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1.  Dose optimization in gynecological 3D image based interstitial brachytherapy using martinez universal perineal interstitial template (MUPIT) -an institutional experience 
The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose optimization in 3D image based gynecological interstitial brachytherapy using Martinez Universal Perineal Interstitial Template (MUPIT). Axial CT image data set of 20 patients of gynecological cancer who underwent external radiotherapy and high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy using MUPIT was employed to delineate clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs). Geometrical and graphical optimization were done for optimum CTV coverage and sparing of OARs. Coverage Index (CI), dose homogeneity index (DHI), overdose index (OI), dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR), external volume index (EI), conformity index (COIN) and dose volume parameters recommended by GEC-ESTRO were evaluated. The mean CTV, bladder and rectum volume were 137 ± 47cc, 106 ± 41cc and 50 ± 25cc, respectively. Mean CI, DHI and DNR were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.69 ± 0.11 and 0.31 ± 0.09, while the mean OI, EI, and COIN were 0.08 ± 0.03, 0.07 ± 0.05 and 0.79 ± 0.05, respectively. The estimated mean CTV D90 was 76 ± 11Gy and D100 was 63 ± 9Gy. The different dosimetric parameters of bladder D2cc, D1cc and D0.1cc were 76 ± 11Gy, 81 ± 14Gy, and 98 ± 21Gy and of rectum/recto-sigmoid were 80 ± 17Gy, 85 ± 13Gy, and 124 ± 37Gy, respectively. Dose optimization yields superior coverage with optimal values of indices. Emerging data on 3D image based brachytherapy with reporting and clinical correlation of DVH parameters outcome is enterprizing and provides definite assistance in improving the quality of brachytherapy implants. DVH parameter for urethra in gynecological implants needs to be defined further.
doi:10.4103/0971-6203.139015
PMCID: PMC4154188  PMID: 25190999
Dose volume indices; dose volume parameters; image based interstitial brachytherapy; MUPIT; optimization
2.  Mitochondria-mediated hormetic response in life span extension of calorie-restricted Saccharomyces cerevisiae 
Age  2010;33(2):143-154.
Calorie restriction (CR) is the only proven regimen, which confers lifespan extension benefits across the various phyla right from unicellular organisms like yeast to primates. In a bid to elucidate the mechanism of calorie-restriction-mediated life span extension, the role of mitochondria in the process was investigated. In this study, we found that the mitochondrial content in CR cells remains unaltered as compared to cells grown on nonrestricted media. However, mitochondria isolated from CR cells showed increased respiration and elevated reactive oxygen species levels without augmenting adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation. The antioxidant defense system was amplified in CR mitochondria, and in CR cells a cross protection to hydrogen-peroxide-induced stress was also observed. Moreover, we also documented that a functional electron transport chain was vital for the life span extension benefits of calorie restriction. Altogether, our results indicate that calorie restriction elicits mitohormetic effect, which ultimately leads to longevity benefit.
doi:10.1007/s11357-010-9169-1
PMCID: PMC3127463  PMID: 20640543
Calorie restriction; Mitochondria; ROS; Stress resistance; Hormesis; atp2
3.  Individual and combined effects of waterlogging and alkalinity on yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) imposed at three critical stages 
Response of wheat genotype HD 2329 to individual and combined effects of alkalinity and waterlogging (WL) at tillering, panicle emergence and anthesis stage was studied. Both stresses increased Na accumulation and reduced K uptake which leads to higher Na+/K+ ratio in the leaves. Yield was decreased under all the stress treatments and highly correlated with Na+/K+ ratio at all the three growth stages (r = −0.83, −0.82 and −0.73, respectively) with maximum reduction under pH 9.4 + WL. Increase in pH from 7.2 to 9.1 and 9.4 delayed complete panicle emergence (4 and 8 days) and flowering (1 and 2 days) at both, tillering and panicle emergence stages. Dual stress further increased days, required for complete panicle emergence and flowering. These results suggested that high Na+/K+ ratio of plant tissue may be the critical factor for growth and development of wheat under WL, alkalinity and dual stress. Due to this delay in flowering and panicle emergence, times required for maturity of grains shorten, resulted in lower grain yield.
doi:10.1007/s12298-010-0027-5
PMCID: PMC3550672  PMID: 23572981
Alkalinity; Flowering; Waterlogging; Wheat
4.  Identification and Characterization of the Causal Organism of Gummy Stem Blight in the Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) 
Mycobiology  2010;38(3):166-170.
Gummy stem blight is a major foliar disease of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.). In this study, morphological characteristics and rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were analyzed to identify the causal organism of this disease. Morphological examination of the Jeonbuk isolate revealed that the percentage of monoseptal conidia ranged from 0% to 10%, and the average length × width of the conidia was 70 (± 0.96) × 32.0 (± 0.15) µm on potato dextrose agar. The BLAST analysis showed nucleotide gaps of 1/494, 2/492, and 1/478 with identities of 485/492 (98%), 492/494 (99%), 491/494 (99%), and 476/478 (99%). The similarity in sequence identity between the rDNA ITS region of the Jeonbuk isolate and other Didymella bryoniae from BLAST searches of GenBank was 100% and was 95.0% within the group. Nucleotide sequences of the rDNA ITS region from pure culture ranged from 98.2% to 99.8%. Phylogenetic analysis with related species of D. bryoniae revealed that D. bryoniae is a monophyletic group distinguishable from other Didymella spp., including Ascochyta pinodes, Mycosphaerella pinodes, M. zeae-maydis, D. pinodes, D. applanata, D. exigua, D. rabiei, D. lentis, D. fabae, and D. vitalbina. Phylogenetic analysis, based on rDNA ITS sequence, clearly distinguished D. bryoniae and Didymella spp. from the 10 other species studied. This study identified the Jeonbuk isolate to be D. bryoniae.
doi:10.4489/MYCO.2010.38.3.166
PMCID: PMC3741540  PMID: 23956648
Didymella bryoniae; Gummy stem blight; Muskmelon; rDNA ITS sequencing
5.  Efficacy of Vasadi Syrup and Shwasaghna Dhuma in the patients of COPD (Shwasa Roga) 
Ayu  2010;31(1):48-52.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) threatens as emerging public health crisis. The two major drivers for this are the ageing of the world's population and the impressive, if deplorable, success of the multinational tobacco companies at forcing open world markets. One of the most striking aspect of COPD is that it is heterogenous. There are many different presentations with differing intensities of symptoms and even differing responses to the medication. Sorting out, what accounts for this phenomenon and how treatments can be best individualised, is of concern to both basic and clinical scientists. COPD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and results in a substantial economic and social burden to society. It is the sixth most common cause of death worldwide and expected to rise to third position by 2020. Several national and international agencies like WHO, GOLD, ATS, ERS etc. are working in a direction of finding some solution of this wicked problem. In Ayurvedic texts Shwasa Roga has been described having symptomatology close to COPD. A study was carried out in P.G.Deptt. of Kayachikitsa in R.G.G.P.G.Ayu.College Paprola, H. P. where the role and efficacy of two Ayurvedic formulations -Vasadi Syrup and Shwasaghna Dhuma was evaluated on 30 patients of COPD selected on the basis of fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria in two different groups. In both the groups drugs provided significant results based on subjective symptomatological criteria and objective spirometric criteria.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.68204
PMCID: PMC3215321  PMID: 22131684
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Shwasa Roga; Vasadi Syrup; Shwasaghna Dhuma

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