Although mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), or concussion, is not typically associated with abnormalities on computed tomography (CT), it nevertheless causes persistent cognitive dysfunction for many patients. Consequently, new prognostic methods for mTBI are needed to identify at risk cases, especially at an early and potentially treatable stage. Here, we quantified plasma levels of the neurodegeneration biomarker calpain-cleaved αII-spectrin N-terminal fragment (SNTF) from 38 participants with CT-negative mTBI, orthopedic injury (OI), and normal uninjured controls (UCs) (age range 12–30 years), and compared them with findings from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and long-term cognitive assessment. SNTF levels were at least twice the lower limit of detection in 7 of 17 mTBI cases and in 3 of 13 OI cases, but in none of the UCs. An elevation in plasma SNTF corresponded with significant differences in fractional anisotropy and the apparent diffusion coefficient in the corpus callosum and uncinate fasciculus measured by DTI. Furthermore, increased plasma SNTF on the day of injury correlated significantly with cognitive impairment that persisted for at least 3 months, both across all study participants and also among the mTBI cases by themselves. The elevation in plasma SNTF in the subset of OI cases, accompanied by corresponding white matter and cognitive abnormalities, raises the possibility of identifying undiagnosed cases of mTBI. These data suggest that the blood level of SNTF on the day of a CT-negative mTBI may identify a subset of patients at risk of white matter damage and persistent disability. SNTF could have prognostic and diagnostic utilities in the assessment and treatment of mTBI.
surrogate marker; concussion; calpain; DTI; spectrin; diffuse axonal injury; prognostic marker; cognitive impairment
Neuropathological features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are recapitulated in transgenic mice expressing familial AD-causing mutations, but ectopic transgene overexpression makes it difficult to relate these abnormalities to disease pathogenesis. Alternatively, the APP/PS-1 double knock-in mouse (DKI) produces mutant APP and PS-1 with normal levels and regulatory controls. Here, we investigated effects of amyloid on brain structure and neuroplasticity by vaccinating DKI mice with amyloid-β starting at 8 months of age. At 14 months, vaccination blocked cerebral amyloid deposition and its attendant microglial activation. Neuropil abnormalities were pronounced only within plaques, and included circumscribed loss and dysmorphology of axons, dendrites, terminals and spines. Blockade of amyloid deposition restored neuropil integrity. Amyloid removal did not rescue reductions in the hippocampal neural progenitor and neuroblast populations, but adding one month of voluntary exercise to amyloid-β vaccination markedly stimulated hippocampal neurogenesis. These results identify amyloid-dependent and –independent structural changes in the DKI mouse model of AD. Combining exercise with amyloid-directed immunotherapy produces greater restoration of brain structure and neuroplasticity than is achieved with either maneuver alone.
Aβ vaccination; voluntary exercise; dystrophic neurites; neurogenesis; synapse loss; knock-in mouse; Alzheimer’s Disease; combination therapy; neuroplasticity
It has been challenging to develop transgenic and gene-targeted mouse models that recapitulate all of the neuropathological features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). For example, in the APP/PS-1 double knock-in mutant mouse (DKI), frank neurodegeneration is not observed at middle age and synapse loss is pronounced only within amyloid plaques. Here, we investigated whether continued amyloid deposition and advanced age of 24–27 months lead to loss of neurons and synapses, tau hyperphosphorylation, and other pathological features of AD. We focused on the perforant pathway projection from entorhinal cortex to hippocampal dentate gyrus, since it is preferentially impacted by plaques, tangles, and neuronal loss early in the course of AD. Compared with wild type controls matched for age and gender, expression of neither reelin nor NeuN was altered in the entorhinal layer 2 neurons of origin. Retrograde labeling of the perforant pathway with Fluorogold indicated no cell loss, axonal atrophy, or nerve terminal degeneration. The lack of neuronal loss or atrophy was confirmed by volumetric analysis of the ventral dentate gyrus and immunostaining for a synaptic marker. We also searched for other hallmarks of AD neuropathology by labeling for hyperphosphorylated pre-tangle tau, accumulation of cathepsin D-containing autolysosomes, and cyclin A-positive neurons aberrantly re-entering the cell cycle. None of these AD pathologies were observed in the entorhinal cortex, dentate gyrus, or any other forebrain region. Our results indicate that the DKI mouse does not show appreciable Alzheimer-type disease progression, even at advanced age and in the phase of over 18 months of robust cerebral amyloid deposition. The insufficiency of amyloid deposition to induce other AD-type neuropathologies and neurodegeneration in the aging mouse brain suggests an important role for tauopathy or other factors for triggering the pathogenesis of AD.
Amyloid; aging; neuronal degeneration; Alzheimer’s disease; tau; cathepsin D
Biomarkers for neurodegeneration could be early prognostic measures of brain damage and dysfunction in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) with clinical and medical applications. Recently, we developed a new panel of neurodegeneration biomarkers, and report here on their relationships with pathophysiological complications and outcomes following severe aSAH. Fourteen patients provided serial cerebrospinal fluid samples for up to 10 days and were evaluated by ultrasonography, angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical examination. Functional outcomes were assessed at hospital discharge and 6–9 months thereafter. Eight biomarkers for acute brain damage were quantified: calpain-derived α-spectrin N- and C-terminal fragments (CCSntf and CCSctf), hypophosphorylated neurofilament H,
14-3-3 β and ζ, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1, neuron-specific enolase, and S100β. All 8 biomarkers rose up to 100-fold in a subset of patients. Better than any single biomarker, a set of 6 correlated significantly with cerebral vasospasm, brain infarction, and poor outcome. Furthermore, CSF levels of 14-3-3β, CCSntf, and NSE were early predictors of subsequent moderate-to-severe vasospasm. These data provide evidence that a panel of neurodegeneration biomarkers may predict lasting brain dysfunction and the pathophysiological processes that lead to it following aSAH. The panel may be valuable as surrogate endpoints for controlled clinical evaluation of treatment interventions and for guiding aSAH patient care.
Surrogate markers have enormous potential for contributing to the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic evaluation of acute brain damage, but extensive prior study of individual candidates has not yielded a biomarker in widespread clinical practice. We hypothesize that a panel of neuron-enriched proteins measurable in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood should vastly improve clinical evaluation and therapeutic management of acute brain injuries. Previously, we developed such a panel based initially on the study of protein release from degenerating cultured neurons, and subsequently on rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ischemia, consisting of 14-3-3β, 14-3-3ζ, three distinct phosphoforms of neurofilament H, ubiquitin hydrolase L1, neuron-specific enolase, α-spectrin, and three calpain- and caspase-derived fragments of α-spectrin. In the present study, this panel of 11 proteins was evaluated as CSF and serum biomarkers for severe TBI in humans. By quantitative Western blotting and sandwich immunoassays, the CSF protein levels were near or below the limit of detection in pre-surgical and most normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) controls, but following TBI nine of the 11 were routinely elevated in CSF. Whereas different markers peaked coordinately, the time to peak varied across TBI cases from 24–96 h post-injury. In serum, TBI increased all four members of the marker panel for which sandwich immunoassays are currently available: a calpain-derived NH2-terminal α-spectrin fragment and the three neurofilament H phosphoforms. Our results identify neuron-enriched proteins that may serve as a panel of CSF and blood surrogate markers for the minimally invasive detection, management, mechanistic, and therapeutic evaluation of human TBI.
14-3-3; biomarker panel; calpain; necrosis; neurofilament; traumatic brain injury; UCH-L1
Alterations in the expression, molecular composition, and localization of voltage-gated sodium channels play major roles in a broad range of neurological disorders. Recent evidence identifies sodium channel proteolysis as a key early event after ischemia and traumatic brain injury, further expanding the role of the sodium channel in neurological diseases. In this study, we investigate the protease responsible for proteolytic cleavage of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaChs). NaCh proteolysis occurs after protease activation in rat brain homogenates, pharmacological disruption of ionic homeostasis in cortical cultures, and mechanical injury using an in vitro model of traumatic brain injury. Proteolysis requires Ca2+ and calpain activation but is not influenced by caspase-3 or cathepsin inhibition. Proteolysis results in loss of the full-length α-subunits, and the creation of fragments comprising all domains of the channel that retain interaction even after proteolysis. Cell surface biotinylation after mechanical injury indicates that proteolyzed NaChs remain in the membrane before noticeable evidence of neuronal death, providing a mechanism for altered action potential initiation, propagation, and downstream signaling events after Ca2+ elevation.
Previously, we identified 14-3-3 β and ζ isoforms and proteolytic fragments of α-spectrin as proteins released from degenerating neurons that also rise markedly in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following experimental brain injury or ischemia in rodents, but these proteins have not been studied before as potential biomarkers for ischemic central nervous system injury in humans. Here we describe longitudinal analysis of these proteins along with the neuron-enriched hypophosphorylated neurofilament H (pNFH) and the deubiquitinating enzyme UCH-L1 in lumbar CSF samples from 19 surgical cases of aortic aneurysm repair, 7 involving cardiopulmonary bypass with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). CSF levels of the proteins were near the lower limit of detection by Western blot or enzyme-linked fluorescence immunoassay at the onset of surgical procedures, but increased substantially in a subset of cases, typically within 12–24 hours. All cases involving DHCA were characterized by >3-fold elevations in CSF levels of the two 14-3-3 isoforms, UCH-L1, and pNFH. Six of 7 also exhibited marked increases in α-spectrin fragments generated by calpain, a protease known to trigger necrotic neurodegeneration. Among cases involving aortic cross-clamping but not DHCA, the proteins rose in CSF preferentially in the subset experiencing acute neurological complications. Our results suggest the neuron-enriched 14-3-3β, 14-3-3ζ, pNFH, UCH-L1, and calpain-cleaved α-spectrin may serve as a panel of biomarkers with clinical potential for the detection and management of ischemic central nervous system injury, including for mild damage associated with surgically-induced circulation arrest.
ischemia; acute CNS damage; surrogate marker; calpain; circulation arrest
Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus has been implicated in regulating long-term memory and mood, but its integrity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is uncertain. Studies of neurogenesis in transgenic mouse models of familial AD are complicated by ectopic overexpression restricted to terminally differentiated neurons, while AD cases have been studied only at the pre-senile or end-stage of disease. To investigate further the fidelity of adult neurogenesis, we examined mice carrying targeted mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin-1 (PS-1), or both APP and PS-1, in which FAD-causing mutations have been inserted into their endogenous genes. The latter “double knock-in” mice developed aging- and region-dependent amyloid deposition starting around 6 months, and by 9 months exhibited microglial activation associated with the amyloid. In the 9 month old dentate gyrus, the double knock-in mutations reduced the numbers of MCM2-positive neural stem and progenitor cells by 3-fold and doublecortin-positive neuroblasts by 2-fold. The reduction in dentate neuroblasts persisted at 18 months of age. The impairment in neurogenesis was confirmed by quantitative Western blot analysis of doublecortin content, and was restricted to the hippocampal but not the olfactory bulb neurogenic system. In contrast, neither mutant PS-1 nor APP alone led to amyloid deposition or significant alterations in the two markers. These results demonstrate long-lasting and selective impairment in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in a knock-in mutant mouse model of FAD, and suggest a novel mechanism by which amyloid and its attendant microglia-mediated neuroinflammation could contribute to the cognitive and behavioral abnormalities of AD.
amyloid; presenilin; neurogenesis; familial Alzheimer’s disease; neuroinflammation; neural plasticity
Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.
The perforant pathway projection from the entorhinal cortex (EC) to the hippocampal dentate gyrus is critically important for long-term memory and develops tau and amyloid pathologies and progressive degeneration starting in the early stages of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, perforant pathway function has not been assessed in experimental models of AD, and a therapeutic agent that protects its structure and function has not yet been identified. Therefore, we developed a new adeno-associated virus–based mouse model for perforant pathway tauopathy. Microinjection into the lateral EC of vectors designed to express either human tau bearing a pathogenic P301L mutation or enhanced green fluorescent protein as a control selectively drove transgene expression in lateral EC layer II perikarya and along the entire rostrocaudal extent of the lateral perforant pathway afferents and dentate terminal field. After human tau expression, hyperphosphorylated tau accumulated only within EC layer II perikarya, thereby modeling Braak stage I of transentorhinal AD tauopathy. Expression of pathologic human tau but not enhanced green fluorescent protein led to specific dose-dependent apoptotic death of perforant pathway neurons and loss of synapses in as little as 2 weeks. This novel adeno-associated virus–based method elicits rapid tauopathy and tau-mediated neurodegeneration localized to the mouse perforant pathway and represents a new experimental approach for studying tau-driven pathogenic processes and tau-based treatment strategies in a highly vulnerable neural circuit.
Adeno-associated virus; Apoptosis; Early-stage Alzheimer disease; Entorhinal cortex; Hippocampus; Perforant pathway; Tauopathy