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1.  Pandemic Influenza in Africa, Lessons Learned from 1968: A Systematic Review of the Literature 
Background
To help understand the potential impact of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Africa, we reviewed published data from Africa of the two previous influenza pandemics.
Methods
We conducted a systematic search of three biomedical databases for articles in any language on 1957 H2N2 or 1968 H3N2 pandemic influenza virus infection in Africa published from January 1950 through August 2008.
Results
We identified 1327 potentially relevant articles, and 298 warranted further review. Fourteen studies on 1968 H3N2 influenza met inclusion criteria, while two studies identified describing 1957 H2N2 were excluded for data limitations. Among these 14 studies, community attack rates for symptomatic infection during all 1968 pandemic waves were around 20%. However, the proportion infected in communities ranged from 6% in isolated communities to 100% in enclosed populations. A total of 22–64% of sampled clinic patients and 8–72% of hospitalized patients had evidence of 1968 H3N2 virus infection. After the second pandemic wave, up to 41–75% of persons tested had serological evidence of 1968 H3N2 virus infection.
Conclusion
The 1968 H3N2 influenza pandemic, generally regarded as mild worldwide, appears to have had a substantial impact upon public health in Africa. Without more epidemiologic data the impact of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Africa cannot be assumed to have been mild. Assessment of the burden of 2009 H1N1 virus and future influenza pandemics in Africa should attempt to assess disease impact by a variety of methods, including substudies among specific populations.
doi:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00257.x
PMCID: PMC3175329  PMID: 21668669
3.  Recognition of changes in microvascular and microstructural patterns upon magnifying endoscopy predicted the presence of extranodal gastric MALToma 
Background and objectives
Gastric MALToma is difficult to recognize upon endoscopy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the application of microstructural and microvascular patterns in recognizing gastric MALToma on magnifying endoscopy.
Method
All patients with diagnosis of gastric MALToma upon histology were recruited. They received magnifying endoscopy to observe for changes in microstructural and microvascular patterns. For patients with H pylori, eradication therapy would be given. For those without, appropriate treatments including gastrectomy or chemotherapy were commenced accordingly. Patients treated with H pylori eradication and non-operative treatments received follow-up magnifying endoscopy, and the same features were observed to predict the response to these treatments.
Results
From 2004 to 2007, nine patients presented to with epigastric pain, dyspepsia and belching. All patients were confirmed to have MALToma upon initial biopsy. Five patients had H pylori infection and received eradication. Two patients without H pylori were treated with Laparoscopic total gastrectomy. Two patients had pulmonary metastasis and treated with chemotherapy. Under magnifying endoscopy, all the lesions demonstrated either absence or irregular gastric pits. Moreover, there was consistently appearance of spider-shaped vascular pattern. Five patients with H pylori eradication had follow-up magnifying endoscopy, four of them showed resolution of abnormal vascular pattern and recovery of gastric pits.
Conclusion
Abnormal spider like vasculature and disappearance of gastric pits are diagnostic features upon magnifying endoscopy for gastric MALToma. These features enhanced the diagnosis and assessment of extent of involvement during primary endoscopy, as well as follow-up surveillance for response to non-operative treatments.
doi:10.4161/jig.20125
PMCID: PMC3350901  PMID: 22586541
gastric MALToma; endoscopy; microvascular and microstructural patterns
4.  A lady with unresolved loin pain 
A history of cardiac disease, especially atrial fibrillation, together with symptoms such as loin or abdominal pain, and accompanied by an elevated lactate dehydrogenase should prompt a computed tomography scan to exclude the diagnosis of acute renal infarction.
doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.070404
PMCID: PMC2254463  PMID: 18299628
5.  Late retroperitoneal recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma 12 years after initial diagnosis 
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive tumor with poor long-term prognosis. Here, we present an unusual patient with a solitary recurrence of HCC in the right kidney 12 years after the initial diagnosis. This illustrates the importance of considering late recurrence in patients with a history of HCC and the management of these metastases.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i17.2187
PMCID: PMC2864847  PMID: 20440862
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Late recurrence; Metastasis; Retroperitoneal

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