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5.  Hippocampal Damage in Mouse and Human Forms of Systemic Autoimmune Disease 
Hippocampus  2004;14(5):649-661.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is frequently accompanied by neuropsychiatric (NP) and cognitive deficits of unknown etiology. By using autoimmune MRL-lpr mice as an animal model of NP-SLE, we examine the relationship between autoimmunity, hippocampal damage, and behavioral dysfunction. Fluoro Jade B (FJB) staining and anti-ubiquitin (anti-Ub) immunocytochemistry were used to assess neuronal damage in young (asymptomatic) and aged (diseased) mice, while spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB) was used to estimate the severity of hippocampal dysfunction. The causal relationship between autoimmunity and neuropathology was tested by prolonged administration of the immunosuppressive drug cyclophosphamide (CY). In comparison to congenic MRL +/+ controls, SAB acquisition rates and performance in the “reversal” trial were impaired in diseased MRL-lpr mice, suggesting limited use of the spatial learning strategy. FJB-positive neurons and anti-Ub particles were frequent in the CA3 region. Conversely, CY treatment attenuated the SAB deficit and overall FJB staining. Similarly to mouse brain, the hippocampus from a patient who died from NP-SLE showed reduced neuronal density in the CA3 region and dentate gyrus, as well as increased FJB positivity in these regions. Gliosis and neuronal loss were observed in the gray matter, and T lymphocytes and stromal calcifications were common in the choroid plexus. Taken together, these results suggest that systemic autoimmunity induces significant hippocampal damage, which may underlie affective and cognitive deficits in NP-SLE.
PMCID: PMC1764443  PMID: 15301441
autoimmunity; inflammation; lupus; hippocampus; Fluoro Jade B; ubiquitin; spontaneous alternation behavior; cyclophosphamide; MRL mice
6.  In Vitro Effects of Budesonide on Eosinophil-Basophil Lineage Commitment 
IL-5 is the primary cytokine that stimulates the production and survival of eosinophils and basophils from progenitor cells. The inhaled glucocorticoid, budesonide, has been shown to exert a therapeutic effect via suppression of eosinophil/basophil progenitors in vivo. Since various steroids have exhibited the ability to enhance eosinophil/basophil progenitor differentiation, we examined the effects of budesonide in vitro. Bone marrow and cord blood samples were obtained and cultured in the presence of IL-5 alone or IL-5 plus budesonide. Eosinophil/basophil colony-forming units were enumerated from cultured nonadherent mononuclear cells and from purified CD34+ cells. CD34+ cells with and without budesonide were also examined for up-regulation of ERK1/2, MAPK and GATA-1 using real time-PCR. Results: i) up-regulation of eosinophil/basophil colony-forming units is due to the direct effects of budesonide on IL-5-stimulated progenitors; ii) GATA-1 is likely involved in the early amplification of eosinophil/basophil progenitor commitment leading to increased differentiation. A potential transcriptional pathway has been identified which may mediate the effects of budesonide on eosinophil/basophil lineage commitment.
PMCID: PMC2606647  PMID: 19343093
Budesonide; eosinophil/basophil progenitors; corticosteroids; GATA-1; IL-5.

Results 1-6 (6)