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2.  Early detection of prostate cancer local recurrence by urinary prostate-specific antigen 
Purpose:
We assessed the role of urinary prostate-specific antigen (uPSA) in the follow-up of prostate cancer after retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) for the early detection of local recurrences.
Methods:
We recruited 50 patients previously treated for prostate cancer with RRP and who had not experienced a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence within their first postoperative year into a cross-sectional laboratory assessment and prospective 6-year longitudinal follow-up study. We defined biochemical failure as a serum PSA (sPSA) of 0.3 μg/L or greater. Patients provided blood samples and a 50-mL sample of first-voided urine. We performed Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher exact tests for statistical analysis.
Results:
The median sPSA was 0.13 μg/L. The median uPSA was 0.8 μg/L, and was not significantly different when comparing Gleason scores or pathological stages. Of the 50 patients, 27 initially had a nondetectable sPSA but a detectable uPSA, and 11 patients experienced sPSA failure after 6 years. Six patients had detectable sPSA and uPSA initially. Fifteen patients were negative for both sPSA and uPSA, and 13 remained sPSA-free after 6 years. The odds ratio (OR) of having sPSA failure given a positive uPSA test was 4.5 if sPSA was undetectable, but was reduced to 2.6 if sPSA was detectable. The pooled Mantel–Haenszel OR of 4.2 suggested that a detectable uPSA quadrupled the risk of recurrence, independent of whether sPSA was elevated or not. The sensitivity of uPSA for detecting future sPSA recurrences was 81% and specificity was 45%.
Conclusion:
Urinary PSA could contribute to an early detection of local recurrences of prostate cancer after a radical prostatectomy.
PMCID: PMC2692171  PMID: 19543465
3.  Urinary PSA: a potential useful marker when serum PSA is between 2.5 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL 
Introduction
Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of urinary prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer.
Methods
We undertook a prospective study and obtained informed consent from 170 men. They provided blood samples to measure serum PSA and 50 mL of first-voided urine to measure urinary PSA. Seventy-seven men were diagnosed with BPH; 42 patients had newly diagnosed prostate cancer; and 51 were selected as age-matched control subjects. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank tests, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression.
Results
Prostate volume was 35 cm3 and 45 cm3 (p < 0.05), serum PSA was 9.7 ng/mL and 4.5 ng/mL (p < 0.001) and PSA density was 0.28 and 0.11 (p < 0.01) for prostate cancer and BPH patients, respectively. Overall, urinary PSA was not significantly different, but PSA ratio (urinary:serum) was significantly different at 6.7 and 30.6 (p < 0.001) for prostate cancer and BPH patients, respectively. A subgroup with serum PSA between 2.5 ng/mL and 10.0 ng/mL was selected and urinary PSA was significant: 52.6 ng/mL (n = 29) and 123.2 ng/mL (n = 35) (p < 0.05) for prostate cancer and BPH patients, respectively. PSA ratios were also significant (p = 0.007). ROC curves identified a cutoff for urinary PSA at > 150 ng/mL, with a sensitivity of 92.5%. When comparing prostate cancer patients with age-matched control subjects, serum PSA, urinary PSA and PSA ratio were different (p = 0.004).
Conclusion
Our study supports urinary PSA as a useful marker in the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and BPH, especially when serum PSA is between 2.5 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL. Low urinary PSA and PSA ratios point toward prostate cancer. A urinary PSA threshold of > 150 ng/mL may be used to decrease the number of prostatic biopsies.
PMCID: PMC2422995  PMID: 18542821

Results 1-3 (3)