Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-8 (8)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

more »
Year of Publication
2.  A New Method for Evaluating Compliance with Industry Self-regulation Codes Governing the Content of Alcohol Advertising 
This study evaluated the use of a modified Delphi technique in combination with a previously developed alcohol advertising rating procedure to detect content violations in the US Beer Institute code. A related aim was to estimate the minimum number of raters needed to obtain reliable evaluations of code violations in television commercials.
Six alcohol ads selected for their likelihood of having code violations were rated by community and expert participants (N=286). Quantitative rating scales were used to measure the content of alcohol advertisements based on alcohol industry self-regulatory guidelines. The community group participants represented vulnerability characteristics that industry codes were designed to protect (e.g., age < 21); experts represented various health-related professions, including public health, human development, alcohol research and mental health. Alcohol ads were rated on two occasions separated by one month. After completing Time 1 ratings, participants were randomized to receive feedback from one group or the other.
Findings indicate that (1) ratings at Time 2 had generally reduced variance, suggesting greater consensus after feedback, (2) feedback from the expert group was more influential than that of the community group in developing group consensus, (3) the expert group found significantly fewer violations than the community group, (4) experts representing different professional backgrounds did not differ among themselves in the number of violations identified; (5) a rating panel composed of at least 15 raters is sufficient to obtain reliable estimates of code violations.
The Delphi Technique facilitates consensus development around code violations in alcohol ad content and may enhance the ability of regulatory agencies to monitor the content of alcoholic beverage advertising when combined with psychometric-based rating procedures.
PMCID: PMC3751983  PMID: 23682927
alcohol; advertising; adolescents; alcohol industry; self-regulation
3.  Health promotion interventions and policies addressing excessive alcohol use: A systematic review of national and global evidence as a guide to health-care reform in China 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2015;110(0 1):68-78.
Steady increases in alcohol consumption and related problems are likely to accompany China's rapid epidemiologic transition and profit-based marketing activities. We reviewed research on health promotion interventions and policies to address excessive drinking and to guide health-care reform.
We searched in Chinese and English language databases and included 21 studies in China published between 1980 and 2013 that covered each policy area from the WHO Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. We evaluated and compared preventive interventions to the global alcohol literature for cross-national applicability.
In contrast with hundreds of studies in the global literature, 11 of 12 studies from mainland China were published in Chinese; six of ten in English were on taxation from Taiwan or Hong Kong. Most studies demonstrated effectiveness in reducing excessive drinking, and some reported the reduction of health problems. Seven were randomized controlled trials. Studies targeted schools, drink-driving, workplaces, the health sector, and taxation.
China is the world's largest alcohol market, yet there has been little growth in alcohol policy research related to health promotion interventions over the past decade. Guided by a public health approach, the WHO Global Strategy, and health reform experience in Russia, Australia, Mexico, and the USA, China could improve its public health response through better coordination and implementation of surveillance and evidence-based research, and through programmatic and legal responses such as public health law research, screening and early intervention within health systems, and the implementation of effective alcohol control strategies.
PMCID: PMC4350681  PMID: 25533866
Alcohol policy; Intervention and Health promotion; Health-care reform; China; Global Strategy; Public health approach
4.  Training Medical Providers to Conduct Alcohol Screening and Brief Interventions 
Although progress has been made in developing a scientific basis for alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI), training packages are necessary for its widespread dissemination in primary care settings. This paper evaluates a training package developed for the Cutting Back® SBI program. Three groups of medical personnel were compared before and after SBI training: physicians (n = 44), medical students (n = 88), and non-physicians (n = 41). Although the training effects were at times dependent on group membership, all changes were in a direction more conducive to implementing SBI. Physicians and medical students increased confidence in performing screening procedures, and students increased self-confidence in conducting brief interventions. Non-physicians perceived fewer obstacles to screening patients after training. Trained providers reported conducting significantly more SBIs than untrained providers, and these differences were consistent with patients’ reports of their providers’ clinical activity. Thus, when delivered in the context of a comprehensive SBI implementation program, this training is effective in changing providers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practice of SBI for at-risk drinking.
PMCID: PMC3552328  PMID: 15201108
Alcohol; screening; brief intervention; at-risk drinking; problem drinking; training
5.  Alcohol Drinking Patterns and Health Care Utilization in a Managed Care Organization 
Health Services Research  2004;39(3):553-570.
To estimate the relationship between current drinking patterns and health care utilization over the previous two years in a managed care organization (MCO) among individuals who were screened for their alcohol use.
Study Design
Three primary care clinics at a large western MCO administered a short health and lifestyle questionnaire to all adult patients on their first visit to the clinic from March 1998 through December 1998. Patients who exceeded the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) guidelines for moderate drinking were given a more comprehensive alcohol screening using a modified version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Health care encounter data for two years preceding the screening visit were linked to the remaining individuals who responded to one or both instruments. Using both quantity–frequency and AUDIT-based drinking pattern variables, we estimated negative binomial models of the relationship between drinking patterns and days of health care use, controlling for demographic characteristics and other variables.
Principal Findings
For both the quantity–frequency and AUDIT-based drinking pattern variables, current alcohol use is generally associated with less health care utilization relative to abstainers. This relationship holds even for heavier drinkers, although the differences are not always statistically significant. With some exceptions, the overall trend is that more extensive drinking patterns are associated with lower health care use.
Based on our sample, we find little evidence that alcohol use is associated with increased health care utilization. On the contrary, we find that alcohol use is generally associated with decreased health care utilization regardless of drinking pattern.
PMCID: PMC1361024  PMID: 15149478
Alcohol; health care utilization; alcohol screening
6.  Treatment process, alliance and outcome in brief versus extended treatments for marijuana dependence 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2010;105(10):1799-1808.
The Marijuana Treatment Project, a large multi-site randomized clinical trial, compared a delayed treatment control condition with a brief (two-session) and extended (nine-session) multi-component treatment among 450 marijuana-dependent participants. In this report we present treatment process data, including the fidelity of treatment delivery in the three community-based treatment settings as well as the relationships between treatment process and outcome.
Independent evaluations of clinician adherence and competence ratings were made based on 633 videotaped sessions from 163 participants. Relationships between clinician adherence and competence, ratings of the working alliance and marijuana treatment outcomes were evaluated.
Protocol treatments were implemented with strong fidelity to manual specifications and with few significant differences in adherence and competence ratings across sites. In the brief two-session treatment condition, only the working alliance was associated significantly with frequency of marijuana use, but in the extended treatment therapist ratings of working alliance predicted outcomes, as did the interaction of alliance and curvilinear adherence.
Behavioral treatments for marijuana use were delivered in community settings with good fidelity. Participant and therapist working alliance scores were associated significantly with improved marijuana use outcomes in a brief behavioral treatment for adults with marijuana dependence. In extended treatment the therapist ratings of working alliance were associated with more positive outcome. However, in that treatment there was also a significant interaction between alliance and curvilinear adherence.
PMCID: PMC3422659  PMID: 20840200
Alliance; behavioral treatment; brief treatment; marijuana dependence; Marijuana Treatment Project; treatment process
7.  The Chinese Translations of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in China: A Systematic Review 
Aims: To systematically review the literature on the Chinese translations of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and their cross-cultural applicability in Chinese language populations. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed articles published in English (n = 10) and in Chinese (n = 11) from 1980 to September 2009, with key words China, Chinese and AUDIT among PubMed, EBSCO, PsycInfo, FirstSearch electronic databases and two Chinese databases. Results: Five teams from Beijing, Tibet, Taiwan and Hong Kong reported their region-specific translation procedures, cultural adaptations, validity (0.93–0.95 in two versions) and reliability (0.63–0.99). These Chinese translations and short versions demonstrated relatively high sensitivity (0.880–0.997) and moderate specificity (0.709–0.934) for hazardous/harmful drinking and alcohol dependence, but low specificity for alcohol dependence among Min-Nan Taiwanese (0.58). The AUDIT and its adaptations were most utilized in workplace- and hospital-settings for screening and brief intervention. However, they were under-utilized in population-based surveys, primary care settings, and among women, adolescents, rural-to-urban migrants, the elderly and minorities. Among 12 studies from mainland China, four included both women and men, and only one in Tibet was published in English. Conclusion: There is a growing amount of psychometric, epidemiologic and treatment research using Chinese translations of the AUDIT, much of it still unavailable in the English-language literature. Given the increase in burden of disease and injury attributable to alcohol use in the Western Pacific region, the use of an internationally comparable instrument (such as the AUDIT) in research with Chinese populations presents a unique opportunity to expand clinical and epidemiologic knowledge about alcohol problem epidemics.
PMCID: PMC3119458  PMID: 21467046
8.  Tackling alcohol misuse in the UK 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2008;336(7642):455.
Higher alcohol taxes and restricting availability are more likely to succeed than partnerships with industry
PMCID: PMC2258338  PMID: 18296458

Results 1-8 (8)