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1.  Resistance Training and Pioglitazone Lead to Improvements in Muscle Power During Voluntary Weight Loss in Older Adults 
Background.
The prevalence of obesity in older adults is increasing but concerns exist about the effect of weight loss on muscle function. Demonstrating that muscle strength and power are not adversely affected during “intentional” weight loss in older adults is important given the wide-ranging negative health effects of excess adiposity.
Methods.
Participants (N = 88; age = 70.6 ± 3.6 years; body mass index = 32.8 ± 4.5kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of four intervention groups: pioglitazone or placebo and resistance training (RT) or no RT, while undergoing intentional weight loss via a hypocaloric diet. Outcomes were leg press power and isometric knee extensor strength. Analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline values, compared follow-up means of power and strength according to randomized groups.
Results.
Participants lost an average of 6.6% of initial body mass, and significant declines were observed in fat mass, lean body mass, and appendicular lean body mass. Compared with women not randomized to RT, women randomized to RT had significant improvements in leg press power (p < .001) but not in knee extensor strength (p = 0.12). No significant differences between groups in change in power or strength from baseline were detected in men (both p > .25). A significant pioglitazone-by-RT interaction for leg press power was detected in women (p = .006) but not in men (p = .88).
Conclusions.
In older overweight and obese adults, a hypocaloric weight loss intervention led to significant declines in lean body mass and appendicular lean body mass. However, in women assigned to RT, leg power significantly improved following the intervention, and muscle strength or power was not adversely effected in the other groups. Pioglitazone potentiated the effect of RT on muscle power in women but not in men; mechanisms underlying this sex effect remain to be determined.
doi:10.1093/gerona/gls258
PMCID: PMC3693600  PMID: 23292287
Obesity; Resistance training; Muscle strength; Muscle power; Voluntary weight loss.
2.  Cardiometabolic Risk After Weight Loss and Subsequent Weight Regain in Overweight and Obese Postmenopausal Women 
Background.
Little is known about the effect of intentional weight loss and subsequent weight regain on cardiometabolic risk factors in older adults. The objective of this study was to determine how cardiometabolic risk factors change in the year following significant intentional weight loss in postmenopausal women, and if observed changes were affected by weight and fat regain.
Methods.
Eighty, overweight and obese, older women (age = 58.8±5.1 years) were followed through a 5-month weight loss intervention and a subsequent 12-month nonintervention period. Body weight/composition and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure; total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; fasting glucose and insulin; and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance) were analyzed at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6- and 12-months postintervention.
Results.
Average weight loss during the 5-month intervention was 11.4±4.1kg and 31.4% of lost weight was regained during the 12-month follow-up. On average, all risk factor variables were significantly improved with weight loss but regressed toward baseline values during the year subsequent to weight loss. Increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance during the postintervention follow-up were significantly (p < .05) associated with weight and fat mass regain. Among women who regained weight, model-adjusted total cholesterol (205.8±4.0 vs 199.7±2.9mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (128.4±3.4 vs 122.7±2.4mg/dL), insulin (12.6±0.7 vs 11.4±0.7mg/dL), and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (55.8±3.5 vs 50.9±3.7mg/dL) were higher at follow-up compared with baseline.
Conclusions.
For postmenopausal women, even partial weight regain following intentional weight loss is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. Conversely, maintenance of or continued weight loss is associated with sustained improvement in the cardiometabolic profile.
doi:10.1093/gerona/gls236
PMCID: PMC3660120  PMID: 23183902
Weight loss; Weight regain; Aging.
3.  Telephone-delivered psychotherapy for rural-dwelling older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Psychiatry  2014;14:34.
Background
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), characterized by excessive and uncontrollable worry, has a negative impact on the health, well-being, and functioning of older adults. Cognitive behavioral therapy has demonstrated efficacy in reducing anxiety and worry in older adults, but the generalizability of these findings to community-dwelling older adults is unknown. The aim of the current study is to examine the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered by telephone in reducing anxiety and worry in rural community-dwelling older adults with GAD.
Methods/Design
We propose a randomized controlled trial comparing telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-T) with nondirective supportive therapy (NST-T). One hundred seventy six adults 60 years and older diagnosed with GAD will be randomized to one of the two treatment conditions. The primary outcomes are self-report worry and clinician-rated anxiety. Secondary outcomes include depressive symptoms, sleep, quality of life, and functional status.
Discussion
It is hypothesized that CBT-T will be superior to NST-T in reducing anxiety and worry among older adults with GAD. Further, CBT-T is hypothesized to be superior to NST-T in reducing problems with depressive symptoms, sleep, functional status and quality of life. If this program is successful, it could be implemented as a low-cost program to treat late-life anxiety, especially in rural areas or in circumstances where older adults may not have access to qualified mental health providers.
Trial registration
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01259596
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-14-34
PMCID: PMC3926701  PMID: 24506950
Generalized anxiety disorder; Older adults; Randomized controlled trial; Rural mental health; Telephone-delivered psychotherapy
4.  Relationship of physical function to vastus lateralis capillary density and metabolic enzyme activity in elderly men and women 
Background and aims
There are no data showing whether or not age-related declines in physical function are related to in vitro properties of human skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical function is independently associated with histologic and metabolic properties of skeletal muscle in elderly adults.
Methods
The study was a cross-sectional observational study of 39 sedentary, older (60–85 yrs) men and women. A needle biopsy of the vastus lateralis for assessment of muscle fiber type, fiber area, capillary density and citrate synthase and aldolase activities was performed. Physical function tests included the Short Physical Performance Battery (balance, walking speed, and chair rise time), as well as self-reported disability.
Results
Total fiber area (R=−0.41, p=0.02), number of Type II fibers (R=−0.33, p=0.05), and aldolase activity (R=−0.54, p=0.01) were inversely related to age. Persons who reported greater difficulty with daily activities had lower capillary density (R=−0.51, p=0.03) and lower citrate synthase activity (R=−0.66, p=0.03). Walking speed was directly related to fiber area (R=0.40, p=0.02), capillary density (R=0.39, p=0.03), citrate synthase (R=0.45, p=0.03) and aldolase (R=0.55, p<0.01) activities, even after adjustment for age, BMI and disease status.
Conclusions
In older adults, skeletal muscle capillary density and metabolic enzymatic activity are independent predictors of lower extremity physical function.
PMCID: PMC3665340  PMID: 18852542
Capillary density; enzyme activity; physical function; skeletal muscle
5.  The Effect of Pioglitazone and Resistance Training on Body Composition in Older Men and Women Undergoing Hypocaloric Weight Loss 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2011;19(8):1636-1646.
Age-related increases in ectopic fat accumulation are associated with greater risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and physical disability. Reducing skeletal muscle fat and preserving lean tissue are associated with improved physical function in older adults. PPARγ-agonist treatment decreases abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and resistance training preserves lean tissue, but their effect on ectopic fat depots in nondiabetic overweight adults is unclear. We examined the influence of pioglitazone and resistance training on body composition in older (65–79 years) nondiabetic overweight/obese men (n = 48, BMI = 32.3 ± 3.8 kg/m2) and women (n = 40, BMI = 33.3 ± 4.9 kg/m2) during weight loss. All participants underwent a 16-week hypocaloric weight-loss program and were randomized to receive pioglitazone (30 mg/day) or no pioglitazone with or without resistance training, following a 2 × 2 factorial design. Regional body composition was measured at baseline and follow-up using computed tomography (CT). Lean mass was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Men lost 6.6% and women lost 6.5% of initial body mass. The percent of fat loss varied across individual compartments. Men who were given pioglitazone lost more visceral abdominal fat than men who were not given pioglitazone (−1,160 vs. −647 cm3, P = 0.007). Women who were given pioglitazone lost less thigh subcutaneous fat (−104 vs. −298 cm3, P = 0.002). Pioglitazone did not affect any other outcomes. Resistance training diminished thigh muscle loss in men and women (resistance training vs. no resistance training men: −43 vs. −88 cm3, P = 0.005; women: −34 vs. −59 cm3, P = 0.04). In overweight/obese older men undergoing weight loss, pioglitazone increased visceral fat loss and resistance training reduced skeletal muscle loss. Additional studies are needed to clarify the observed gender differences and evaluate how these changes in body composition influence functional status.
doi:10.1038/oby.2010.327
PMCID: PMC3091968  PMID: 21233810
6.  Cognition and the Risk of Hospitalization for Serious Falls in the Elderly: Results From the Cardiovascular Health Study 
Background.
Many elderly adults fall every year, sometimes resulting in serious injury and hospitalization. Although impaired cognition is a risk factor for injurious falls, little is known about cognitive decline above the threshold of impairment and risk of serious falls in community-dwelling seniors.
Methods.
In total, 702 of 5,356 older adults participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study experienced an injurious fall between 1990 and 2005, as indicated by hospitalization records. General cognition was measured annually with the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and processing speed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. The Cox regression model was used to calculate hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval with and without time-dependent covariates and adjusted for known risk factors.
Results.
Participants with slightly decreased Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores were at increased risk for a serious fall (hazard ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.15–2.17). The risk continued to increase with each quartile decrease in Digit Symbol Substitution Test score. Participants without prevalent cardiovascular disease at baseline and decreased Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores (80–89) had a 45% increased risk for a serious fall and those at high risk for dementia (<80) were at twice the risk as participants scoring above 90 (hazard ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.60–2.91).
Conclusions.
Both decreased general cognition and decreased processing speed appear to be potential risk factors for serious falls in the elderly. When assessing the risk of serious falls in elderly patients, clinicians should consider usual factors like gait instability and sensory impairment as well as less obvious ones such as cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in nondemented adults.
doi:10.1093/gerona/glq115
PMCID: PMC2954237  PMID: 20584769
Elderly; Falls; Cognition; Epidemiology
7.  Muscle strength is associated with adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory adipokines in postmenopausal women 
Age and Ageing  2010;39(5):656-659.
doi:10.1093/ageing/afq024
PMCID: PMC2948813  PMID: 20233733
muscle strength; inflammatory adipokine; gene expression; older adults; elderly
8.  Weight Regain is Related to Decreases in Physical Activity During Weight Loss 
Purpose
To examine whether adaptations in physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) during weight loss were associated with future weight regain in overweight/obese, older women.
Research Methods and Procedures
Thirty-four overweight/obese (BMI=25–40 kg/m2), postmenopausal women underwent a 20-week weight loss intervention of hypocaloric diet with (low- or high-intensity) or without treadmill walking (weekly caloric deficit was ~11760 kJ), with a subsequent 12-month follow-up. RMR (via indirect calorimetry), PAEE (by RT3 accelerometer) and body composition (by DXA) were measured before and after intervention. Body weight and self-reported information on physical activity were collected after intervention, and at 6- and 12-months following intervention.
Results
The intervention resulted in decreases in body weight, lean mass, fat mass, percent body fat, RMR, and PAEE (p < 0.001 for all). Weight regain was 2.9 ± 3.3 kg (−3.1 to +9.2 kg) at 6- months and 5.2 ± 5.0 kg (−2.3 to +21.7 kg) at 12-months following intervention. The amount of weight regained after 6- and 12-months was inversely associated with decreases in PAEE during the weight loss intervention (r= −0.521, p = 0.002 and r= −0.404, p = 0.018, respectively), such that women with larger declines in PAEE during weight loss experienced greater weight regain during follow-up. Weight regain was not associated with changes in RMR during intervention or with self-reported physical activity during follow-up.
Conclusion
This study demonstrates that, while both RMR and PAEE decreased during weight loss in postmenopausal women, maintaining high levels of daily physical activity during weight loss may be important to mitigate weight regain after weight loss.
doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31817d8176
PMCID: PMC2797708  PMID: 18799988
energy expenditure; resting metabolic rate; weight loss intervention; hypocaloric diet
9.  Fish Intake and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation 
Circulation  2004;110(4):368-373.
Background—
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice and is particularly common in the elderly. Although effects of fish intake, including potential antiarrhythmic effects, may favorably influence risk of AF, relationships between fish intake and AF incidence have not been evaluated.
Methods and Results—
In a prospective, population-based cohort of 4815 adults ≥age 65 years, usual dietary intake was assessed at baseline in 1989 and 1990. Consumption of tuna and other broiled or baked fish correlated with plasma phospholipid long-chain n-3 fatty acids, whereas consumption of fried fish or fish sandwiches (fish burgers) did not. AF incidence was prospectively ascertained on the basis of hospital discharge records and annual electrocardiograms. During 12 years’ follow-up, 980 cases of incident AF were diagnosed. In multivariate analyses, consumption of tuna or other broiled or baked fish was inversely associated with incidence of AF, with 28% lower risk with intake 1 to 4 times per week (HR=0.72, 95% CI=0.58 to 0.91, P=0.005), and 31% lower risk with intake ≥5 times per week (HR=0.69, 95% CI=0.52 to 0.91, P=0.008), compared with <1 time per month (P trend=0.004). Results were not materially different after adjustment for preceding myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure. In similar analyses, fried fish/fish sandwich consumption was not associated with lower risk of AF.
Conclusions—
Among elderly adults, consumption of tuna or other broiled or baked fish, but not fried fish or fish sandwiches, is associated with lower incidence of AF. Fish intake may influence risk of this common cardiac arrhythmia.
doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000138154.00779.A5
PMCID: PMC1201400  PMID: 15262826
fibrillation, atrial; diet; fish; aging; nutrition

Results 1-9 (9)