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1.  A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Therapeutic Workplace for Chronically Unemployed, Homeless, Alcohol-Dependent Adults 
Aims: To assess the efficacy of the Therapeutic Workplace, a substance abuse intervention that promotes abstinence while simultaneously addressing the issues of poverty and lack of job skills, in promoting abstinence from alcohol among homeless alcoholics. Methods: Participants (n = 124) were randomly assigned to conditions either requiring abstinence from alcohol to engage in paid job skills training (Contingent Paid Training group), offering paid job skills training with no abstinence contingencies (Paid Training group) or offering unpaid job skill training with no abstinence contingencies (Unpaid Training group). Results: Participants in the Contingent Paid Training group had significantly fewer positive (blood alcohol level ≥ 0.004 g/dl) breath samples than the Paid Training group in both randomly scheduled breath samples collected in the community and breath samples collected during monthly assessments. The breath sample results from the Unpaid Training group were similar in absolute terms to the Contingent Paid Training group, which may have been influenced by a lower breath sample collection rate in this group and fewer reported drinks per day consumed at intake. Conclusion: Overall, the results support the utility of the Therapeutic Workplace intervention to promote abstinence from alcohol among homeless alcoholics, and support paid training as a way of increasing engagement in training programs.
doi:10.1093/alcalc/agr057
PMCID: PMC3156886  PMID: 21622676
2.  Cultural differences in acceptability of a vaginal microbicide: a comparison between potential users from Nashville, Tennessee, USA, and Kafue and Mumbwa, Zambia 
Purpose
We sought to determine the relationship between acceptability of a hypothetical vaginal microbicide, cultural factors, and perceived HIV risk among African-American women in Nashville, TN, USA, and African women in Kafue and Mumbwa, Zambia.
Patients and methods
Women in both sites completed a survey. Regression analyses were performed on valid samples (Nashville, 164; Zambia, 101) to determine cultural differences affecting microbicide acceptability. Regression analyses also tested whether individual risk perception affected acceptability.
Results
In Zambia, 89.6% of women were willing to use a microbicide versus 81.6% in Nashville (P < 0.0001). One cultural difference is that women in the Zambian cohort viewed risk of HIV infection as distinct from risk of acquiring STIs, with 48% believing they were certain to become infected with AIDS, compared to 4% of Nashville participants.
Conclusion
These results suggest a high degree of acceptability toward use of a vaginal microbicide to prevent HIV infection.
doi:10.2147/HIV.S25848
PMCID: PMC3358808  PMID: 22629115
HIV/AIDS; women; birth control; sexually transmitted infections

Results 1-2 (2)