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1.  FOXO1 locus and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in elderly patients with Alzheimer’s disease 
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) may reduce the oxidative stress in brain of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) protein has been reported as the link between oxidative stress and AD. We evaluated a potential association between FOXO1 gene locus and the response to AChEI treatment in patients with sporadic AD.
In this prospective study, 109 Caucasian AD patients were treated with standard doses of donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine for 6 months. Functional and cognitive status were evaluated at baseline and after treatment. Response to therapy was defined according to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence criteria. Genotype analyses, including the APOE polymorphism, were made in blinded fashion.
A significantly higher frequency of FOXO1 rs7981045 G/G genotype was observed in nonresponders compared with responders (17.14% versus 2.70%, P=0.010). Age, sex, and APOE-adjusted logistic regression analysis confirmed that patients with the G/G genotype had a significantly higher risk of poor response to AChEI treatment (odds ratio =10.310; 95% confidence interval, 1.510–70.362). Haplotype analysis revealed significant differences in haplotype frequency distribution between these groups.
FOXO1 may influence the clinical response to AChEIs in AD patients.
PMCID: PMC4211854  PMID: 25364236
forkhead box O1; acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; response to treatment
2.  Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotypes and disability in hospitalized older patients 
Age  2010;33(3):409-419.
The association between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotypes and functional decline in older adults remains controversial. To assess if ACE gene variations influences functional abilities at older age, the present study explored the association between the common ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and disability measured with activities of daily living (ADL) in hospitalized older patients. We analyzed the frequency of the ACE genotypes (I/I, I/D, and D/D) in a population of 2,128 hospitalized older patients divided according to presence or absence of ADL disability. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for possible confounding factors, identified an association between the I/I genotype with ADL disability (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.04–2.29). This association was significant in men (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.07–3.78), but not in women (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 0.82–2.25). These results suggested a possible role of the ACE polymorphism as a genetic marker for ADL disability in hospitalized older patients.
PMCID: PMC3168594  PMID: 21076879
Angiotensin-converting enzyme; Disability; Aging; Hospitalized patients
3.  Apolipoprotein E-related all-cause mortality in hospitalized elderly patients 
Age  2010;32(3):411-420.
The most common apolipoprotein E (APOE) allelic variation is implicated in many age-related diseases and human longevity with controversial findings. We investigated the effect of APOE gene polymorphism on all-cause mortality in elderly patients taking into consideration the functional disability, cognitive impairment, malnutrition, and the occurrence of common age-related diseases. APOE genotypes were determined in 2,124 geriatric hospitalized patients (46.5% men and 53.5% women; mean age, 78.2 ± 7.1 years; range, 65–100 years). At hospital admission, all patients underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment to evaluate functional disability, cognitive status, nutritional status, and comorbidity. The main and secondary diagnoses at hospital discharge were also recorded. Mortality status was evaluated in all patients after a maximum follow-up of 5 years (range, from 1.26 to 5.23 years; median, 2.86 years). During the study period, 671 patients died (32.0%). At hospital admission, these patients showed a significant higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (56.3% vs 53.4%; p = 0.007), neoplasias (32.3% vs 13.7%; p < 0.001), and lower prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases (17.7% vs 20.7%; p < 0.001) than survived patients. Moreover, they also showed an higher prevalence of disability (52.0% vs 25.6%; p < 0.001), cognitive impairment (31.0% vs 18.8%; p < 0.001), and malnutrition (74.0% vs 46.1%; p < 0.001) than survived patients. In the overall study population, the APOE ε2 allele was significantly associated to neurodegenerative diseases (odds ratio = 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37–0.94). No significant association between the APOE polymorphism and disability, malnutrition, co-morbidity status, and with all-cause mortality was observed. In patients with cardiovascular diseases, however, a decreased risk of all-cause mortality was found in the ε2 allele carriers (hazard ratio = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36–0.88). In this population, APOE allele variants might play a role on cardiovascular disease-related mortality.
PMCID: PMC2926860  PMID: 20640544
Apolipoprotein E; Mortality; Cardiovascular aging; Dementia
4.  DNA end binding activity and Ku70/80 heterodimer expression in human colorectal tumor 
AIM: To determine the DNA binding activity and protein levels of the Ku70/80 heterodimer, the functional mediator of the NHEJ activity, in human colorectal carcinogenesis.
METHODS: The Ku70/80 DNA-binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays in 20 colon adenoma and 15 colorectal cancer samples as well as matched normal colonic tissues. Nuclear and cytoplasmic protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.
RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was found in both adenomas and carcinomas as compared to matched normal colonic mucosa (P<0.00). However, changes in binding activity were not homogenous with approximately 50% of the tumors showing a clear increase in the binding activity, 30% displaying a modest increase and 15% showing a decrease of the activity. Tumors, with increased DNA-binding activity, also showed a statistically significant increase in Ku70 and Ku86 nuclear expression, as determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses (P<0.001). Cytoplasmic protein expression was found in pathological samples, but not in normal tissues either from tumor patients or from healthy subjects.
CONCLUSION: Overall, our DNA-binding activity and protein level are consistent with a substantial activation of the NHEJ pathway in colorectal tumors. Since the NHEJ is an error prone mechanism, its abnormal activation can result in chromosomal instability and ultimately lead to tumorigenesis.
PMCID: PMC4355768  PMID: 16425368
Colorectal cancer; Colon adenoma; DNA-dependent protein kinase; Ku70/80 heterodimer; Mismatch repair; Non-homologous end joining; Double strand break repair; Chromosomal instability

Results 1-4 (4)