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3.  Socioeconomic factors and epinephrine prescription in children with peanut allergy 
Paediatrics & Child Health  2011;16(6):341-344.
BACKGROUND:
Epinephrine autoinjectors provide life-saving therapy for individuals with peanut allergies.
OJECTIVE:
To evaluate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and epinephrine prescription among urban Canadian children with peanut allergy.
METHODS:
Population-based survey data from school children in grades 1 and 2 participating in the Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire were used. Children with peanut allergy, their epinephrine autoinjector prescription status and their SES were identified by parental report.
RESULTS:
Between January and April 2006, 5619 completed questionnaires from 231 Toronto, Ontario, schools were returned. A total of 153 (2.83%) children were identified as having a peanut allergy, 68.6% of whom reported being prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector. Children from upper-middle and high-income homes (OR 8.35 [95% CI 2.72 to 25.61]) and with asthma (OR 4.74 [95% CI 1.56 to 14.47]) were more likely to report having an epinephrine prescription.
CONCLUSION:
A significant health disparity exists in the prescribing pattern of epinephrine autoinjectors for peanut-allergic children from families of differing SES.
PMCID: PMC3328231  PMID: 22654545
Epidemiology; Health disparities; Peanut allergy; Socioeconomic status
7.  Indoor Environmental Differences between Inner City and Suburban Homes of Children with Asthma 
We conducted this study to compare environmental exposures in suburban homes of children with asthma to exposures in inner city homes of children with asthma, to better understand important differences of indoor pollutant exposure that might contribute to increased asthma morbidity in the inner city. Indoor PM10, PM2.5, NO2, O3, and airborne and dust allergen levels were measured in the homes of 120 children with asthma, 100 living in inner city Baltimore and 20 living in the surrounding counties. Home conditions and health outcome measures were also compared. The inner city and suburban homes differed in ways that might affect airborne environmental exposures. The inner city homes had more cigarette smoking (67% vs. 5%, p < .001), signs of disrepair (77% vs. 5%, p < .001), and cockroach (64% vs. 0%, p < .001) and mouse (80% vs. 5%, p < .001) infestation. The inner city homes had higher geometric mean (GM) levels (p < .001) of PM10 (47 vs. 18 μg/m3), PM2.5 (34 vs. 8.7 μg/m3), NO2 [19 ppb vs. below detection (BD)], and O3 (1.9 vs. .015 ppb) than suburban homes. The inner city homes had lower GM bedroom dust allergen levels of dust mite (.29 vs. 1.2 μg/g, p = .022), dog (.38 vs. 5.5 μg/g, p < .001) and cat (.75 vs. 2.4 μg/g, p = .039), but higher levels of mouse (3.2 vs. .013 μg/g, p < .001) and cockroach (4.5 vs. .42 U/g, p < .001). The inner city homes also had higher GM airborne mouse allergen levels (.055 vs. .016 ng/m3, p = .002). Compared with the homes of suburban children with asthma, the homes of inner city Baltimore children with asthma had higher levels of airborne pollutants and home characteristics that predispose to greater asthma morbidity.
doi:10.1007/s11524-007-9205-3
PMCID: PMC2219555  PMID: 17551839
Indoor air; Inner city asthma; Particulate matter; Air pollution; Allergens

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