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1.  IL-17 Enhances Chemotaxis of Primary Human B Cells during Asthma 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114604.
IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory mediator that is believed to play a critical role in regulating tissue inflammation during asthma, COPD, as well as other inflammatory disorders. The level of expression of IL-17 has been shown to be upregulated in lung bronchial tissue of asthmatic patients. Several reports have provided further evidence that this cytokine could play a key role in enhancing the migration of inflammatory as well as structural cells of the bronchial lung tissue during asthma and COPD. B cell infiltration to sites of inflammation during inflammatory disorders such as bowel disease, asthma and COPD has been reported. Accordingly, in this study we hypothesized that IL-17 may exert a chemotactic effect on primary B cells during asthma. We observed that B cells from asthmatic patients expressed significantly higher levels of IL-17RA and IL-17RC, compared to those of healthy subjects. Using an in-vitro migration assay, B cells were shown to migrate towards both IL-17A and IL-17F. Interestingly, blocking IL-17A and IL-17F signaling using either anti-IL-17R antibodies or MAP kinase inhibitors prevented in vitro migration of B cell towards IL-17. These observations indicate a direct chemotactic effect of IL-17 cytokines on primary peripheral blood B cells with higher effect being on asthmatic B cells. These findings revealed a key role for IL-17 in enhancing the migration of B cells to the lung tissue during asthma or COPD.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114604
PMCID: PMC4262428  PMID: 25494178
2.  IL-4 receptor alpha single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1805010 and rs1801275 are associated with increased risk of asthma in a Saudi Arabian population 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2014;9(2):81-86.
BACKGROUND:
The IL-4 receptor alpha subunit (IL-4Rα), when associated with the common gamma chain receptor, or the IL-13Rα1 subunit, transduces signals to STAT6 in response to IL-4 and IL-13 stimulations. This results in a number of cell-specific responses including Th2 differentiation, lymphocyte proliferation and IgE production. Given the prominent role of IL-4Rα in allergic disorders, several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found associated with asthma and other atopic disorders, including rs1805010 (I75V) and rs1801275 (Q576R) SNPs; however, lack of significant association have also been reported for some ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether IL-4Rα rs1805010 and rs1801275 polymorphisms are associated with asthma in patients from Saudi Arabia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
One hundred and ninety severe asthmatic patients (11-70 years old) and 194 healthy subjects of equivalent age range were recruited for blood donation. DNA was purified and genotyping for rs1801275 and rs1805010 polymorphisms in the IL-4Rα gene was performed by PCR amplification, followed by cycle sequencing of the purified PCR fragments using BigDye chain terminator and capillary electrophoresis.
RESULTS:
Pearson's Chi-square tests showed that the minor alleles, G, for both rs1805010 and rs1801275 SNPs, were significantly more frequent in asthmatics than in the healthy group (Yates’ P < 0.05); conversely, the major alleles, A, were significantly more frequent in healthy than in asthmatics (P < 0.05). Concerning association analysis, odds for A/G-G/G genotypes were significantly higher to be associated with asthma predisposition (rs1801275: OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.39-3.22; P < 0.001*; rs1805010: OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.01-2.53; P < 0.05*; dominant model). Analysis of gender-genotype interactions, with genders nested within A/G-G/G, indicated higher odds for females than males of significant association with asthma (rs1801275: OR = 5.19, 95% CI = 2.09-12.94*; rs1805010: OR = 3.73, 95% CI = 2.06-6.74*). Rs1805010 and rs1801275 were in linkage disequilibrium (D’ = 0.27; P < 0.0004*), with G-G haplotype being more frequent in asthmatics than in healthy subjects (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.59-3.71*).
CONCLUSIONS:
The risk alleles, G, of IL-4Rα rs1805010 and rs1801275 SNPs and corresponding A/G-G/G genotypes were significantly associated with asthma predisposition in asthmatics from Saudi Arabia.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.128849
PMCID: PMC4005166  PMID: 24791170
Asthma; allergy; association; genotype; IL-4 receptor alpha; susceptibility; STAT6
3.  MR imaging and targeting of a specific alveolar macrophage subpopulation in LPS-induced COPD animal model using antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles 
Purpose
Targeting and noninvasive imaging of a specific alveolar macrophage subpopulation in the lung has revealed the importance for early and better diagnosis and therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, the in vivo effect of pulmonary administration of iron oxide nanoparticles on the polarization profile of macrophages was assessed, and a noninvasive free-breathing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol coupled with the use of biocompatible antibody-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles was developed to enable specific targeting and imaging of a particular macrophage subpopulation in lipopolysaccharide-induced COPD mice model.
Materials and methods
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Real-time polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry analysis were performed to assess the biocompatibility of PEGylated dextran-coated SPIO nanoparticles. Specific biomarkers for M1 and M2 macrophages subsets were selected for conjugation with magnetic nanoparticles. MRI protocol using ultra-short echo time sequence was optimized to enable simultaneous detection of inflammation progress in the lung and detection of macrophages subsets. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis were finally performed to confirm MRI readouts and to characterize the polarization profile of targeted macrophages.
Results
The tested SPIO nanoparticles, under the current experimental conditions, were found to be biocompatible for lung administration in preclinical settings. Cluster of differentiation (CD)86- and CD206-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles enabled successful noninvasive detection of M1 and M2 macrophage subpopulations, respectively, and were found to co-localize with inflammatory regions induced by lipopolysaccharide challenge. No variation in the polarization profile of targeted macrophages was observed, even though a continuum switch in their polarization might occur. However, further confirmatory studies are required to conclusively establish this observation.
Conclusion
Coupling of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a specific antibody targeted to a particular macrophage subpopulation could offer a promising strategy for an early and better diagnosis of pulmonary inflammatory diseases using noninvasive MRI.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S59394
PMCID: PMC3969341  PMID: 24711699
magnetic resonance imaging; MRI; lung imaging; lung inflammation; iron oxide nanoparticles; macrophage tracking; lipopolysaccharide
4.  Preferential Macrophage Recruitment and Polarization in LPS-Induced Animal Model for COPD: Noninvasive Tracking Using MRI 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e90829.
Noninvasive imaging of macrophages activity has raised increasing interest for diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory diseases (COPD), which make them attractive vehicles to deliver contrast agents for diagnostic or drugs for therapeutic purposes. This study was designed to monitor and evaluate the migration of differently polarized M1 and M2 iron labeled macrophage subsets to the lung of a LPS-induced COPD animal model and to assess their polarization state once they have reached the inflammatory sites in the lung after intravenous injection. Ex vivo polarized bone marrow derived M1 or M2 macrophages were first efficiently and safely labeled with amine-modified PEGylated dextran-coated SPIO nanoparticles and without altering their polarization profile. Their biodistribution in abdominal organs and their homing to the site of inflammation in the lung was tracked for the first time using a free-breathing non-invasive MR imaging protocol on a 4.7T magnet after their intravenous administration. This imaging protocol was optimized to allow both detection of iron labeled macrophages and visualization of inflammation in the lung. M1 and M2 macrophages were successfully detected in the lung starting from 2 hours post injection with no variation in their migration profile. Quantification of cytokines release, analysis of surface membrane expression using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry investigations confirmed the successful recruitment of injected iron labeled macrophages in the lung of COPD mice and revealed that even with a continuum switch in the polarization profile of M1 and M2 macrophages during the time course of inflammation a balanced number of macrophage subsets predominate.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090829
PMCID: PMC3945006  PMID: 24598763
5.  lnherited IL-12p40 deficiency: genetic, immunological, and clinical features of 49 patients from 30 kindreds 
Medicine  2013;92(2):10.1097/MD.0b013e31828a01f9.
Autosomal recessive interleukin (IL)-12 p40 (IL-12p40) deficiency is thought to be a rare genetic etiology of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). We report the genetic, immunological and clinical features of 49 patients from 30 kindreds originating from 5 countries (India, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia). There are only 9 different mutant alleles of the IL12B gene: including 2 small insertions, 3 small deletions, 2 splice site mutations and 1 large deletion, all frameshift and leading to a premature stop codon, and 1 nonsense mutation. Four of these 9 variants are recurrent, affecting 25 of the 30 reported kindreds, due to founder effects in specific countries. All patients are homozygous and display complete IL-12p40 deficiency. As a result, the patients lack detectable IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 and have low levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ). The clinical features are characterized by childhood onset of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain) (BCG) and Salmonella infections, with recurrences of salmonellosis (36.4%) more common than recurrences of mycobacterial disease (25%). BCG vaccination led to BCG disease in 40 of the 41 patients vaccinated (97.5%). Multiple mycobacterial infections were rare, observed in only 3 patients, whereas the association of salmonellosis and mycobacteriosis was observed in 9 patients. A few other infections were diagnosed, including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) (n=3), nocardiosis (n=2), and klebsiellosis (n=1). IL-12p40 deficiency has a high but incomplete clinical penetrance, with 33.3% of genetically affected relatives of index cases showing no symptoms. However, the prognosis is poor, with mortality rates of up to 28.6%. Overall, the clinical phenotype of IL-12p40 deficiency closely resembles that of interleukin 12 receptor β1 (IL12R-β1) deficiency. In conclusion, IL-12p40 deficiency is more common than initially thought and should be considered worldwide in patients with MSMD and other intra-macrophagic infectious diseases, salmonellosis in particular.
doi:10.1097/MD.0b013e31828a01f9
PMCID: PMC3822760  PMID: 23429356
6.  Antibodies to gp120 and PD-1 Expression on Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells in Protection from Simian AIDS 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(6):3526-3537.
We compared the relative efficacies against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge of three vaccine regimens that elicited similar frequencies of SIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses but differed in the level of antibody responses to the gp120 envelope protein. All macaques were primed with DNA plasmids expressing SIV gag, pol, env, and Retanef genes and were boosted with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing the same genes, either once (1 × MVA) or twice (2 × MVA), or were boosted once with MVA followed by a single boost with replication-competent adenovirus (Ad) type 5 host range mutant (Ad5 h) expressing SIV gag and nef genes but not Retanef or env (1 × MVA/Ad5). While two of the vaccine regimens (1 × MVA and 1 × MVA/Ad5) protected from high levels of SIV replication only during the acute phase of infection, the 2 × MVA regimen, with the highest anti-SIV gp120 titers, protected during the acute phase and transiently during the chronic phase of infection. Mamu-A*01 macaques of this third group exhibited persistent Gag CD8+CM9+ effector memory T cells with low expression of surface Programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor and high levels of expression of genes associated with major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and MHC-II antigen. The fact that control of SIV replication was associated with both high titers of antibodies to the SIV envelope protein and durable effector SIV-specific CD8+ T cells suggests the hypothesis that the presence of antibodies at the time of challenge may increase innate immune recruiting activity by enhancing antigen uptake and may result in improvement of the quality and potency of secondary SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02686-12
PMCID: PMC3592123  PMID: 23325679
7.  Distribution of selected gene polymorphisms of UGT1A1 in a Saudi population 
Introduction
Glucuronidation is an important phase II pathway responsible for the metabolism of many endogenous substances and drugs to less toxic metabolites, which undergo renal excretion. The aim of the current work was to evaluate genotype and allele frequencies of certain UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) variants in an Arab population.
Material and methods
Genomic DNA was isolated from 192 healthy unrelated Saudi males of various geographic regions and genotyping of UGT1A1*6, *27, *36, *28, *37, and *60 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by direct sequencing.
Results
The most common allele for (TA) repeats was the wild type (TA)6 with a frequency of 74.3% followed by the mutant (TA)7 (i.e., UGT1A1*28) with a frequency of 25.7%. The distribution of UGT1A1*60 allele was 62.4% among subjects with the homozygous mutant genotype of 35.4%, while the wild type variant represents 10.6% only. Both UGT1A1*6 and *27 were not detected as all screened subjects showed a homozygous wild type pattern. Similarly, UGT1A1*36* and *37 were either not present or rarely found, respectively. In comparison to other populations, the frequency of UGT1A1*60 and *28 in the studied population was less than that of African Americans but higher than Asians. The geographical origin of the study subjects also implied some differences in genotype distribution of (TA) repeats and UGT1A1*60.
Conclusions
Our data indicate that Saudis harbor some important UGT1A1 mutations known to affect enzyme activity. Additional studies are warranted to assess the clinical implications of these gene polymorphisms in this ethnic group.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2013.37012
PMCID: PMC3776187  PMID: 24049537
glucuronidation; UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1; gene polymorphism; Saudi Arabians
8.  Th17 cytokines induce pro-fibrotic cytokines release from human eosinophils 
Respiratory Research  2013;14(1):34.
Background
Subepithelial fibrosis is one of the most critical structural changes affecting bronchial airway function during asthma. Eosinophils have been shown to contribute to the production of pro-fibrotic cytokines, TGF-β and IL-11, however, the mechanism regulating this process is not fully understood.
Objective
In this report, we investigated whether cytokines associated with inflammation during asthma may induce eosinophils to produce pro-fibrotic cytokines.
Methods
Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of 10 asthmatics and 10 normal control subjects. Eosinophils were stimulated with Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines and the production of TGF-β and IL-11 was determined using real time PCR and ELISA assays.
Results
The basal expression levels of eosinophil derived TGF-β and IL-11 cytokines were comparable between asthmatic and healthy individuals. Stimulating eosinophils with Th1 and Th2 cytokines did not induce expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines. However, stimulating eosinophils with Th17 cytokines resulted in the enhancement of TGF-β and IL-11 expression in asthmatic but not healthy individuals. This effect of IL-17 on eosinophils was dependent on p38 MAPK activation as inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not other kinases, inhibited IL-17 induced pro-fibrotic cytokine release.
Conclusions
Th17 cytokines might contribute to airway fibrosis during asthma by enhancing production of eosinophil derived pro-fibrotic cytokines. Preventing the release of pro-fibrotic cytokines by blocking the effect of Th17 cytokines on eosinophils may prove to be beneficial in controlling fibrosis for disorders with IL-17 driven inflammation such as allergic and autoimmune diseases.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-14-34
PMCID: PMC3602055  PMID: 23496774
Asthma; Eosinophils; Th17 cytokines; Pro-fibrotic cytokines; TGF-β; IL-11
9.  Improper inhaler technique is associated with poor asthma control and frequent emergency department visits 
Background
Uncontrolled asthma remains a frequent cause of emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions. Improper asthma inhaler device use is most likely one of the major causes associated with uncontrolled asthma and frequent ED visits.
Objectives
To evaluate the inhaler technique among asthmatic patients seen in ED, and to investigate the characteristics of these patients and factors associated with improper use of inhaler devices and its relationship with asthma control and ED visits.
Methods
A cross-sectional study of all the patients who visited the ED with bronchial asthma attacks over a 9-month period was undertaken at two major academic hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Information was collected about demographic data and asthma management and we assessed the inhaler techniques for each patient using an inhaler technique checklist.
Results
A total of 450 asthma patients were included in the study. Of these, 176(39.1%) were males with a mean age of 42.3 ±16.7 years and the mean duration of asthma was 155.9 ± 127.1 weeks. The improper use of asthma inhaler devices was observed in 203(45%) of the patients and was associated with irregular clinic follow-ups (p = 0.0001), lack of asthma education (p = 0.0009), uncontrolled asthma ACT (score ≤ 15) (p = 0.001), three or more ED visits (p = 0.0497), and duration of asthma of less than 52 weeks (p = 0.005). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that a lack of education about asthma disease (OR =1.65; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54) or a lack of regular follow-up (OR =1.73; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.76) was more likely to lead to the improper use of an asthma inhaler device.
Conclusion
Improper asthma inhaler device use is associated with poor asthma control and more frequent ED visits. We also identified many avoidable risk factors leading to the improper use of inhaler devices among asthma patients visiting the ED.
doi:10.1186/1710-1492-9-8
PMCID: PMC3605255  PMID: 23510684
Asthma control; Inhaled corticosteroid; Emergency department; Inhaler devices; Asthma education
10.  Down-Regulation of CTLA-4 by HIV-1 Nef Protein 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e54295.
HIV-1 Nef protein down-regulates several cell surface receptors through its interference with the cell sorting and trafficking machinery. Here we demonstrate for the first time the ability of Nef to down-regulate cell surface expression of the negative immune modulator CTLA-4. Down-regulation of CTLA-4 required the Nef motifs DD175, EE155 and LL165, all known to be involved in vesicle trafficking. Disruption of the lysosomal functions by pH-neutralizing agents prevented CTLA-4 down-regulation by Nef, demonstrating the implication of the endosomal/lysosomal compartments in this process. Confocal microscopy experiments visualized the co-localization between Nef and CTLA-4 in the early and recycling endosomes but not at the cell surface. Overall, our results provide a novel mechanism by which HIV-1 Nef interferes with the surface expression of the negative regulator of T cell activation CTLA-4. Down-regulation of CTLA-4 may contribute to the mechanisms by which HIV-1 sustains T cell activation, a critical step in viral replication and dissemination.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054295
PMCID: PMC3553160  PMID: 23372701
11.  Factors associated with patient visits to the emergency department for asthma therapy 
Background
Acute asthma attacks remain a frequent cause of emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admission. Many factors encourage patients to seek asthma treatment at the emergency department. These factors may be related to the patient himself or to a health system that hinders asthma control. The aim of this study was to identify the main factors that lead to the frequent admission of asthmatic patients to the ED.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey of all the patients who visited the emergency room with bronchial asthma attacks over a 9-month period was undertaken at two major academic hospitals. The following data were collected: demographic data, asthma control in the preceding month, where and by whom the patients were treated, whether the patient received education about asthma or its medication and the patients’ reasons for visiting the ED.
Result
Four hundred fifty (N = 450) patients were recruited, 39.1% of whom were males with a mean age of 42.3 ± 16.7. The mean duration of asthma was 155.90 ± 127.13 weeks. Approximately half of the patients did not receive any information about bronchial asthma as a disease, and 40.7% did not receive any education regarding how to use asthma medication. Asthma was not controlled or partially controlled in the majority (97.7%) of the patients preceding the admission to ED. The majority of the patients visited the ED to receive a bronchodilator by nebuliser (86.7%) and to obtain oxygen (75.1%). Moreover, 20.9% of the patients believed that the ED managed them faster than the clinic, and 21.1% claimed that their symptoms were severe enough that they could not wait for a clinic visit. No education about asthma and uncontrolled asthma are the major factors leading to frequent ED visits (three or more visits/year), p-value = 0.0145 and p-value = 0.0003, respectively. Asthma control also exhibited a significant relationship with inhaled corticosteroid ICS use (p-value =0.0401) and education about asthma (p-value =0.0117).
Conclusion
This study demonstrates that many avoidable risk factors lead to uncontrolled asthma and frequent ED visits.
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-12-80
PMCID: PMC3534524  PMID: 23244616
Asthma; Control; Inhaled cortisone; Emergency department
13.  514 Role of TH-17 Cytokines in Steroid Insensitivity in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. Relationship to GR-alpha and GR-beta Expression 
Background
Inhaled corticosteroids represent the most common treatment for asthma. Although most asthmatic patients respond well, a significant proportion of severe asthmatics require higher doses or even fail to respond to oral or inhaled corticosteroids. We previously reported that glucocorticoid receptor-beta is associated with corticosteroid resistance in airway epithelial cells from asthmatic patients and that Th-17 cytokines increase steroid insensitivity via a mechanism involving GR-beta upregulation. We aim to investigate whether IL-17A and F cytokines enhance steroid unresponsiveness in PBMCs from normal subjects and severe asthmatics via the upregulation of GR-beta isoform.
Methods
PBMCs were cultured for 48 hours in the presence or absence of IL-2, IL-4, IL-17A, IL-17F or IL-23 cytokines. Expression of GR-alpha, GR-beta, GILZ and IL-6 was determined using Q-RT-PCR and/or Western blotting. Response to Dexamethasone was determined on the inhibition of PHA-induced proliferation by Dexamethasone (IC50) using either 3H-thymidine or CFSE-labelled cells. Response of the cells to Dexamethasone-induced apoptosis was determined by Annexin-V staining.
Results
Treatment of PBMCs with IL-17A+IL-17F combined significantly decreased the mRNA expression of GR-alpha while that of GR-beta was significantly upregulated. IL-2+IL-4 in combination significantly decreased GR-alpha expression but had no effect on GR-beta receptor expression. IL17A+IL17F+IL23 combined induced the highest ratio of GR-beta/GR-alpha in PBMC from normal subjects. Either IL-17A+F or IL-2+IL-4 combinations significantly decreased the inhibitory effect of Dexamethasone on PBMC proliferation (IL-17A+F IC50 = 190 nM Dex; IL-2+4 IC50 = 1060 nM Dex), when compared to the control without cytokine stimulation. In the presence of Dexamethasone, IL-2+IL-4 but not IL-17A+IL-17F, inhibited the expression of the glucocorticoid-inducible leucine zipper gene (GILZ) in PBMCs from both normal (60%) and asthmatics (45–50%), which was correlated with significantly higher apoptosis in cells stimulated with IL-2+IL-4.
Conclusions
IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-2, and IL-4, which are known to be upregulated in the blood and lung tissue of asthmatics, contribute to steroid insensitivity of severe asthmatic patients by modulating the expression of GR-alpha and GR-beta receptors on peripheral blood PBMCs. GR-beta could protect PBMCs from Dex-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the increased GR-beta/GR-alpha ratios by both IL-17A+F and IL-2+4 cytokines correlates with the decreased inhibitory effect of Dexamethasone on PHA-induced PBMC proliferation.
doi:10.1097/01.WOX.0000411629.24667.df
PMCID: PMC3512825
14.  513 IL-17 Role in the Regulatory Function of B Cells 
Background
B lymphocytes are known to be important cytokine sources in inflammation and play a pathogenic role by producing autoantibodies in a number of chronic immunological diseases. However, B cell depletion therapy induced an exacerbation of symptoms in some patients with autoimmune disorders, revealing that B cells play a critical anti-inflammatory role mediated by IL-10 release. We therefore investigated the human B cell regulatory subset producing IL-10 in response to stimulation.
Methods
Highly purified B cells were obtained from tonsils by using a multiple-step separation procedure which included rosette depletion, adherence depletion, CD3+ cell magnetic-activated depletion and CD19+ magnetic-activated positive cell selection. CD20+ purity was verified by flow cytometry. The CD19+CD20+ B cells were stimulated with CpG oligonucleotide, IL-4, IFN-gamma, anti-CD40, IL-17A and IL-17F, either alone or in combination. The expression of both IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and by ELISA. B regulatory cell subsets expressing IL-10 and the markers CD5 and CD1d were quantified by FACS analysis. B cell proliferation was determined by 3H thymidine incorporation or CFSE labeling.
Results
Expression of IL-10 mRNA and protein in purified B cells from tonsils was weakly stimulated by anti-CD40 antibody, CpG oligonucleotide or with IL-17. When B cells were simultaneously stimulated with IL-17, anti-CD40 antibody and CpG oligonucleotide, the mRNA and protein expression of IL-10 was strongly increased (n = 3; P ≤ 0.001). B cells proliferation was also significantly increased. In contrast, stimulation with IL-4 alone or in combination with anti-CD40 antibody, decreased the expression of IL-10 (n = 3; P ≤ 0.001).
Conclusions
TLR9 receptor stimulation synergizes with CD40 and IL-17 receptors stimulation in the induced proliferation and potent release of IL-10 cytokine while decreasing IL-6 production in B cells. These novel findings provide evidence that B lymphocytes might be an important source of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine, and provide novel evidence that stimulation of B lymphocytes with IL-17 cytokine could be an important regulatory mechanism in immune responses.
doi:10.1097/01.WOX.0000411628.86548.fc
PMCID: PMC3512855
15.  127 Eosinophils Enhance Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation Via the Release of Cysteinyl Leukotrines 
The World Allergy Organization Journal  2012;5(Suppl 2):S59-S60.
Background
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the lung airways that is associated with airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness. Its is well documented that the smooth muscle mass in asthmatic airways is increased due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the ASM cells. Moreover, eosinophils have been proposed in different studies to play a major role in airway remodeling. Here, we hypothesized that eosinophils modulate the airways through enhancing ASM cell proliferation. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of eosinophils on ASM cell proliferation using eosinophils isolated from asthmatic and normal control subjects.
Methods
Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of 6 mild asthmatics and 6 normal control subjects. ASM cells were incubated with eosinophils or eosinophil membranes and ASM proliferation was estimated using thymidine incorporation. The mRNA expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) in ASM cells was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The effect of eosinophil-derived proliferative cytokines on ASM cells was determined using neutralizing antibodies. The role of eosinophil derived Cysteinyl Leukotrienes in enhancing ASM was also investigated.
Results
Co-culture with eosinophils significantly increased ASM cell proliferation. However, there was no significant difference in ASM proliferation following incubation with eosinophils from asthmatic versus normal control subjects. Co-culture with eosinophil membranes had no effect on ASM proliferation. Moreover, there was no significant change in the mRNA expression of ECM proteins in ASM cells following co-culture with eosinophils when compared with medium alone. Interestingly, blocking the activity of cysteinyl Leukotries using antagonists inhibited eosinophil-derived ASM proliferation.
Conclusions
Eosinophils enhances the proliferation of ASM cells. This role of eosinophil does not seem to depend on ASM derived ECM proteins nor on Eosinophil derived TGF-β or TNF-α. Eosinophil seems to induce ASM proliferation via the secretion of Cysteinyl Leukotrienes.
doi:10.1097/01.WOX.0000411872.81749.50
PMCID: PMC3513122
16.  Herpes simplex encephalitis in children with autosomal recessive and dominant TRIF deficiency 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2011;121(12):4889-4902.
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common sporadic viral encephalitis of childhood. Autosomal recessive (AR) UNC-93B and TLR3 deficiencies and autosomal dominant (AD) TLR3 and TRAF3 deficiencies underlie HSE in some children. We report here unrelated HSE children with AR or AD TRIF deficiency. The AR form of the disease was found to be due to a homozygous nonsense mutation that resulted in a complete absence of the TRIF protein. Both the TLR3- and the TRIF-dependent TLR4 signaling pathways were abolished. The AD form of disease was found to be due to a heterozygous missense mutation, resulting in a dysfunctional protein. In this form of the disease, the TLR3 signaling pathway was impaired, whereas the TRIF-dependent TLR4 pathway was unaffected. Both patients, however, showed reduced capacity to respond to stimulation of the DExD/H-box helicases pathway. To date, the TRIF-deficient patients with HSE described herein have suffered from no other infections. Moreover, as observed in patients with other genetic etiologies of HSE, clinical penetrance was found to be incomplete, as some HSV-1–infected TRIF-deficient relatives have not developed HSE. Our results provide what we believe to be the first description of human TRIF deficiency and a new genetic etiology for HSE. They suggest that the TRIF-dependent TLR4 and DExD/H-box helicase pathways are largely redundant in host defense. They further demonstrate the importance of TRIF for the TLR3-dependent production of antiviral IFNs in the CNS during primary infection with HSV-1 in childhood.
doi:10.1172/JCI59259
PMCID: PMC3226004  PMID: 22105173
17.  Cellular Distribution of Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Interaction with Gag during Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Assembly 
Journal of Virology  2004;78(14):7553-7564.
Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) is packaged into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) via its interaction with Gag, and this enzyme facilitates the selective packaging of tRNA3Lys, the primer for initiating reverse transcription, into HIV-1. The Gag/LysRS interaction is detected at detergent-resistant membrane but not in membrane-free cell compartments that contain Gag and LysRS. LysRS is found (i) in the nucleus, (ii) in a cytoplasmic high-molecular-weight aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (HMW aaRS complex), (iii) in mitochondria, and (iv) associated with plasma membrane. The cytoplasmic form of LysRS lacking the mitochondrial import signal was previously shown to be efficiently packaged into virions, and in this report we also show that LysRS compartments in nuclei, in the HMW aaRS complex, and at the membrane are also not required as a primary source for viral LysRS. Exogenous mutant LysRS species unable to either enter the nucleus or bind to the cell membrane are still incorporated into virions. Many HMW aaRS components are not packaged into the virion along with LysRS, and the interaction of LysRS with p38, a protein that binds tightly to LysRS in the HMW aaRS complex, is not required for the incorporation of LysRS into virions. These data indicate that newly synthesized LysRS may interact rapidly with Gag before the enzyme has the opportunity to move to the above-mentioned cellular compartments. In confirmation of this idea, we found that newly synthesized LysRS is associated with Gag after a 10-min pulse with [35S]cysteine/methionine. This observation is also supported by previous work indicating that the incorporation of LysRS into HIV-1 is very sensitive to the inhibition of new synthesis of LysRS.
doi:10.1128/JVI.78.14.7553-7564.2004
PMCID: PMC434110  PMID: 15220430
18.  Rapid Localization of Gag/GagPol Complexes to Detergent-Resistant Membrane during the Assembly of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 
Journal of Virology  2003;77(7):3973-3984.
During human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly in HIV-1-transfected COS7 cells, almost all steady-state Gag/Gag and Gag/GagPol complexes are membrane bound. However, exposure to 1% Triton X-100 gives results indicating that while all Gag/GagPol complexes remain associated with the detergent-resistant membrane (DRM), only 30% of Gag/Gag complexes are associated with the DRM. Analysis of the localization of newly synthesized Gag/Gag and Gag/GagPol to the membrane indicates that after a 10-min pulse with radioactive [35S]Cys-[35S]Met, all newly synthesized Gag/GagPol is found at the DRM. Only 30% of newly synthesized Gag/Gag moves to the membrane, and at 0 min of chase, only 38% of this membrane-bound Gag/Gag is associated with the DRM. During the first 30 min of chase, most membrane-bound Gag/Gag moves to the DRM, while between 30 and 60 min of chase, there is a significant decrease in membrane-bound Gag/Gag and Gag/GagPol. Since the localization of newly synthesized Gag/Gag to the DRM and the interaction of GagPol with Gag both depend upon Gag multimerization, the rapid localization of GagPol to the DRM probably reflects the interaction of all newly synthesized GagPol with the first newly synthesized polymeric Gag to associate with the DRM.
doi:10.1128/JVI.77.7.3973-3984.2003
PMCID: PMC150626  PMID: 12634357
19.  Role of RNA in Facilitating Gag/Gag-Pol Interaction 
Journal of Virology  2002;76(8):4131-4137.
We have examined the influence of RNA upon the interaction of Gag-Pol with Gag during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly. COS7 cells were transfected with protease-negative HIV-1 proviral DNA, and Gag/Gag-Pol complexes were detected by coimmunoprecipitation with anti-integrase. In COS7 cells, Gag/Gag-Pol is found almost entirely in pelletable, membrane-bound complexes. Exposure of cells to 1% Triton X-100 releases Gag/Gag-Pol from bulk membrane, but the complexes remain pelletable. The role of RNA in facilitating the interaction between Gag and Gag-Pol was examined in these bulk membrane-free, pelletable complexes. The specific presence of viral genomic RNA is not required to maintain the Gag/Gag-Pol interaction, but some type of RNA is, since exposure to RNase destabilized the Gag/Gag-Pol complex. When present only in Gag, the nucleocapsid mutation R7R10K11S, which inhibits Gag binding to RNA, inhibits the formation of both Gag and Gag/Gag-Pol complexes. When present only in Gag-Pol, this mutation has no effect upon complex formation. This result indicates that Gag-Pol may not interact directly with RNA but rather requires RNA-facilitated Gag multimerization for its interaction with Gag.
doi:10.1128/JVI.76.8.4131-4137.2002
PMCID: PMC136082  PMID: 11907255

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