-mentioned indicators and IMT of subjects without CAD in both diabetic group and non-diabetic one.
Serum MRP8/14 was significantly higher in CAD than in non-CAD group (9.7 ± 3.6 ug/ml vs. 8.2 ± 3.0 ug/ml, P < 0.001). It was associated with severity of CAD (r = 0.16, P = 0.026). In non-CAD group, MRP8/14 was associated with IMT in patients with (r = 0.30, P < 0.001) or without diabetes (r = 0.26, P = 0.015). The areas under the curves of receiver operating characteristic for CAD were 0.63 (95% CI 0.57-0.68) for MRP8/14, 0.76 (95% CI 0.71-0.81) for hsCRP and 0.62 (95% CI 0.56 -0.67) for esRAGE.
In summary, we report that diabetic patients with CAD had elevated plasma MRP8/14 levels which were also positively correlated with the severity of CAD and carotid IMT in patients without clinically overt CAD.
MRP8/14; Diabetes mellitus; Coronary artery disease; Intima media thickness
Transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a principal component of ubiquitinated inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations in TARDBP, the gene encoding TDP-43, are associated with sporadic and familial ALS, yet multiple neurodegenerative diseases exhibit TDP-43 pathology without known TARDBP mutations. While TDP-43 has been ascribed a number of roles in normal biology, including mRNA splicing and transcription regulation, elucidating disease mechanisms associated with this protein is hindered by the lack of models to dissect such functions. We have generated transgenic (TDP-43PrP) mice expressing full-length human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) driven by the mouse prion promoter to provide a tool to analyze the role of wild-type hTDP-43 in the brain and spinal cord. Expression of hTDP-43 caused a dose dependant down regulation of mouse TDP-43 RNA and protein. Moderate overexpression of hTDP-43 resulted in TDP-43 truncation, increased cytoplasmic and nuclear ubiquitin levels, as well as intranuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates that were immunopositive for phosphorylated TDP-43. Of note, abnormal juxtanuclear aggregates of mitochondria were observed, accompanied by enhanced levels of Fis1 and phosphorylated DLP1, key components of the mitochondrial fission machinery. Conversely, a marked reduction in mitofusin 1 expression, which plays an essential role in mitochondrial fusion, was observed in TDP-43PrP mice. Finally, TDP-43PrP mice showed reactive gliosis, axonal and myelin degeneration, gait abnormalities and early lethality. This TDP-43 transgenic line provides a valuable tool for identifying potential roles of wild-type TDP-43 within the central nervous system and for studying TDP-43-associated neurotoxicity.
mitochondria; motor neuron disease; neuropathology; protein aggregation; transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43; transgenic mice