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1.  Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients 
Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study utilized an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opiate and cocaine abstinence among opioid-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n=46) were randomly assigned to an Abstinence & Work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in order to enter the workplace and earn incentives for work (n=16), a Work Only group that was permitted to enter the workplace and earn incentives independent of drug use (n=15), and a No Voucher control group that did not receive any incentives for working (n=15) over a 26-week period. The primary outcome was urinalysis-confirmed opiate, cocaine, and combined opiate/cocaine abstinence. Participants were 78% male and 89% African American. Results showed no significant between-group differences in urinalysis-verified drug abstinence or HIV risk behaviors during the 6-month intervention. The Work Only group had significantly greater workplace attendance and worked more minutes per day when compared to the No Voucher group. Several features of the study design, including the lack of an induction period, setting the threshold for entering the workplace too high by requiring immediate abstinence from several drugs, and increasing the risk of relapse by providing a brief detoxification that was not supported by any continued pharmacological intervention, likely prevented the workplace from becoming established as a reinforcer that could be used to promote drug abstinence. However, increases in workplace attendance have important implications for adult training programs.
doi:10.1037/a0034863
PMCID: PMC4332775  PMID: 24490712
HIV; contingency management; therapeutic workplace; incentive; injection drug use
2.  Risk-Taking Propensity as a Predictor of Induction onto Naltrexone Treatment for Opioid Dependence 
The Journal of clinical psychiatry  2012;73(8):e1056-e1061.
Objective
Heroin addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that has devastating social, medical, and economic consequences. Naltrexone is an antagonist that blocks opioid effects and could be an effective medication for the treatment of opioid dependence. However, its clinical utility has been limited partly because of poor adherence and acceptability. Given the importance of compliance to naltrexone treatment for opioid dependence, the goal of the current study was to examine predictors involved in successful induction onto naltrexone treatment.
Method
Parametric and nonparametric statistical tests were performed on data from a sample of 64 individuals entering treatment who met DSM-IV criteria for opioid dependence. The relationship between naltrexone induction (i.e., inducted- vs. not-inducted onto naltrexone) and risk-taking propensity, as indexed by riskiness on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) was examined. Participants were recruited from local detoxification programs, inpatient drug treatment, and other Baltimore programs that provided services to opioid dependent adults (e.g., Baltimore Needle Exchange Program) during the period from August 2007 to September 2008.
Results
Positive association between risk-taking propensity and odds of naltrexone induction. Specifically, each five point increase in the total BART score was associated with a 25% decrease in odds of naltrexone induction (OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.58–0.99, p = .041). This association remained statistically significant even after adjusting for potential confounds, including injection drug use and cocaine positive urine results (p = .05). After adjusting for the covariates, each five point increase in BART score was associated with 28% decrease in the odds of achieving the maintenance dose (AOR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.54–0.99, p = .046).
Conclusions
Risk taking propensity was predictive of induction onto naltrexone treatment, above and beyond injection drug use and cocaine-positive urine samples.
doi:10.4088/JCP.09m05807
PMCID: PMC3985274  PMID: 22967782
Risk taking propensity; naltrexone; opioid dependence; substance abuse treatment
3.  Employment-Based Reinforcement of Adherence to Oral Naltrexone Treatment in Unemployed Injection Drug Users 
Naltrexone has high potential for use as a relapse prevention pharmacotherapy for opiate dependence; however suffers from notoriously poor adherence when prescribed for oral self-administration. This study evaluated whether entry to a therapeutic workplace could be used to reinforce adherence with oral naltrexone. Opiate-dependent and cocaine-using injection drug users were detoxified, inducted onto oral naltrexone, and randomly assigned to a Contingency (n=35) or Prescription (n=32) group for a 26-week period. Contingency participants were required to ingest naltrexone under staff observation to gain access to the therapeutic workplace. Prescription participants received a take-home supply of naltrexone and could access the workplace independent of naltrexone ingestion. Primary outcome measures were percent of urine samples positive for naltrexone at 30-day assessments and negative for opiates and cocaine at 30-day assessments. Contingency participants provided significantly more urine samples that were positive for naltrexone compared to Prescription participants (72% vs. 21%, P<.01), however no effect of experimental group was observed on percent opiate-negative (71% vs. 60%, P=.19.) or cocaine-negative (56% vs. 53%, P=.82) samples in the Contingency and Prescription groups, respectively. Opiate-positive samples were significantly more likely to occur in conjunction with cocaine (P<.001), and when not protected by naltrexone (P<.02), independent of experimental group. Overall, these results show that contingent access to a therapeutic workplace significantly promoted adherence to oral naltrexone, and that the majority of opiate use occurred in conjunction with cocaine use, suggesting that untreated cocaine use may limit the effectiveness of oral naltrexone in promoting opiate abstinence.
doi:10.1037/a0030743
PMCID: PMC3641088  PMID: 23205722
naltrexone; contingency management; therapeutic workplace; incentive; injection drug use
4.  Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to an FDA approved extended release formulation of naltrexone in opioid-dependent adults: A randomized controlled trial 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2011;120(1-3):48-54.
Background
Naltrexone provides excellent opioid blockade, but its clinical utility is limited because opioid-dependent patients typically refuse it. An injectable suspension of naltrexone for extended release (XR-NTX) was recently approved by the FDA for treatment of opioid dependence. XR-NTX treatment may require concurrent behavioral intervention to maximize adherence and effectiveness, thus we sought to evaluate employment-based reinforcement as a method of improving adherence to XR-NTX in opiate dependent adults.
Methods
Opioid-dependent adults (N = 38) were detoxified and inducted onto oral naltrexone, then randomly assigned to contingency or prescription conditions. Participants received up to six doses of XR-NTX at four-week intervals. All participants could earn vouchers for attendance and performance at a therapeutic workplace. Contingency participants were required to accept XRNTX injections to access the workplace and earn vouchers. Prescription participants could earn vouchers independent of their acceptance of XR-NTX injections.
Results
Contingency participants accepted significantly more naltrexone injections than prescription participants (87% versus 52%, p = .002), and were more likely to accept all injections (74% versus 26%, p = .004). Participants in the two conditions provided similar percentages of samples negative for opiates (72% versus 65%) and for cocaine (58% versus 54%).Opiate positivity was significantly more likely when samples were also cocaine positive, independent of naltrexone blockade (p = .002).
Conclusions
Long-term adherence to XR-NTX in unemployed opiate dependent adults is low under usual care conditions. Employment-based reinforcement can maintain adherence to XRNTX. Ongoing cocaine use appears to interfere with the clinical effectiveness of XR-NTX on opiate use.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.06.023
PMCID: PMC3245785  PMID: 21782353
contingency management; incentives; therapeutic workplace; heroin; opioid pharmacotherapy; extended-release naltrexone
5.  A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Therapeutic Workplace for Chronically Unemployed, Homeless, Alcohol-Dependent Adults 
Aims: To assess the efficacy of the Therapeutic Workplace, a substance abuse intervention that promotes abstinence while simultaneously addressing the issues of poverty and lack of job skills, in promoting abstinence from alcohol among homeless alcoholics. Methods: Participants (n = 124) were randomly assigned to conditions either requiring abstinence from alcohol to engage in paid job skills training (Contingent Paid Training group), offering paid job skills training with no abstinence contingencies (Paid Training group) or offering unpaid job skill training with no abstinence contingencies (Unpaid Training group). Results: Participants in the Contingent Paid Training group had significantly fewer positive (blood alcohol level ≥ 0.004 g/dl) breath samples than the Paid Training group in both randomly scheduled breath samples collected in the community and breath samples collected during monthly assessments. The breath sample results from the Unpaid Training group were similar in absolute terms to the Contingent Paid Training group, which may have been influenced by a lower breath sample collection rate in this group and fewer reported drinks per day consumed at intake. Conclusion: Overall, the results support the utility of the Therapeutic Workplace intervention to promote abstinence from alcohol among homeless alcoholics, and support paid training as a way of increasing engagement in training programs.
doi:10.1093/alcalc/agr057
PMCID: PMC3156886  PMID: 21622676
6.  Employment-Based Reinforcement of Adherence to Depot Naltrexone in Unemployed Opioid-Dependent Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2011;106(7):1309-1318.
Aims
Naltrexone can be used to treat opioid dependence, but patients refuse to take it. Extended-release depot formulations may improve adherence, but long-term adherence rates to depot naltrexone are not known. This study determined long-term rates of adherence to depot naltrexone and whether employment-based reinforcement can improve adherence.
Design
Participants who were inducted onto oral naltrexone were randomly assigned to Contingency (n=18) or Prescription (n=17) groups. Participants were offered six depot naltrexone injections and invited to work at the therapeutic workplace weekdays for 26 weeks where they earned stipends for participating in job skills training. Contingency participants were required to accept naltrexone injections to maintain workplace access and to maintain maximum pay. Prescription participants could work independent of whether they accepted injections.
Setting
The therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based intervention for drug addiction and unemployment.
Participants
Opioid-dependent unemployed adults.
Measurements
Depot naltrexone injections accepted and opiate-negative urine samples.
Findings
Contingency participants accepted significantly more naltrexone injections than Prescription participants (81% versus 42%), and were more likely to accept all injections (66% versus 35%). At monthly assessments (with missing urine samples imputed as positive), the groups provided similar percentages of samples negative for opiates (74% versus 62%) and for cocaine (56% versus 54%). Opiate positive samples were more likely when samples were also positive for cocaine.
Conclusions
Employment-based reinforcement can maintain adherence to depot naltrexone. Future research should determine whether persistent cocaine use compromises naltrexone's effect on opiate use. Workplaces may be useful for promoting sustained adherence to depot naltrexone.
doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03400.x
PMCID: PMC3107896  PMID: 21320227
depot naltrexone; contingency management; heroin; substance abuse; employment-based reinforcement
7.  Elevated Serum Gastrin Is Associated With a History of Advanced Neoplasia in Barrett’s Esophagus 
OBJECTIVES
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are frequently prescribed to patients with Barrett’ s esophagus (BE), but in a subset, they can induce significant hypergastrinemia. Elevated levels of gastrin have been associated with tumorigenic effects in a number of gastrointestinal cancers. We decided to investigate the association between serum gastrin levels and dysplasia in BE.
METHODS
We performed a cross-sectional study and enrolled patients with BE without dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), or adenocarcinoma (AC), as well as gastroesophageal reflux disease controls, all chronically taking PPIs. Fasting serum gastrin was measured, and data were collected on patient characteristics, medication use, and the highest degree of BE neoplasia.
RESULTS
A total of 95 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 64.7 (±10.0) years, and 70.5 % were male. The median serum gastrin level was 40 pM. There was no significant difference in gastrin levels with increased degrees of BE neoplasia (overall P = 0.68). In multivariable analysis, the highest quartile of gastrin was associated with significantly increased odds of advanced neoplasia (HGD or AC) (odds ratio (OR): 5.46, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.20–24.8).
CONCLUSIONS
In BE patients taking PPIs, an elevated serum gastrin is associated with a history of HGD or AC. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether patients with nondysplastic BE and elevated serum gastrin are at increased risk for neoplastic progression.
doi:10.1038/ajg.2009.629
PMCID: PMC3139948  PMID: 19904251
8.  Professional Demeanor of Chronically Unemployed Cocaine-Dependent Methadone Patients in a Therapeutic Workplace 
Substance use & misuse  2007;42(7):1141-1159.
This study assesses the frequency that users of illicit drugs display unprofessional behaviors in an employment setting. This research was conducted in the Therapeutic Workplace, a model employment-based treatment program for chronically unemployed adults with long-histories of illicit drug use. Unemployed adults in methadone treatment, who were opiate and cocaine dependent, showed signs of injection drug use, and recently used cocaine were hired to work for 4 hours every weekday for 7 months. Results show that while the overall incidence of many undesirable behaviors is low, a small percentage of participants had serious workplace behavior problems that might limit their success in community workplaces. This study suggests that unprofessional behavior in the workplace could contribute to chronic unemployment in this population.
doi:10.1080/10826080701410089
PMCID: PMC3072792  PMID: 17668330
Employment; Heroin Addiction; Cocaine Addiction; Contingency management; Reinforcement; Vocation rehabilitation
9.  A Randomized Trial of Employment-Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Injection Drug Users 
High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs and use cocaine during methadone treatment. Participants could work 4 hr every weekday in a workplace where they could earn about $10.00 per hour in vouchers; they were required to provide routine urine samples. Participants who attended the workplace and provided cocaine-positive urine samples during the initial 4 weeks were invited to work 26 weeks and were randomly assigned to an abstinence-and-work (n  =  28) or work-only (n  =  28) group. Abstinence-and-work participants had to provide urine samples showing cocaine abstinence to work and maintain maximum pay. Work-only participants could work independent of their urinalysis results. Abstinence-and-work participants provided more (p  =  .004; OR  =  5.80, 95% CI  =  2.03–16.56) cocaine-negative urine samples (29%) than did work-only participants (10%). Employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase cocaine abstinence.
doi:10.1901/jaba.2007.40-387
PMCID: PMC1986688  PMID: 17970256
contingency management; abstinence reinforcement; cocaine addiction; methadone; drug abuse treatment; employment
10.  ‘I Had a Gun’ 
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2000.11148.x
PMCID: PMC1495345  PMID: 10672121

Results 1-10 (10)