Healthy Choices is a motivational interviewing intervention targeting multiple risk behaviors among HIV-positive youth. This study investigated the effects of this intervention program specifically on alcohol and marijuana use. Youth living with HIV (n=143, mean age=20.7, 51.5% male) were recruited from four sites in the United States, and randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. The four-session intervention focused on two of three possible problem behaviors based on entry screening; this study focused on 143 HIV-positive youth who received the intervention for substance use. At 15-month follow-up past-week alcohol use was significantly lower for intervention youth than control youth (39.7% versus 53.6%, χ2=2.81, 0.05
Social capital and health research has emerged as a focus of contemporary behavioral epidemiology, while intervention research is seeking more effective measures to increase health protective behaviors and decrease health-risk behaviors. In this review we explored current literature on social capital and health outcomes at the micro-, mesa-, and macro-levels with a particular emphasis on research that incorporates a social capital framework, and adolescent and young adult engagement in risk behaviors. These data indicate that across a broad range of socio-cultural and economic contexts, social capital can affect individuals' risk for negative health outcomes and their engagement in risk behaviors. Further research is needed which should focus on differentiating and measuring positive and negative social capital within both mainstream and alternative social networks, assessing how social constructions of gender, ethnicity, and race – within specific cultural contexts – mediate the relationship between social capital and risk and/or protective behaviors. This new research should integrate the existing research within historical socioeconomic and political conditions. In addition, social capital scales need to be developed to be both culturally and developmentally appropriate for use with adolescents living in a diversity of settings. Despite the proliferation of social capital research, the concept remains underutilized in both assessment and intervention development for adolescents' and young adults' engagement in risk behaviors and their associated short- and long-term poor health outcomes.
social capital; global health; risk behaviors
Aims: To systematically review the literature on the Chinese translations of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and their cross-cultural applicability in Chinese language populations. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed articles published in English (n = 10) and in Chinese (n = 11) from 1980 to September 2009, with key words China, Chinese and AUDIT among PubMed, EBSCO, PsycInfo, FirstSearch electronic databases and two Chinese databases. Results: Five teams from Beijing, Tibet, Taiwan and Hong Kong reported their region-specific translation procedures, cultural adaptations, validity (0.93–0.95 in two versions) and reliability (0.63–0.99). These Chinese translations and short versions demonstrated relatively high sensitivity (0.880–0.997) and moderate specificity (0.709–0.934) for hazardous/harmful drinking and alcohol dependence, but low specificity for alcohol dependence among Min-Nan Taiwanese (0.58). The AUDIT and its adaptations were most utilized in workplace- and hospital-settings for screening and brief intervention. However, they were under-utilized in population-based surveys, primary care settings, and among women, adolescents, rural-to-urban migrants, the elderly and minorities. Among 12 studies from mainland China, four included both women and men, and only one in Tibet was published in English. Conclusion: There is a growing amount of psychometric, epidemiologic and treatment research using Chinese translations of the AUDIT, much of it still unavailable in the English-language literature. Given the increase in burden of disease and injury attributable to alcohol use in the Western Pacific region, the use of an internationally comparable instrument (such as the AUDIT) in research with Chinese populations presents a unique opportunity to expand clinical and epidemiologic knowledge about alcohol problem epidemics.
The present study randomly assigned 15 Bahamian elementary schools to one of three intervention conditions. To assess the adequacy of cluster randomization, we examined two concerns identified by the local research team: inequality of gender distribution and environmental risk among groups. Baseline significant differences in risk and protective behaviors were minimal. There were significantly more males in the intervention group. Males had higher rates of risk behavior at all assessments. Poor school performance was also higher among the intervention condition and was significantly associated with increased rates of many but not all risk behaviors. Prior to adjusting for gender and school performance, several risk behaviors appeared to be higher after intervention among intervention youth. Adjusting for gender and school performance eradicated the group differences in risk behavior rates. Results demonstrate the importance of adequate randomization where outcomes of interest are rare events at baseline or differ by gender and there is an unequal gender distribution and the importance of the local research team's knowledge of potential inequalities in environmental risk (i.e., school performance). Not considering such individual differences could impact the integrity of trial outcomes.
Parent-child communication is associated with positive outcomes for youths’ engagement in sexual behaviors. Limited data are available regarding parent-child communication in transitional countries. We present data from Vietnamese parent-youth dyads on parent reproductive health knowledge, comfort of communication, frequency of talk, and discordancy between youths’ reported and parents’ perceptions for engagement in relationships and sexually intimate behaviors.
185 randomly selected parent-youth dyads in four communes in Ha Noi and Khanh Hoa Province. Descriptive and comparative analysis included chi-square tests, independent samples t-tests, and ANOVA. Linear regression analysis was utilized to assess relationships between parental knowledge, level of comfort, frequency of talk, and discordancy.
Seventy-six percent of parents and 44% of youth were female. Youth mean age was 17.2 years. For parental “reproductive health knowledge” mean score was 24.74 (SD 3.84: range 15–34). Lower parental reproductive health knowledge was positively associated with lower levels of education [F=2.983, df 184: p=0.014]. Data indicate a linear model in which knowledge is related to “comfort” (β =0.17; p=0.048) and “comfort” to frequency of “talk” (β =0.6; p<0.0001). Frequency of “talk” is not related to parents’ discordant perceptions regarding their child’s reported involvement in relationships (β =0.002; p=0.79) or sexual touching (β =0.57; p=0.60).
Parent and youth in Viet Nam are engaged in limited communication about reproductive health. There is need for more data to assess the impact of these communication patterns on youths’ engagement in sexual behaviors and for development of family-centered interventions to increase parental knowledge and skills for positive communication.
More than 50% of youth living with HIV (YLH) have unprotected sex. In previous studies, we reported effects of a motivational interviewing (MI)-based multi-risk reduction intervention, “Healthy Choices,” in improving motivation, depression and viral load in YLH. In this study we report the effect of the intervention on increasing condom use.
Six waves of longitudinal data (n = 142) across a period from baseline through 15 months post intervention were analyzed. The developmental trajectory modeling method was used for program effect evaluation.
Three groups detected with distinct sexual risks were: Persistent low sexual risk (PLSR), delayed high sexual risk (DHSR), and high and growing sexual risk (HGSR) with regard to levels and time trajectories of condom use throughout the trial. Receiving Healthy Choices increased the likelihood to be in the PLSR group (63% vs. 32%, p < 0.01) and reduced the likelihood to be in the DHSR group (16% vs. 50%, p < 0.05). Receiving the intervention was also associated with progressive reductions in no-condom sex for PLSR youth (adjusted β = −0.325, p < 0.01) and HGSR youth (adjusted β = −0.364, p < 0.01).
The MI-based program Healthy Choices, when delivered in clinic settings, can prevent unprotected sex in subgroups of YLH, although more intensive interventions may be needed to change risk trajectories among those at highest risk of transmitting the AIDS virus. Developmental trajectory analysis provides an alternative approach to evaluate program effects for study samples that contain distinct subgroups.
Healthy Choice; HIV positive youth; Sexual risk; Condom use; Randomized controlled trial; Trajectory analysis
To investigate the association of age, period and cohort with the changing pattern of cigarette smoking among youth and young adults for better planning tobacco control in the United States.
Age-period-cohort analysis of the 1990-2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data.
Rates of lifetime and 30-day smoking for adolescents fluctuated between 1990-96 before they declined; the same rates for young adults progressively increased until 2002 before declining. There were significant cohort effects on changes in the prevalence rates of cigarette smoking.
The cohort effects on smoking underscore the need for sustained tobacco control policies.
tobacco control; adolescent smoking; APC Modeling; United States
In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population.
Social capital; Stigma; Rural migrants; China
In order to find better strategies for tobacco control, it is often critical to know the transitional probabilities among various stages of tobacco use. Traditionally, such probabilities are estimated by analyzing data from longitudinal surveys that are often time-consuming and expensive to conduct. Since cross-sectional surveys are much easier to conduct, it will be much more practical and useful to estimate transitional probabilities from cross-sectional survey data if possible. However, no previous research has attempted to do this. In this paper, we propose a method to estimate transitional probabilities from cross-sectional survey data. The method is novel and is based on a discrete event system framework. In particular, we introduce state probabilities and transitional probabilities to conventional discrete event system models. We derive various equations that can be used to estimate the transitional probabilities. We test the method using cross-sectional data of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The estimated transitional probabilities can be used in predicting the future smoking behavior for decision-making, planning and evaluation of various tobacco control programs. The method also allows a sensitivity analysis that can be used to find the most effective way of tobacco control. Since there are much more cross-sectional survey data in existence than longitudinal ones, the impact of this new method is expected to be significant.
Discrete event systems; tobacco control; smoking behavior; cross-sectional survey; transitional probability
Behavioral research and prevention intervention science efforts have largely been based on hypotheses of linear or rational behavior change. Additional advances in the field may result from the integration of quantum behavior change and catastrophe models. Longitudinal data from a randomized trial for 1241 pre-adolescents 9–12 years old who self-described as virgin were analyzed. Data for 469 virgins in the control group were included for linear and cusp catastrophe models to describe sexual initiation; data for the rest in the intervention group were added for program effect assessment. Self-reported likelihood to have sex was positively associated with actual initiation of sex (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 1.43–2.06, R2 = 0.13). Receipt of a behavioral prevention intervention based on a cognitive model prevented 15.6% (33.0% vs. 48.6%, OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.24–1.11) of the participants from initiating sex among only those who reported “very likely to have sex.” The beta coefficients for the cubic term of the cusp assessing three bifurcating variables (planning to have sex, intrinsic rewards from sex and self-efficacy for abstinence) were 0.0726, 0.1116 and 0.1069 respectively; R2 varied from 0.49 to 0.54 (p<0.001 for all). Although an intervention based on a model of continuous behavior change did produce a modest impact on sexual initiation, quantum change has contributed more than continuous change in describing sexual initiation among young adolescents, suggesting the need for quantum change and chaotic models to advance behavioral prevention of HIV/AIDS.
quantum behavior change; cusp catastrophe model; sexual risk behavior; adolescents; HIV prevention
The purpose of this work was to report the intervention effects of Focus on Youth in the Caribbean (youth HIV intervention), an HIV prevention intervention based on protection motivation theory, through 24 months of follow-up on sexual risk and protection knowledge, perceptions, intentions, and behavior among Bahamian sixth-grade youth.
We randomly assigned 1360 sixth-grade youth (and their parents) attending 15 government elementary schools in the Bahamas to 1 of 3 conditions: (1) youth HIV intervention plus a parental monitoring/communication/HIV education intervention; (2) youth HIV intervention plus a parental goal-setting intervention; or (3) an environmental protection intervention plus the parental goal-setting intervention. Baseline and 4 follow-up surveys at 6-month intervals were conducted. Intervention effects were assessed using the mixed model for continuous outcome variables and the generalized linear mixed model for dichotomous outcome variables.
Through 24 months of follow-up, youth HIV intervention, in combination with the parent interventions, significantly increased youths’ HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceptions of their ability to use condoms, perception of the effectiveness of condoms and abstinence, and condom use intention and significantly lowered perceived costs to remaining abstinent. There was a trend for higher condom use among youth in the Focus on Youth in the Caribbean groups at each follow-up interval.
Focus on Youth in the Caribbean, in combination with 1 of 2 parent interventions administered to preadolescents and their parents in the Bahamas, resulted in and sustained protective changes on HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexual perceptions, and condom use intention. Although rates of sexual experience remained low, the consistent trend at all of the follow-up periods for higher condom use among youth who received youth intervention reached marginal significance at 24 months. Additional follow-up is necessary to determine whether the apparent protective effect is statistically significant as more youth initiate sex and whether it endures over time.
protection motivation theory; preadolescent; intervention; HIV/AIDS; condom use; sexual behavior
To determine if Healthy Choices, a motivational interviewing intervention targeting multiple risk behaviors, improved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load.
A randomized, 2-group repeated measures design with analysis of data from baseline and 6- and 9-month follow-up collected from 2005 to 2007.
Five US adolescent medicine HIV clinics.
A convenience sample with at least 1 of 3 risk behaviors (nonadherence to HIV medications, substance abuse, and unprotected sex) was enrolled. The sample was aged 16 to 24 years and primarily African American. Of the 205 enrolled, 19 did not complete baseline data collections, for a final sample size of 186. Young people living with HIV were randomized to the intervention plus specialty care (n = 94) or specialty care alone (n = 92). The 3- and 6-month follow-up rates, respectively, were 86% and 82% for the intervention group and 81% and 73% for controls.
Healthy Choices was a 4-session individual clinic-based motivational interviewing intervention delivered during a 10-week period. Motivational interviewing is a method of communication designed to elicit and reinforce intrinsic motivation for change.
Plasma viral load.
Youth randomized to Healthy Choices showed a significant decline in viral load at 6 months postintervention compared with youth in the control condition (β = −0.36, t = −2.15, P = .03), with those prescribed antiretroviral medications showing the lowest viral loads. Differences were no longer significant at 9 months.
A motivational interviewing intervention targeting multiple risk behaviors resulted in short-term improvements in viral load for youth living with HIV.
A probabilistic discrete event system (PDES) is a nondeterministic discrete event system where the probabilities of nondeterministic transitions are specified. State estimation problems of PDES are more difficult than those of non-probabilistic discrete event systems. In our previous papers, we investigated state estimation problems for non-probabilistic discrete event systems. We defined four types of detectabilities and derived necessary and sufficient conditions for checking these detectabilities. In this paper, we extend our study to state estimation problems for PDES by considering the probabilities. The first step in our approach is to convert a given PDES into a nondeterministic discrete event system and find sufficient conditions for checking probabilistic detectabilities. Next, to find necessary and sufficient conditions for checking probabilistic detectabilities, we investigate the “convergence” of event sequences in PDES. An event sequence is convergent if along this sequence, it is more and more certain that the system is in a particular state. We derive conditions for convergence and hence for detectabilities. We focus on systems with complete event observation and no state observation. For better presentation, the theoretical development is illustrated by a simplified example of nephritis diagnosis.
Probabilistic discrete event systems; state estimation; detectability; observability
To study the toxicity of inhaled PGE1 (IPGE1) in healthy ventilated piglets.
Mechanically ventilated anesthetized piglets received either high dose IPGE1 (IPGE1 group) or nebulized saline (control group) continuously for 24 hours. Cardio-respiratory parameters, complete blood counts and serum electrolytes were monitored. Lung histology was evaluated by a masked pathologist for the severity (minimal, moderate, and severe) and extent (focal, multifocal, and diffuse) of histologic injury.
Ten neonatal pigs were instrumented. Four received nebulized saline and six received high dose IPGE1. There was no evidence of adverse cardio-respiratory effects, bronchial irritation or hypernatremia related to IPGE1. Diffuse/multifocal alveolar edema and focal polymorphonuclear infiltration was observed in both the control and IPGE1 groups suggesting that alveolar alterations may be secondary to effects of mechanical ventilation. The most distinct histomorphological abnormalities observed in the IPGE1 animals were focal ulceration, flattening of the bronchial epithelium and loss of cilia of moderate to severe degree in the trachea and bronchi.
In healthy piglets, inhalation of high dose IPGE1 was not associated with adverse cardiorespiratory effects, bronchial irritation, or hypernatremia and produced minimal signs of pulmonary toxicity even after 24 hours. Prolonged inhalation of high dose PGE1 therefore appears safe in newborn piglets.
Pulmonary toxicity; inhaled; PGE1/Alprostadil; neonatal; piglet/animal; histomorphology; nebulizer; aerosol
Although young age is considered a risk factor for adverse events related to procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA), data in very young children (<2 years of age) are lacking.
The main objective of our study is to describe PSA in children <2 years of age in an inner city tertiary care pediatric emergency department (PED).
We conducted a retrospective chart review from January 2005 to June 2007 of children <2 years of age who received PSA in our PED. We collected demographic variables, indication for and medications used for PSA, adverse events (AE) related to PSA, and interventions performed to treat them.
Of the children who received PSA, 14.5% (180/1,235) were <2 years of age of whom 173 were included for the analysis; 73% (126/173) of the study subjects were between 1 and 2 years of age, 54.3% (94/173) were male, and 96.5% (167/173) belonged to American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1. Incision and drainage (45.0%, 78/173) and laceration repair (32.4%, 56/173) were the two most common indications for PSA. Ketamine and midazolam was the most common combination medication used for PSA (62.4%, 108/173). Sedation was deemed ineffective in 5.8% (10/173) of the children. There were only two failed sedations; 5.8% (10/173) of the children experienced AE with most being minor [oxygen desaturations 1.7% (3/173), emesis 2.3% (4/173), and others 1.2% (2/173)]. One child experienced serious AE in the form of apnea and bradycardia requiring intubation.
Our data suggest that children under 2 years of age can be sedated effectively without increased risk of AE in a PED.
Pediatric; Procedural sedation; Conscious sedation; Analgesia; Adverse events
The process of rural-to-urban migration in China is accelerating with increased modernization and industrialization. To address the issues of health outcomes and geographic mobility among this population, data from 4,208 rural-to-urban migrants in two major metropolitans of China were analyzed. Results indicate that average duration of migration was 4.3 years, with younger migrants being more mobile than their older counterparts. After controlling for possible confounders, increases in mobility were associated with unstable living arrangements, substandard employment conditions, suboptimal health status, inferior health-seeking behavior, elevated level of substance use, depressive symptoms, and expression of dissatisfaction with life and work. The findings in the present study underscore the need for improved living and employment conditions and increased health care services available to rural-to-urban migratory population.
China; general health; health-seeking; migration; mobility
Data from 633 sexually experienced female migrants were analyzed to examine the sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related behaviors associated with involvement in commercial sex. Six percent (40/633) of the participants reported having had sex for money. Compared with women who had not engaged in commercialsex, women who had sold sex were younger, less educated, and more likely to be unmarried. They were more likely to have engaged in HIV-related risk behaviors, such as becoming intoxicated with alcohol and using drugs. Among women who engaged in commercialsex, only 28% of them consistently used condoms during the last three episodes of sexualintercourse. Women who had ever engaged in commercialsex demonstrated greater depressive symptoms than those without such a history (p<.01). Female migrants, especially those engaging in commercial sex, were vulnerable to HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Sexualrisk reduction and condom promotion are urgently needed among this population. Further studies are needed to examine the causal relationship between depression and HIV risk behaviors.
The objective of this study was to address the role of heterosexual transmission of HIV in China.
The goal of this study was to explore the prevalence of unsafe sex and the likelihood of HIV spread heterosexually from core populations to others.
The authors conducted a review of behavioral studies.
Drug users were more likely to be involved in higher-risk sexual behaviors than were those who abstained from using drugs. Most female drug users (52-98%) reported having engaged in commercial sex. Most female sex workers (FSWs) and individuals with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) had concurrent sexual partners. Many continued to have unprotected sex after noticing STD symptoms in themselves or their sexual partners. From 5% to 26% of rural-to-urban migrants had multiple sexual partners and 10% of males patronized FSWs during migration.
Factors such as high rates of FSW patronage, low rates of condom use during commercial sex, having sex with both commercial and noncommercial sexual partners, and high rates of STD infection may promote a heterosexual epidemic in China.
This study was undertaken to develop a model to predict the incidence of typhoid in children based on adults’ perception of prevalence of enteric fever in the wider community. Typhoid cases among children, aged 5-15 years, from epidemic regions in five Asian countries were confirmed with a positive Salmonella Typhi culture of the blood sample. Estimates of the prevalence of enteric fever were obtained from random samples of adults in the same study sites. Regression models were used for establishing the prediction equation. The percentages of enteric fever reported by adults and cases of typhoid incidence per 100,000, detected through blood culture were 4.7 and 24.18 for Viet Nam, 3.8 and 29.20 for China, 26.3 and 180.33 for Indonesia, 66.0 and 454.15 for India, and 52.7 and 407.18 for Pakistan respectively. An established prediction equation was: incidence of typhoid (1/100,000= −2.6946 + 7.2296 × reported prevalence of enteric fever (%) (F=31.7, p<0.01; R2=0.992). Using adults’ perception of prevalence of disease as the basis for estimating its incidence in children provides a cost-effective behavioural epidemiologic method to facilitate prevention and control of the disease.
Developing countries; Incidence; Perceptions; Prediction model; Prevalence; Salmonella; Typhoid fever; China; India; Viet Nam; Indonesia; Pakistan
Data from 4,208 migrants aged 18–30 years old in Beijing and Nanjing, China, were analyzed to examine the correlates of willingness to participate (WTP) in HIV/STD prevention intervention activities among Chinese rural–to–urban migrants. Overall, 83.3% of the respondents would be willing to participate. Increased WTP was associated with employment in the industrial sector (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.11–2.29), migrating to cities to learn more about the outside world (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08–1.59), prior experience with health maintenance (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.11–1.66), higher level of HIV/AIDS awareness (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.31), and perceived severity of risk behaviors (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.04–1.68). Decreased WTP was associated with increased involvement in health risk behaviors (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.35–0.73), increased perceptions of peer risk involvement (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68–0.98), perceived intrinsic rewards for risk behaviors (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68–0.96) and perceptions of HIV–related stigma (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.53–0.89). The high level of WTP suggests that HIV/STD prevention activities are acceptable among rural–to–urban migrants. Their awareness of HIV/AIDS should be increased and HIV–related stigma should be reduced to increase the level of WTP. Recruitment and retention of individuals with high-risk behavior in prevention activities will be critical and challenging.
The migrant population in China is at high risk for sexual risk behavior and alcohol intoxication. Information about the prevalence of alcohol intoxication and its association with sexual risk behavior among migrants is needed for designing effective intervention prevention programs for reduction in alcohol abuse and HIV infection.
Cross-sectional data were collected from 2153 sexually experienced young rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing and Nanjing, China, in 2002.
Approximately one-third of the participants had been intoxicated with alcohol at least once during the previous month, with more males than females reporting intoxication (40.2% versus 23.7%, p < 0.001). Compared to non-intoxicated participants, respondents with alcohol intoxication in previous 30 days reported more psychological problems, including higher depression scores, lower levels of satisfaction with life and work, and higher perception of peer involvement in risk behavior. Intoxicated respondents were more likely to engage in premarital sex than non-intoxicated respondents (76% versus 60.2%, p < 0.001), have multiple sexual partners (13.4% versus 5.2%, p < 0.001), purchase sex (12.6% versus 4.9%, p < 0.001), and sell sex (10.1% versus 3.7%, p < 0.001). However, there was no association between alcohol intoxication and inconsistent/non-use of condoms. Multivariate analysis controlling for depression, peer risk involvement, age, gender, and other socio-demographic variables indicated that alcohol intoxication was independently correlated with premarital sex, multiple sexual partners, and buying and selling sex.
Compared to the general Chinese population, levels of intoxication were elevated among Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. Alcohol intoxication was associated with sexual risk behaviors. HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention efforts should include components of alcohol use/abuse prevention for an effective reduction of sexual risk among young rural-to-urban migrants in China.
Alcohol intoxication; China; rural-to-urban migrants; Sexual risk behavior