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1.  Prevention of bone resorption by intake of phytoestrogens in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis 
Age  2010;33(3):421-431.
Phytoestrogens as selective estrogen receptor modulators like compounds may consider as a therapeutic option in osteoporosis. In this regard, the effect of phytoestrogens on bone biomarkers was examined in several trials which their results are controversial. We aimed this meta-analysis to evaluate the net effect of phytoestrogens on bone markers. A thorough search was conducted from 2000 to 2010 in English articles. All randomized clinical trials were reviewed, and finally, 11 eligible randomized clinical trials were selected for meta-analysis. Totally 1,252 postmenopausal women were enrolled in the study by considering the changes of pyridinoline (Pyd), desoxypyridinoline (Dpyd), bone alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin concentrations in urine and serum after phytoestrogens consumption. The urine Pyd and Dpyd levels decreased significantly in phytoestrogens consumers. Effect size and effect size for weighted mean difference of urine Pyd levels showed −1.229171 (95% confidence interval (CI) = −1.927639 to −0.530703) and −9.780623 (95% CI = −14.240401 to −5.320845), respectively, a significant results in comparison to control group and significant results for Dpyd −0.520132 (95% CI = −0.871988 to −0.168275) and −0.818582 (95% CI = −1.247758 to −0.389407), respectively. Meta-analysis indicates that phytoestrogens intake can prevent bone resorption, but its benefits on bone formation are not significant. This favorable effect was observed in low doses and in at least 3 weeks of phytoestrogens intake.
PMCID: PMC3168592  PMID: 20827510
Phytoestrogens; Soy isoflavone; Meta-analysis; Pyridinoline; Desoxypyridinoline; Bone-specific alkaline posphatase; Osteoporosis; Oxidative stress
2.  The effect of n-3 fatty acids on bone biomarkers in Iranian postmenopausal osteoporotic women: a randomized clinical trial 
Age  2009;32(2):179-186.
Recently, n-3 fatty acids are in the center of attention for their potent anti-inflammatory effects. Osteoporosis as a chronic senile disease is associated with inflammation, and the role of inflammatory mediators has been demonstrated in recent years. The beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids on bone were proven in many animal studies, while to date, no conclusive data is available in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of n-3 fatty acids on bone biomarkers in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. Twenty-five osteoporotic postmenopausal women were recruited in the study and randomized in treatment and control groups. The patients received 900 mg n-3 fatty acid capsules or placebo per day for 6 months. Serum levels of osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), calcium, vitamin D, and parathormone and urine concentration of pyridinoline (Pyd) were measured at baseline, second month, and sixth month in both groups. In the treatment group, compared with baseline, at the second month, osteocalcin increased slightly; thereafter, it showed decrement trend until the end of the study. In the control group, it decreased all over the study. None of these changes was significant. BALP showed nonsignificant decrease from baseline over the time in both groups. Urine level of Pyd decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment group, while no significant change was seen in the control group. Serum calcium and vitamin D increased in both groups; however, changes were not significant. No significant changes were seen in calcium clearance and parathormone. In conclusion, n-3 fatty acids can decrease bone resorption; however, it could not affect bone formation significantly after 6 months treatment. Further investigations are recommended.
PMCID: PMC2861748  PMID: 19967563
Osteoporosis; n-3 fatty acids; Osteocalcin; Bone alkaline phosphatase; Pyridinoline

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