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Batuca, Joana Rita (1)
Caceres, Ana Isabel (1)
Gonzalez, Constancio (1)
González, Constancio (1)
Monteiro, Emília Carreira (1)
Monteiro, Teresa Castro (1)
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Carotid body function in aged rats: responses to hypoxia, ischemia, dopamine, and adenosine
Monteiro, Teresa Castro
Batuca, Joana Rita
Monteiro, Emília Carreira
The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor with a low threshold to hypoxia. CB activity is augmented by A2-adenosine receptors stimulation and attenuated by D2-dopamine receptors. The effect of aging on ventilatory responses mediated by the CB to hypoxia, ischemia, and to adenosine and dopamine administration is almost unknown. This study aims to investigate the ventilatory response to ischemia and to adenosine, dopamine, and their antagonists in old rats, as well as the effect of hypoxia on adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation in the aged CB. In vivo experiments were performed on young and aged rats anesthetized with pentobarbitone and breathing spontaneously. CB ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid occlusions. cAMP content was measured in CB incubated with different oxygen concentrations. Hyperoxia caused a decrease in cAMP in the CB at all ages, but no differences were found between normoxia and hypoxia or between young and old animals. The endogenous dopaminergic inhibitory tonus is slightly reduced. However, both the ventilation decrease caused by exogenous dopamine and the increase mediated by A2A-adenosine receptors are not impaired in aged animals. The bradycardia induced by adenosine is attenuated in old rats. The CB’s peripheral control of ventilation is preserved during aging. Concerns have also arisen regarding the clinical usage of adenosine to revert supraventricular tachycardia and the use of dopamine in critical care situations involving elderly people.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11357-010-9187-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Aging; Peripheral chemoreceptors; Ventilation; Domperidone; cAMP; Adenosine A2A receptors
Tetrodotoxin as a Tool to Elucidate Sensory Transduction Mechanisms: The Case for the Arterial Chemoreceptors of the Carotid Body
Caceres, Ana Isabel
Carotid bodies (CBs) are secondary sensory receptors in which the sensing elements, chemoreceptor cells, are activated by decreases in arterial PO2 (hypoxic hypoxia). Upon activation, chemoreceptor cells (also known as Type I and glomus cells) increase their rate of release of neurotransmitters that drive the sensory activity in the carotid sinus nerve (CSN) which ends in the brain stem where reflex responses are coordinated. When challenged with hypoxic hypoxia, the physiopathologically most relevant stimulus to the CBs, they are activated and initiate ventilatory and cardiocirculatory reflexes. Reflex increase in minute volume ventilation promotes CO2 removal from alveoli and a decrease in alveolar PCO2 ensues. Reduced alveolar PCO2 makes possible alveolar and arterial PO2 to increase minimizing the intensity of hypoxia. The ventilatory effect, in conjunction the cardiocirculatory components of the CB chemoreflex, tend to maintain an adequate supply of oxygen to the tissues. The CB has been the focus of attention since the discovery of its nature as a sensory organ by de Castro (1928) and the discovery of its function as the origin of ventilatory reflexes by Heymans group (1930). A great deal of effort has been focused on the study of the mechanisms involved in O2 detection. This review is devoted to this topic, mechanisms of oxygen sensing. Starting from a summary of the main theories evolving through the years, we will emphasize the nature and significance of the findings obtained with veratridine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the genesis of current models of O2-sensing.
carotid body; O2-sensing; tetrodotoxin; TTX; veratridine; dihydropyridine; catecholamine
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