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5.  HLA-DQB1*02 and DQB1*06:03P are associated with peanut allergy 
European Journal of Human Genetics  2013;21(10):1181-1184.
Peanut allergy (PA) is a common and serious food allergy and its prevalence has increased in the past decade. Although there is strong evidence of inheritance, the genetic causes of this disease are not well understood. Previously, a large-scale genome-wide association study described an association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 and asthma; the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HLA-DQB1 and PA. Genotypic and allelic profiles were established for 311 Caucasian members of a well-described Canadian group of children with PA and 226 Caucasian controls. Firth's logistic regression analyses showed associations between HLA-DQB1 alleles and PA for DQB1*02 (P=1.1 × 10−8, odds ratio (OR)=0.09 (CI=0.03–0.23)) and DQB1*06:03P alleles (P=2.1 × 10−2, OR=2.82 (CI=1.48–5.45)). This study of HLA in PA demonstrates specific association between two allelic groups of the HLA-DQB1 gene (DQB1*02 and DQB1*06:03P) and PA, highlighting its possible role in the development of this disease.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.13
PMCID: PMC3778350  PMID: 23443026
HLA-DQB1; peanut allergy; Caucasian; association; food allergy
6.  Exposure to Beta-(1,3)-D-Glucan in House Dust at Age 7–10 Is Associated with Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Atopic Asthma by Age 11–14 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e98878.
Background
Mould exposure has been linked to childhood asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Few studies have assessed beta-(1,3)-d-glucan (beta-glucan), a significant fungal cell wall constituent, in relation to asthma in adolescence.
Objective
To determine whether house dust-derived beta-glucan exposure at age 7–10 is associated with the development and persistence of atopic and non-atopic asthma, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) by age 11–14.
Methods
Dust samples were collected from the 1995 Study of Asthma, Genes, and Environment (SAGE) birth cohort. This cohort was derived from Manitoba provincial healthcare administrative records of children high and low risk for asthma. Samples were collected from the homes of 422 children at age 7–10 and analyzed using beta-glucan and endotoxin-specific Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate assays. Asthma, atopy, and BHR status of each child were also assessed at ages 7–10 and 11–14.
Results
At age 7–10, beta-glucan dust levels in the home were associated with persistent atopic asthma at age 11–14 (OR 1.79 for each unit increase in levels, 95% CI 1.14–2.81), independent of endotoxin exposure, and Alternaria or Cladosporium sensitization. The likelihood of BHR almost doubled with unit increases in dust beta-glucan in asthmatic children. In children without asthma, exposure to high beta-glucan levels at age 7–10 also elevated risk for BHR in adolescence (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.05–2.89). New-onset atopic asthma was twice more likely following high beta-glucan exposure in children without asthma but the association did not reach statistical significance. No associations were evident with concurrent asthma phenotype at age 7–10 or non-atopic asthma at age 11–14.
Conclusion
These findings implicate home beta-glucan exposure at school-age as a risk factor for persistent atopic asthma and new-onset BHR. The higher prevalence of BHR in urban adolescents may be propagated by this home exposure.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098878
PMCID: PMC4048218  PMID: 24905346
7.  Effectiveness of montelukast administered as monotherapy or in combination with inhaled corticosteroid in pediatric patients with uncontrolled asthma: a prospective cohort study 
Background
Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and a leading cause of childhood morbidity. The aim of the current study was to assess the effectiveness of montelukast administered as monotherapy or in combination with current inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in pediatric patients with uncontrolled asthma as per the Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines.
Methods
Twelve-week, multicentre, open-label, observational study. Primary effectiveness outcome was the proportion of patients achieving asthma control (Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score ≤0.75) at weeks 4 and 12.
Results
A total of 328 patients with uncontrolled asthma (ACQ > 0.75) were enrolled with mean ± SD age of 6.9 ± 3.4 years. Among these, 76 (23.2%) were treated with montelukast monotherapy and 252 (76.8%) with montelukast combined with ICS. By 4 weeks of treatment 61.3% and 52.9% of the patients in the monotherapy and combination group, respectively, achieved asthma control. These proportions increased to 75.0% and 70.9%, respectively, at 12 weeks. Within the monotherapy group, clinically significant improvements in the ACQ score (mean ± SD of 1.67 ± 0.69, 0.71 ± 0.70 and 0.50 ± 0.52 at baseline, 4 and 12 weeks, respectively; p < 0.001) and the PACQLQ score (mean ± SD of 5.34 ± 1.14, 6.32 ± 0.89 and 6.51 ± 0.85 at baseline, 4 and 12 weeks, respectively; p < 0.001) were observed. In the combination group, the mean ± SD ACQ score significantly improved from 2.02 ± 0.83 at baseline to 0.90 ± 0.86 at 4 weeks and 0.64 ± 0.86 at 12 weeks (p < 0.001), while the PACQLQ score improved from 4.42 ± 1.35 at baseline to 5.76 ± 1.30 at 4 weeks and 6.21 ± 1.03 at 12 weeks (p < 0.001). After a 12-week montelukast add-on therapy, 22.6% of patients reduced their ICS dosage. Similar results were observed among preschool- and school-aged patients.
Conclusions
Montelukast as monotherapy or in combination with ICS represents an effective treatment strategy for achieving asthma control in pediatric patients and improving caregivers’ quality of life.
Trial registration
This study is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT00832455.
doi:10.1186/1710-1492-10-21
PMCID: PMC4057588  PMID: 24932181
Asthma; Montelukast; Inhaled corticosteroids; Pediatric; Preschool age; School age
8.  A Meta-analysis of Genome-wide Association Studies for Serum Total IgE in Diverse Study Populations 
Background
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is both a marker and mediator of allergic inflammation. Despite reported differences in serum total IgE levels by race-ethnicity, African American and Latino individuals have not been well represented in genetic studies of total IgE.
Objective
To identify the genetic predictors of serum total IgE levels.
Methods
We used genome wide association (GWA) data from 4,292 individuals (2,469 African Americans, 1,564 European Americans, and 259 Latinos) in the EVE Asthma Genetics Consortium. Tests for association were performed within each cohort by race-ethnic group (i.e., African American, Latino, and European American) and asthma status. The resulting p-values were meta-analyzed accounting for sample size and direction of effect. Top single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations from the meta-analysis were reassessed in six additional cohorts comprising 5,767 individuals.
Results
We identified 10 unique regions where the combined association statistic was associated with total serum IgE levels (P-value <5.0×10−6) and the minor allele frequency was ≥5% in two or more population groups. Variant rs9469220, corresponding to HLA-DQB1, was the most significantly associated SNP with serum total IgE levels when assessed in both the replication cohorts and the discovery and replication sets combined (P-value = 0.007 and 2.45×10−7, respectively). In addition, findings from earlier GWA studies were also validated in the current meta-analysis.
Conclusion
This meta-analysis independently identified a variant near HLA-DQB1 as a predictor of total serum IgE in multiple race-ethnic groups. This study also extends and confirms the findings of earlier GWA analyses in African American and Latino individuals.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.10.002
PMCID: PMC3596497  PMID: 23146381
meta-analysis; genome wide association study; total immunoglobulin E; race-ethnicity; continental population groups
9.  Genome-wide association study of body mass index in 23,000 individuals with and without asthma 
Background
Both asthma and obesity are complex disorders that are influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Shared genetic factors between asthma and obesity have been proposed to partly explain epidemiological findings of co-morbidity between these conditions.
Objective
To identify genetic variants that are associated with body mass index (BMI) in asthmatic children and adults, and to evaluate if there are differences between the genetics of BMI in asthmatics and healthy individuals.
Methods
In total, 19 studies contributed with genome-wide analysis study (GWAS) data from more than 23,000 individuals with predominantly European descent, of whom 8,165 are asthmatics.
Results
We report associations between several DENND1B variants (p=2.2×10−7 for rs4915551) on chromosome 1q31 and BMI from a meta-analysis of GWAS data using 2,691 asthmatic children (screening data). The top DENND1B SNPs were next evaluated in seven independent replication data sets comprising 2,014 asthmatics, and rs4915551 was nominally replicated (p<0.05) in two of the seven studies and of borderline significance in one (p=0.059). However, strong evidence of effect heterogeneity was observed and overall, the association between rs4915551 and BMI was not significant in the total replication data set, p=0.71. Using a random effects model, BMI was overall estimated to increase by 0.30 kg/m2 (p=0.01 for combined screening and replication data sets, N=4,705) per additional G allele of this DENND1B SNP. FTO was confirmed as an important gene for adult and childhood BMI regardless of asthma status.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance
DENND1B was recently identified as an asthma susceptibility gene in a GWAS on children, and here we find evidence that DENND1B variants may also be associated with BMI in asthmatic children. However, the association was overall not replicated in the independent data sets and the heterogeneous effect of DENND1B points to complex associations with the studied diseases that deserve further study.
doi:10.1111/cea.12054
PMCID: PMC3608930  PMID: 23517042
Association; Asthma; BMI; Genetics; Genome-wide; Obesity
18.  Introducing solid food 
Canadian Family Physician  2013;59(7):721-722.
PMCID: PMC3710027  PMID: 23851527
20.  Infant gut microbiota and the hygiene hypothesis of allergic disease: impact of household pets and siblings on microbiota composition and diversity 
Background
Multiple studies have demonstrated that early-life exposure to pets or siblings affords protection against allergic disease; these associations are commonly attributed to the “hygiene hypothesis”. Recently, low diversity of the infant gut microbiota has also been linked to allergic disease. In this study, we characterize the infant gut microbiota in relation to pets and siblings.
Methods
The study population comprised a small sub-sample of 24 healthy, full term infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort. Mothers reported on household pets and siblings. Fecal samples were collected at 4 months of age, and microbiota composition was characterized by high-throughput signature gene sequencing.
Results
Microbiota richness and diversity tended to be increased in infants living with pets, whereas these measures were decreased in infants with older siblings. Infants living with pets exhibited under-representation of Bifidobacteriaceae and over-representation of Peptostreptococcaceae; infants with older siblings exhibited under-representation of Peptostreptococcaceae.
Conclusions
This study provides new evidence that exposure to pets and siblings may influence the early development of the gut microbiota, with potential implications for allergic disease. These two traditionally protective “hygiene hypothesis” factors appear to differentially impact gut microbiota composition and diversity, calling into question the clinical significance of these measures. Further research is required to confirm and expand these findings.
doi:10.1186/1710-1492-9-15
PMCID: PMC3655107  PMID: 23607879
Infants; Gut microbiota; Gut microbiome; Hygiene hypothesis; Microflora hypothesis; Pets; Siblings; Atopy; Allergic disease; Environmental exposures
21.  Gut microbiota of healthy Canadian infants: profiles by mode of delivery and infant diet at 4 months 
Background:
The gut microbiota is essential to human health throughout life, yet the acquisition and development of this microbial community during infancy remains poorly understood. Meanwhile, there is increasing concern over rising rates of cesarean delivery and insufficient exclusive breastfeeding of infants in developed countries. In this article, we characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Canadian infants and describe the influence of cesarean delivery and formula feeding.
Methods:
We included a subset of 24 term infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort. Mode of delivery was obtained from medical records, and mothers were asked to report on infant diet and medication use. Fecal samples were collected at 4 months of age, and we characterized the microbiota composition using high-throughput DNA sequencing.
Results:
We observed high variability in the profiles of fecal microbiota among the infants. The profiles were generally dominated by Actinobacteria (mainly the genus Bifidobacterium) and Firmicutes (with diverse representation from numerous genera). Compared with breastfed infants, formula-fed infants had increased richness of species, with overrepresentation of Clostridium difficile. Escherichia–Shigella and Bacteroides species were underrepresented in infants born by cesarean delivery. Infants born by elective cesarean delivery had particularly low bacterial richness and diversity.
Interpretation:
These findings advance our understanding of the gut microbiota in healthy infants. They also provide new evidence for the effects of delivery mode and infant diet as determinants of this essential microbial community in early life.
doi:10.1503/cmaj.121189
PMCID: PMC3602254  PMID: 23401405
22.  Leptin Inhibits Neutrophil Apoptosis in Children via ERK/NF-κB-Dependent Pathways 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e55249.
Introduction and Rationale
Previous studies have shown that delayed neutrophil apoptosis is associated with chronic airway diseases. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that acts as a regulator of energy homeostasis and food intake. Emerging evidence suggests that leptin can regulate immune responses including the release of proinflammatory cytokines and protection of inflammatory cells from apoptosis. Serum leptin is increased during allergic reactions in the airways. However, the expression and function of leptin receptor in neutrophils isolated from children is not known.
Methods
Flow cytometry was used to detect leptin receptor expression in neutrophils isolated from allergic asthmatic (n = 14), allergic non asthmatic (n = 21), non allergic asthmatic (n = 7) and healthy children (n = 23); confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with immunofluorescence was performed to detect intracellular pool of leptin receptor; Annexin-V/PI staining and caspase 3 activity was used to determine neutrophil survival. Pharmacological inhibitors were utilized to understand the role of MAPK and NF-κB pathway in leptin-induced neutrophil survival.
Results and Conclusion
A heterogeneous leptin receptor expression was observed on neutrophils isolated from children. Neutrophils isolated from healthy children expressed more leptin receptor than those from allergic asthmatic (P<0.05) but not allergic non-asthmatic (P>0.05) or non-allergic asthmatic children (n = 7, P>0.05). Neutrophils isolated from children express an intracellular pool of leptin receptor that was mobilized to the cell surface upon GM-CSF stimulation. Finally, leptin exhibited anti-apoptotic properties on neutrophils via NF-κB and MEK1/2 MAPK pathway. Collectively, our data suggest that leptin may enhance airway inflammation by promoting neutrophil survival.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055249
PMCID: PMC3561393  PMID: 23383125
24.  Cotinine versus questionnaire: early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure and incident asthma 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:187.
Background
The use of biomarkers has expanded considerably, as an alternative to questionnaire-based metrics of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); few studies have assessed the affect of such alternative metrics on diverse respiratory outcomes in children, and we aimed to do so.
Methods
We evaluated various measures of birth-year ETS, in association with multiple respiratory endpoints early years of life, in the novel context of a birth cohort at high risk for asthma. We administered questionnaires to parents, both at the end of pregnancy and at one year of life, and measured cotinine in cord blood (CCot; in 275 children) and in urine (UCot; obtained at 12 months in 365 children), each by radioimmunoassay. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of the various metrics with recurrent wheeze at age 2 and with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma at age 7.
Results
Self-reported 3rd trimester maternal smoking was associated with significantly increased risk for recurrent wheeze at age 2 (odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval = 1.2,10.7]); the risks associated with CCot and 3rd trimester smoking in any family member were similar (OR 2.9 [1.2,7.0] and 2.6 [1.0,6.5], respectively). No metric of maternal smoking at 12 months appeared to significantly influence the risk of recurrent wheeze at age 2, and no metric of ETS at any time appeared to significantly influence risk of asthma or BHR at age 7.
Conclusions
Biomarker- and questionnaire-based assessment of ETS in early life lead to similar estimates of ETS-associated risk of recurrent wheeze and asthma.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-187
PMCID: PMC3543177  PMID: 23216797
Children; Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke; Bronchial hyperresponsiveness; Wheeze; Asthma

Results 1-25 (60)