The purpose of the study is to determine whether exposure to malnutrition during early life is associated with increased risk of stomach cancer in later life.
The design protocol included analyzing the trend of gastric cancer mortality and nutrition and evaluating the association between nutrient deficiency in early life and the risk of gastric cancer by hierarchical age–period–birth cohort (APC) analysis using general log-linear Poisson models and to compare the difference between birth cohorts who were exposed to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine and those who were not exposed to the famine. Data on stomach cancer mortality from 1970 to 2009 and the dietary patterns from 1955 to 1985 which included the 1959–1961 Chinese famine period in the Zhaoyuan County population were obtained. The nutrition information was collected 15 years prior to the mortality data as based on the latest reference of disease incubation.
APC analysis revealed that severe nutrition deficiency during early life may increase the risk of stomach cancer. Compared with the 1960–1964 birth cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in all birth cohorts from 1900 to 1959 significantly increased; compared with the 1970–1974 cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in the 1975–1979 cohort significantly increased, whereas the others had a steadily decreased risk; compared with 85–89 age group in the 2005–2009 death survey, the ORs decreased with younger age and reached significant levels for the 50–54 age group after adjusting the confounding factors. The 1930 to 1964 group (exposed to famine) had a higher mortality rate than the 1965 to 1999 group (not exposed to famine). For males, the relative risk (RR) was 2.39 and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 1.51 to 3.77. For females, RR was 1.64 and 95% CI was 1.02 to 2.62.
The results of the present study suggested that prolonged malnutrition during early life may increase the risk of stomach cancer mortality in later life.
Nutritive deficiency; Stomach Cancer; Mortality; Famine exposure
The purpose of this study was to identify the affect on the proliferation Eca-109 cells treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) combined with adriamycin (ADM).
Eca-109 cell were cultured in the presence of oxLDL/ADM, and cell proliferation tested by MTT and cell apoptosis was monitored by the proportion of apoptosis and cell cycle by flow cytomester. We simultaneously evaluated the level of associated- apoptosis Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3 gene mRNA and protein.
OxLDL were cytotoxic and activate apoptosis. OxLDL combined with ADM significant enhanced the proportion rate of apoptosis on a time and dose dependency. The expressions of the inhibiting apoptosis Bcl-2 gene mRNA and protein were down regulated, whereas, the expressions of the promoting apoptosis Bax, and Caspase-3 genes mRNA and protein were up regulation.
These results suggested that oxLDL have cytotoxicity and activate apoptosis on the Eca-109 cells. OxLDL combined with ADM have a synergistic effect on the apoptosis induced Eca-109 cells. Furthermore, oxLDL may contribute to the improvement of clinical chemotherapy of cancer need to make further investigation.
Esophagueal squamous cell line; low-density lipoprotein; adriamycin; apoptosis; gene; protein; expression
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of multi-genotype polymorphisms with the stepwise progression of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and the possibility of predicting those at higher risk.
A total of 1,004 subjects were recruited from Feicheng County, China, between Jan. 2004 and Dec. 2007 and examined by endoscopy for esophageal lesions. These subjects included 270 patients with basal cell hyperplasia (BCH), 262 patients with esophageal squamous cell dysplasia (ESCD), 226 patients with ESCC, and 246 controls with Lugol-voiding area but diagnosed as having normal esophageal squamous epithelial cells by histopathology. The genotypes for CYP2E1 G1259C, hOGG1 C326G, MTHFR C677T, MPO G463A, and ALDH2 allele genes were identified in blood samples collected from all participants.
The alleles ALDH2 and MTHFR C677T were critical for determining individual susceptibility to esophageal cancer. Compared to the ALDH 1*1 genotype, the ALDH 2*2 genotype was significantly associated with increased risks of BCH, ESCD, and ESCC. However, the TT genotype of MTHFR C677T only increased the risk of ESCC. Further analysis revealed that the combination of the high-risk genotypes 2*2/1*2 of ALDH 2 and TT/TC of MTHFR C677T increased the risk of BCH by 4.0 fold, of ESCD by 3.7 fold, and ESSC by 8.72 fold. The generalized odds ratio (ORG) of the two combined genotypes was 1.83 (95%CI: 1.55-2.16), indicating a strong genetic association with the risk of carcinogenic progression in the esophagus.
The study demonstrated that the genotypes ALDH2*2 and MTHFR 677TT conferred elevated risk for developing esophageal carcinoma and that the two susceptibility genotypes combined to synergistically increase the risk.
A kind of mesoporous hybrid luminescence material was assembled through the ion exchange method between [Ln(DPA)3]3− and ionic liquid functionalized SBA-15. [Ln(DPA)3]3− was successfully anchored onto positive-charge modified SBA-15 by the strong electrostatic interaction. In [Ln(DPA)3]3−, Ln3+ ions are in 9-fold coordination through six oxygen atoms of carboxyl groups and three nitrogen atoms of pyridine units, leaving no coordination site for water molecules. Therefore the hybrids possess prominent luminescent properties, SBA-15-IMI-Tb(DPA)3 and SBA-15-IMI-Eu(DPA)3 exhibit high quantum yield values of 63% and 79%, and long lifetimes values of 2.38 ms and 2.34 ms, respectively. Especially, SBA-15-IMI-Eu(DPA)3 presents a high color purity, and the red/orange intensity ratio is as high as 7.6. The excellent luminescence properties and ordered mesoporous structures give rise to many potential applications in optical and electronic areas.
There are nine subtypes of influenza A virus neuraminidase (NA), N1 to N9. In addition, influenza B virus also contains NA, and there are two influenza virus NA-like molecules, N10 and N11, which were recently identified from bats. Crystal structures for all of these proteins have been solved, with the exception of N7, and there is no published report of N6, although a structure has been deposited in the Protein Data Bank. Here, we present the N7 and N6 structures at 2.1 Å and 1.8 Å, respectively. Structural comparison of all NA subtypes shows that both N7 and N6 highly resemble typical group 2 NA structures with some special characteristics, including an additional cavity adjacent to their active sites formed by novel 340-loop conformations. Comparative analysis also revealed new structural insights into the N-glycosylation, calcium binding, and second sialic acid binding site of influenza virus NA. This comprehensive study is critical for understanding the complexity of the most successful influenza drug target and for the structure-based design of novel influenza inhibitors.
IMPORTANCE Influenza viruses impose a great burden on society, by the human-adapted seasonal types as well as by variants that occasionally jump from the avian reservoir to infect humans. The surface glycoprotein neuraminidase (NA) is essential for the propagation of the virus and currently the most successfully drug-targeted molecule. Therefore, the structural and functional analysis of NA is critical for the prevention and control of influenza infections. There are nine subtypes of influenza A virus NA (N1 to N9). In addition, influenza B virus also contains NA, and there are two influenza NA-like molecules, N10 and N11, which were recently identified in bats. Crystal structures for all of these proteins have been solved and reported with the exception of N7 and N6. The structural analysis of influenza virus N7 and N6 presented in this study therefore completes the puzzle and adds to a comprehensive understanding of influenza virus NA.
Immunotherapy has become a crucial modality for non-small-cell lung cancer treatment. Recently, two immune checkpoints, PD-1 and PD-L1, have emerged as important targets for immunotherapy. Their antitumor efficacy has been confirmed by in vitro and in vivo studies. But the correlation between PD-1/PD-L1 expression and EGFR expression was controversial and needs more evidences to support the combination of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
PD-1; PD-L1; Non-small-cell lung cancer; EGFR; Gene mutation
Cone snails, genus Conus, are predatory marine snails that use venom to capture their prey. This venom contains a diverse array of peptide toxins, known as conotoxins, which undergo a diverse set of posttranslational modifications. Amidating enzymes modify peptides and proteins containing a C-terminal glycine residue, resulting in loss of the glycine residue and amidation of the preceding residue. A significant fraction of peptides present in the venom of cone snails contain C-terminal amidated residues, which are important for optimizing biological activity. This study describes the characterization of the amidating enzyme, peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), present in the venom duct of cone snails, Conus bullatus and Conus geographus.
PAM is known to carry out two functions, peptidyl α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and peptidylamido-glycolate lyase (PAL). In some animals, such as Drosophila melanogaster, these two functions are present in separate polypeptides, working as individual enzymes. In other animals, such as mammals and in Aplysia californica, PAM activity resides in a single, bifunctional polypeptide. Using specific oligonucleotide primers and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction we have identified and cloned from the venom duct cDNA library, a cDNA with 49% homology to PAM from A. californica. We have determined that both the PHM and PAL activities are encoded in one mRNA polynucleotide in both C. bullatus and C. geographus. We have directly demonstrated enzymatic activity catalyzing the conversion of dansyl-YVG-COOH to dansyl-YV-NH2 in cloned cDNA expressed in Drosophila S2 cells.
Posttranslational modification; Conotoxins; Peptidylglycine α-amidating; monooxygenase
Previous research has led to the recognition of a cGMP signaling pathway governing drug transport. This study is to investigate whether inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), which increase intracellular cGMP levels, modulate the cytotoxicity and uptake of anti-cancer drugs in cancer cells.
The experiments were conducted with and without PDE5 inhibitors: dipyridamole, vardenafil, and/or sildenafil. The cytotoxicity of doxorubicin, cisplatin and oxaliplatin was determined in multiple cancer cell lines derived from different tissues. The cellular uptake of structurally diverse compounds was further examined in lung cancer cells with and without various endocytotic inhibitors. The tumor accumulation and the anti-tumor effect of trastuzumab were examined in a lung cancer xenograft mouse model.
Dipyridamole could modulate the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin, cisplatin, and oxaliplatin in cancer cells. Particularly, PDE5 inhibitors increased cellular uptake of structurally diverse compounds into lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of vardenafil on drug uptake could be blocked by endocytotic inhibitors. The growth of lung cancer xenograft in nude mice was significantly suppressed by addition of vardenafil to trastuzumab treatment.
PDE5 inhibitors may increase the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs by increasing endocytosis-mediated cellular drug uptake, and thus serve as adjuvant therapy for certain cancers such as lung cancer.
phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor; doxorubicin; trastuzumab; endocytosis; lung cancer
The objective of this study was to observe the apoptosis-inducing effect and mechanism of baicalin on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. The inhibitory effect of baicalin on the growth of HeLa cells was measured by MTT assay, and cell proliferation and migration was analyzed by cell scratch assay. Morphological changes of apoptotic cells were viewed by the light microscope and electron microscope, and cell growth arrest was confirmed by flow cytometry. Moreover, Western blot was used for investigating the expression of apoptosis related proteins; spectrophotometry was used to examine Caspase-3 activation. Our results showed that baicalin could inhibit the proliferation of HeLa Cells via induction of apoptosis in a time and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). Apoptotic signaling induced by baicalin was characterized by up-regulating Bax, Fas, FasL and Caspase-8 protein expression, and down-regulating of Bcl-2 protein expression. These results indicated that baicalin-induced apoptosis involved activation Caspase-3 in HeLa cells through the intracellular mitochondrial pathway and the surface death receptor pathway.
Baicalin; HeLa cells; Cell apoptosis; Mitochondrial pathway; Death receptor pathway; Caspase-3
Background: Clinically, it is still challenging to differentiate aggressive from non-aggressive prostate cancers (Pca) by non-invasive approaches. Our recent studies showed that overexpression of alpha (1-6) fucosyltransferase played an important role in Pca cells. In this study, we have investigated levels of glycoproteins and their fucosylated glycoforms in sera of Pca patients, as well as the potential utility of fucosylated glycoproteins in the identification of aggressive Pca.
Material and Methods: Serum samples from histomorphology-proven Pca cases were included. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1 (TIMP1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and their fucosylated glycoforms were captured by Aleuria Aurantia Lectin (AAL), followed by the multiplex magnetic bead-based immunoassay. The level of fucosylated glycoproteins was correlated with patients' Gleason score of the tumor.
Result: Among three fucosylated glycoproteins, the fucosylated PSA was significantly increased and correlated with the tumor Gleason score (p<0.05). The ratio of fucosylated PSA showed a marked increase in aggressive tumors in comparison to non-aggressive tumors. ROC analysis also showed an improved predictive power of fucosylated PSA in the identification of aggressive Pca.
Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that fucosylated PSA has a better predictive power to differentiate aggressive tumors from non-aggressive tumors, than that of native PSA and two other glycoproteins. The fucosylated PSA has the potential to be used as a surrogate biomarker.
prostate cancer; multiplex immunoassay; fucosylated glycoprotein; prostate-specific antigen; TIMP1.
Considerable studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the polymorphisms of PPARG (Pro12Ala, C161T and C1431T) and serum lipid levels, but the results were inconclusive. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify the association. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases were searched systematically. The subgroup analysis was performed based on ethnicity. Seventy-four studies with 54,953 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. In Pro12Ala, the group with the ‘PP’ (C/C genotype) genotype group had lower levels of total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference, MD: −0.02, P < 0.00001; I2 = 28%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD: −0.02, P < 0.00001; I2 = 30%) and higher levels of triglyceride (TG) (MD: 0.06, P < 0.00001; I2 = 30%) than the combined ‘PA+AA’ (PA = C/G genotype, AA = G/G genotype) genotype group in Asian population, and the group with the ‘PP’ genotype had higher levels of TG (MD: 0.07, P < 0.02; I2 = 67%) than the combined ‘PA+AA’ genotype group in non-Asian population. No statistically significant differences in the levels of TC, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C were detected between different genotypes in C161T(Asian or non-Asian) and C1431T(Asian) polymorphisms. This meta-analysis was a renewed and confirmed study to assess the association between PPARG polymorphisms and serum lipid levels in Asian and non-Asian populations. There is a prominent association between Pro12Ala polymorphism and the levels of TC, LDL-C and TG in Asian population. No statistically significant differences in serum lipid levels were detected between different genotypes in C161T and C1431T polymorphisms.
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγgene; single-nucleotide polymorphisms; serum lipid level; meta-analysis
Background: The SUMO pathway has been shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis. This report analyzed the involvement of the sole SUMO-Activating Enzyme Subunit 2 (SAE2) in human gastric cancer (GC) progression and prognosis. Methods: Expression of SAE2 was examined by Quantigene Plex, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The expression of SAE2 and c-MYC were detected in parallel in 276 cases. The molecular mechanisms of SAE2 expression and its effects on cell growth, colony formation, migration and invasion were also explored by CCK8 assay, colony formation experiment, transwell chamber assay with or without matrigel, immunoprecipitation and in vivo tumorigenesis and tumor metastasis. Results: SAE2 was markedly overexpressed in GC cell lines and primary tumor samples of GC, and significantly correlated with deeper tumor depth, distant metastasis, higher pathological stage and stratified survival in human GC. SAE2 positivity was independently associated with a worse outcome in multivariate analysis. Knockdown of SAE2 expression inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of SAE2-overexpressing GC cells. Consistent with the in vitro results, down-regulation of SAE2 in human GC BGC823 cells significantly reduced the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of the cells in vivo. SAE2 protein was significantly associated with the higher expression of c-MYC in primary GC tissues. Moreover, FoxM1 was SUMOylated in GC and that inhibition of SAE2 resulted in a decrease in SUMO1-FoxM1 levels compared with those in the controls. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SAE2 has a pivotal role in the aggressiveness of GC, and highlight its usefulness as a prognostic factor in GC.
SAE2; gastric cancer; prognosis; FoxM1; c-MYC
Acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in neural and non-neural function, but its role in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) migration remains to be determined. In the present study, we have found that ACh induces MSC migration via muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Among several mAChRs, MSCs express mAChR subtype 1 (m1AChR). ACh induces MSC migration via interaction with mAChR1. MEK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 blocks ERK1/2 phosphorylation while partially inhibiting the ACh-induced MSC migration. InsP3Rs inhibitor 2-APB that inhibits MAPK/ERK phosphorylation completely blocks Ach-mediated MSC migration. Interestingly, intracellular Ca2+ ATPase specific inhibitor thapsigargin also completely blocks ACh-induced MSC migration through the depletion of intracellular Ca2+ storage. PKCα or PKCβ inhibitor or their siRNAs only partially inhibit ACh-induced MSC migration, but PKC-ζ siRNA completely inhibits ACh-induced MSC migration via blocking ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These results indicate that ACh induces MSC migration via Ca2+, PKC and ERK1/2 signal pathways.
Mesenchymal stem cell; Acetylcholine; Migration; Protein kinase C; Ras mitogen-activated protein kinase; Calcium; Muscarinic receptors; ERK1/2
AT-101, known as R-(–)-gossypol, is a potent anticancer agent, but its chemosensitizing effects remain elusive. The present study aimed to examine whether AT-101 could increase the sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells to cisplatin (CDDP) and the underlying mechanisms. We evaluated the efficacy of the sequential treatment with AT-101 and CDDP using both in vitro and in vivo models. Our results showed that as compared to AT-101 or CDDP monotherapy, or AT-101 plus CDDP concurrent treatment, the sequential treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced tumor cell death. Moreover, the efficacy of the sequential treatment was also confirmed in a mouse A549 xenograft model. Our study revealed that AT-101 inhibited the reduced status of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) and attenuated APE1-mediated IL-6/STAT3 signaling activation by decreasing IL-6 protein expression; suppressing the STAT3–DNA binding; and reducing the expression of the downstream antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. In conclusion, AT-101 enhances the sensitivity of A549 cells to CDDP in vitro and in vivo through the inhibition of APE1-mediated IL-6/STAT3 signaling activation, providing a rationale for the combined use of AT-101 and CDDP in non-small cell lung cancer chemotherapy.
AT101; NSCLC; cisplatin; chemosensitivity; APE1; STAT3; nude mice; apoptosis
Intensive insulin treatment is known to improve β-cell function in the majority of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and family history (FH) is known to be an important independent risk factor for T2DM. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in first-phase insulin secretion and the effect of intensive insulin therapy on the improvement of β-cell function between T2DM patients with and without a FH of diabetes. Patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and healthy controls were divided into groups according to their FH of diabetes. Improvement in β-cell function was evaluated with an arginine stimulation test after two weeks of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Compared with the control group, the level of fasting insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) were higher in the DM group, while the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell insulin secretion (HOMA2-%β) and the first-phase peak ratio were lower (P<0.05). In addition, the first-phase peak ratio in the FH- control group was higher compared with that in the FH+ control group (P=0.023). Following CSII, all the patients achieved excellent blood glucose control in 6.2±3.6 days, without severe adverse effects. In the DM groups, the fasting insulin level and HOMA2-IR were lower, while the HOMA2-%β and first-phase peak ratio were higher, when compared with the values prior to treatment, particularly in the FH- DM group. The HOMA2-%β in the FH+ DM group was lower compared with the FH- DM group (P=0.027). Therefore, T2DM patients with and without a FH of the disease were shown to have a good response to CSII in the improvement of insulin resistance and β-cell function; however, the improvements were less significant in patients with a FH compared with patients without a FH of diabetes.
type 2 diabetes; intensive insulin therapy; family history; β-cell function; first-phase insulin secretion; insulin resistance
Trihelix transcription factor family is plant-specific and plays important roles in developmental processes. However, their function in abiotic stress response is largely unclear.
We studied one member GT-4 from Arabidopsis in relation to salt stress response. GT-4 expression is induced by salt stress and GT-4 protein is localized in nucleus and cytoplasm. GT-4 acts as a transcriptional activator and its C-terminal end is the activation domain. The protein can bind to the cis-elements GT-3 box, GT-3b box and MRE4. GT-4 confers enhanced salt tolerance in Arabidopsis likely through direct binding to the promoter and activation of Cor15A, in addition to possible regulation of other relevant genes. The gt-4 mutant shows salt sensitivity. TEM2, a member of AP2/ERF family was identified to interact with GT-4 in yeast two-hybrid, BiFC and Co-IP assays. Loss-of-function of TEM2 exerts no significant difference on salt tolerance or Cor15A expression in Arabidopsis. However, double mutant gt-4/tem2 shows greater sensitivity to salt stress and lower transcript level of Cor15A than gt-4 single mutant. GT-4 plus TEM2 can synergistically increase the promoter activity of Cor15A.
GT-4 interacts with TEM2 and then co-regulates the salt responsive gene Cor15A to improve salt stress tolerance.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12870-014-0339-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Salt stress; Trihelix transcription factor; GT-4; TEM2
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 exhibited predominantly antagonistic activities against a broad range of soilborne pathogens. The fungi-induced SQR9 extracts possess stronger antifungal activities compared with SQR9 monoculture extracts. To investigate how SQR9 fine-tunes lipopeptides (LPs) and a siderophore bacillibactin production to control different fungal pathogens, LPs and bacillibactin production and transcription of the respective encoding genes in SQR9 were measured and compared with six different soilborne fungal pathogens. SQR9 altered its spectrum of antifungal compounds production responding to different fungal pathogen. Bacillomycin D was the major LP produced when SQR9 was confronted with Fusarium oxysporum. Fengycin contributed to the antagonistic activity against Verticillium dahliae kleb, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Phytophthora parasitica. Surfactin participated in the antagonistic process against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium solani. Bacillibactin was up-regulated when SQR9 was confronted with all tested fungi. The reduction in antagonistic activities of three LP and bacillibactin deficient mutants of SQR9 when confronted with the six soilborne fungal pathogens provided further evidence of the contribution of LPs and bacillibactin in controlling fungal pathogens. These results provide a new understanding of specific cues in bacteria-fungi interactions and provide insights for agricultural applications.
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9; transcriptional response; soilborne pathogens; lipopeptide antibiotics; bacteria-fungal interaction
Cytological examination of cells from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is commonly used for the diagnosis of lung cancer. Proteins released from lung cancer cells into BAL may serve as biomarkers for cancer detection. In this study, N-glycoproteins in 8 cases of BAL fluid, as well as 8 lung adenocarcinoma tissues and 8 tumor-matched normal lung tissues, were analyzed using the solid-phase extraction of N-glycoprotein (SPEG), iTRAQ labeling and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Of 80 glycoproteins found in BAL specimens, 32 were identified in both cancer BAL and cancer tissues with levels of 25 glycoproteins showing at least a 2-fold difference between cancer and benign BAL. Among them, 8 glycoproteins showed greater than 2-fold elevations in cancer BAL, including Neutrophil elastase (NE), Integrin alpha-M, Cullin-4B, Napsin A, Lysosome-associaed membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), Cathepsin D, BPI fold-containing family B member 2, and Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. The levels of Napsin A in cancer BAL were further verified in an independently collected 39 BAL specimens using an ELISA assay. Our study demonstrates that potential protein biomarkers in BAL fluid can be detected and quantified.
glycoproteomics; bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); glycoproteins; lung adenocarcinoma; non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1−/− mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1−/− mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1−/− mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients.
cisplatin; drug interaction; multidrug and toxin extrusion protein; nephrotoxicity; ondansetron; organic cation transporter
Propofol and remifentanil alter intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in neural stem/progenitor cells by activating γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors and by reducing testosterone levels. However, whether this process affects neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation remains unknown. In the present study, we applied propofol and remifentanil, alone or in combination, at low, moderate or high concentrations (1, 2–2.5 and 4–5 times the clinically effective blood drug concentration), to neural stem/progenitor cells from the hippocampi of newborn rat pups. Low concentrations of propofol, remifentanil or both had no noticeable effect on cell proliferation or differentiation; however, moderate and high concentrations of propofol and/or remifentanil markedly suppressed neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, and induced a decrease in [Ca2+]i during the initial stage of neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation. We therefore propose that propofol and remifentanil interfere with the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells by altering [Ca2+]i. Our findings suggest that propofol and/or remifentanil should be used with caution in pediatric anesthesia.
nerve regeneration; propofol; remifentanil; neural stem cells; neural progenitor cells; proliferation; apoptosis; differentiation; [Ca2+]i; neural regeneration
Xingnaojing (XNJ), is a standardized Chinese herbal medicine product derived from An Gong Niu Huang Pill. It may be involved in neuroprotection in a number of neurological disorders. Exposure to anesthetic agents during the brain growth spurt may trigger widespread neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Thus the present study aimed to identify whether there was a neuroprotective effect of XNJ on anesthesia-induced neuroapoptosis. Seven-day-old rats received treatment with 2.1% sevoflurane for 6 h. Rat pups were injected intraperitoneally with 1 or 10 ml/kg XNJ at 0.2, 24 and 48 h prior to sevoflurane exposure. The striata of neonatal rats were collected following administration of anesthesia. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of activated caspase 3, Bax and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) in the striatum. It was found that activated caspase 3 and Bax expression were upregulated in the striatum following sevoflurane treatment. Preconditioning with XNJ attenuated the neuronal apoptosis induced by sevoflurane in a dose-dependent manner. Anesthesia reduced the expression of p-AKT (phosphorylated at sites Thr308 and Ser473) and phosphorylated extracellular-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK) in the striatum. Pre-treatment with XNJ reversed the reduction in p-AKT, but not p-ERK expression. These data suggest that XNJ has an antiapoptotic effect against sevoflurane-induced cell loss in the striatum. It thus holds promise as a safe and effective neuroprotective agent. The action of XNJ on p-AKT may make a significant contribution to its neuroprotective effect.
chinese medicine; sevoflurane; apoptosis; signal transduction; protein kinase B signaling; striatum
Danshensu, a type of dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid, is one of the most abundant active phenolic acids in the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhizae (Lamiaceae)—widely used traditional Chinese medicine. The effects of danshensu on platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in rats were examined using various methods. It was found that danshensu significantly reduced thrombus weight in 2 experimental thrombosis models; dose-dependent inhibition of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation occurred in normal and blood stasis-induced rats; Danshensu also significantly mitigated blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit levels. Moreover, danshensu significantly inhibited venous thrombosis-induced expression of cyclooxygenases-2 (COX-2) rather than cyclooxygenases-1(COX-1) in the venous walls, down regulated thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and up regulated 6-keto prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α), normalizing the TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α ratio. In addition, danshensu did not induce gastric lesions and even had protective effects on aspirin-induced ulcer formation at doses as high as 60 mg/kg. These findings suggest that the antithrombotic and antiplatelet aggregation effects of danshensu are attributed to its highly selective inhibition of COX-2 and ability to normalize the thromboxane A2(TXA2)/prostacyclin(PGI2) balance. These findings suggest that danshensu have great prospects in antithrombotic and antiplatelet therapy.
The Yunnan shoot borer, Tomicus yunnanensis, is a recently-discovered, aggressive pest of the Yunnan pine stands in southwestern China. Despite many bionomics studies and massive controlling efforts, research on its population genetics is extremely limited. The present study, aimed at investigating the origin and dispersal of this important forestry pest, analyzed the population genetic structure and demographic history using a mitochondrial cox1 gene fragment. Our results showed that T. yunnanensis most likely originated from the Central-Yunnan Altiplano, and the divergence time analysis placed the origin approximately 0.72 million-years ago. Host separation and specialization might have caused the speciation of T. yunnanensis. Genetic structure analyses identified two population groups, with six populations near the origin area forming one group and the remaining six populations from western and eastern Yunnan and southwestern Sichuan comprising the other. Divergence time analysis placed the split of the two groups at approximately 0.60 million-years ago, and haplotype phylogenetic tree, network, as well as migration rate suggested that populations of the latter group were established via a small number of individuals from the former one. Migration analysis also showed a certain degree of recent expansion from southwestern Sichuan to eastern Yunnan. Our findings implied that T. yunnanensis underwent both historical expansion and recent dispersal. The historical expansion may relate to the oscillation of regional climate due to glacial and interglacial periods in the Pleistocene, while human-mediated transportation of pine-wood material might have assisted the relocation and establishment of this pest in novel habitats.
This study was to investigate the mechanism and role of Kif4A in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in breast cancer. Using two human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (with wild-type p53) and MDA-MB-231 (with mutant p53), we quantitated the expression levels of kinesin super-family protein 4A (Kif4A) and poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) by Western blot after doxorubicin treatment and examined the apoptosis by flow cytometry after treatment with doxorubicin and PARP-1 inhibitor, 3-Aminobenzamide (3-ABA). Our results showed that doxorubicin treatment could induce the apoptosis of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the down-regulation of Kif4A and upregulation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). The activity of PARP-1 or PARP-1 activation was significantly elevated by doxorubicin treatment in dose- and time-dependent manners (P < 0.05), while doxorubicin treatment only slightly elevated the level of cleaved fragments of PARP-1 (P > 0.05). We further demonstrated that overexpression of Kif4A could reduce the level of PAR and significantly increase apoptosis. The effect of doxorubicin on apoptosis was more profound in MCF-7 cells compared with MDA-MB-231 cells (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that the novel role of Kif4A in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells is achieved by inhibiting the activity of PARP-1.
doxorubicin; Kif4A; MCF-7; MDA-MB-231; PARP-1
Burkholderia sp. C3, an efficient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degrader, can utilize 9 of the 10 N-methylcarbamate insecticides including carbaryl as a sole source of carbon. Rapid hydrolysis of carbaryl in C3 is followed by slow catabolism of the resulting 1-naphthol. This study focused on metabolomes and proteomes in C3 cells utilizing carbaryl in comparison to those using glucose or nutrient broth. Sixty of the 867 detected proteins were involved in primary metabolism, adaptive sensing and regulation, transport, stress response, and detoxification. Among the 41 proteins expressed in response to carbaryl were formate dehydrogenase, aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanolamine utilization protein involved in one carbon metabolism. Acetate kinase and phasin were 2 of the 19 proteins that were not detected in carbaryl-supported C3 cells, but detected in glucose-supported C3 cells. Down-production of phasin and polyhydroxyalkanoates in carbaryl-supported C3 cells suggests insufficient carbon sources and lower levels of primary metabolites to maintain an ordinary level of metabolism. Differential metabolomes (approximately 196 identified polar metabolites) showed up-production of metabolites in pentose phosphate pathways and metabolisms of cysteine, cystine and some other amino acids, disaccharides and nicotinate, in contract to down-production of most of the other amino acids and hexoses. The proteomic and metabolomic analyses showed that carbaryl-supported C3 cells experienced strong toxic effects, oxidative stresses, DNA/RNA damages and carbon nutrient deficiency.
Proteomics; Metabolomics; Biodegradation; Bioremediation; Pesticide; Catabolism