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1.  Clinical and economic consequences of vancomycin and fidaxomicin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in Canada 
Current treatment options for Clostridium difficile are limited. Recent trials have demonstrated the noninferiority of the new macrocyclic antibiotic fidaxomicin to vancomycin, the current standard treatment for more severe disease. Fidaxomicin has also been associated with fewer recurrences; however, the increased cost compared with vancomycin has precluded it from becoming the new standard therapy. The authors of this article conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis for vancomycin versus fidaxomicin, and investigated implications for the use of these antibiotics to treat C difficile infections in the Canadian health care system.
BACKGROUND:
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents a public health problem with increasing incidence and severity.
OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the clinical and economic consequences of vancomycin compared with fidaxomicin in the treatment of CDI from the Canadian health care system perspective.
METHODS:
A decision-tree model was developed to compare vancomycin and fidaxomicin for the treatment of severe CDI. The model assumed identical initial cure rates and included first recurrent episodes of CDI (base case). Treatment of patients presenting with recurrent CDI was examined as an alternative analysis. Costs included were for study medication, physician services and hospitalization. Cost effectiveness was measured as incremental cost per recurrence avoided. Sensitivity analyses of key input parameters were performed.
RESULTS:
In a cohort of 1000 patients with an initial episode of severe CDI, treatment with fidaxomicin led to 137 fewer recurrences at an incremental cost of $1.81 million, resulting in an incremental cost of $13,202 per recurrence avoided. Among 1000 patients with recurrent CDI, 113 second recurrences were avoided at an incremental cost of $18,190 per second recurrence avoided. Incremental costs per recurrence avoided increased with increasing proportion of cases caused by the NAP1/B1/027 strain. Results were sensitive to variations in recurrence rates and treatment duration but were robust to variations in other parameters.
CONCLUSIONS:
The use of fidaxomicin is associated with a cost increase for the Canadian health care system. Clinical benefits of fidaxomicin compared with vancomycin depend on the proportion of cases caused by the NAP1/B1/027 strain in patients with severe CDI.
PMCID: PMC4028674  PMID: 24855476
Clostridium difficile; Cost effectiveness; Fidaxomicin; Recurrence; Vancomycin
2.  The Action of Antidiabetic Plants of the Canadian James Bay Cree Traditional Pharmacopeia on Key Enzymes of Hepatic Glucose Homeostasis 
We determined the capacity of putative antidiabetic plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree (Canada) to modulate key enzymes of gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis and key regulating kinases. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and glycogen synthase (GS) activities were assessed in cultured hepatocytes treated with crude extracts of seventeen plant species. Phosphorylation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), Akt, and Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) were probed by Western blot. Seven of the seventeen plant extracts significantly decreased G6Pase activity, Abies balsamea and Picea glauca, exerting an effect similar to insulin. This action involved both Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, several plant extracts activated GS, Larix laricina and A. balsamea, far exceeding the action of insulin. We also found a significant correlation between GS stimulation and GSK-3 phosphorylation induced by plant extract treatments. In summary, three Cree plants stand out for marked effects on hepatic glucose homeostasis. P. glauca affects glucose production whereas L. laricina rather acts on glucose storage. However, A. balsamea has the most promising profile, simultaneously and powerfully reducing G6Pase and stimulating GS. Our studies thus confirm that the reduction of hepatic glucose production likely contributes to the therapeutic potential of several antidiabetic Cree traditional medicines.
doi:10.1155/2013/189819
PMCID: PMC3707264  PMID: 23864882
4.  Comprehensive Evidence-Based Assessment and Prioritization of Potential Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants: A Case Study from Canadian Eastern James Bay Cree Traditional Medicine 
Canadian Aboriginals, like others globally, suffer from disproportionately high rates of diabetes. A comprehensive evidence-based approach was therefore developed to study potential antidiabetic medicinal plants stemming from Canadian Aboriginal Traditional Medicine to provide culturally adapted complementary and alternative treatment options. Key elements of pathophysiology of diabetes and of related contemporary drug therapy are presented to highlight relevant cellular and molecular targets for medicinal plants. Potential antidiabetic plants were identified using a novel ethnobotanical method based on a set of diabetes symptoms. The most promising species were screened for primary (glucose-lowering) and secondary (toxicity, drug interactions, complications) antidiabetic activity by using a comprehensive platform of in vitro cell-based and cell-free bioassays. The most active species were studied further for their mechanism of action and their active principles identified though bioassay-guided fractionation. Biological activity of key species was confirmed in animal models of diabetes. These in vitro and in vivo findings are the basis for evidence-based prioritization of antidiabetic plants. In parallel, plants were also prioritized by Cree Elders and healers according to their Traditional Medicine paradigm. This case study highlights the convergence of modern science and Traditional Medicine while providing a model that can be adapted to other Aboriginal realities worldwide.
doi:10.1155/2012/893426
PMCID: PMC3247006  PMID: 22235232

Results 1-4 (4)