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2.  Regulatory Effects of Resveratrol on Antioxidant Enzymes: a Mechanism of Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induction in Cancer Cells 
Molecules and Cells  2013;35(3):219-225.
Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenol that is known as a powerful chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic anticancer molecule. This study focused on the effects of RSV on the activities and expression levels of antioxidant enzymes in the cancer cells. Prostate cancer PC-3 cells, hepatic cancer HepG2 cells, breast cancer MCF-7 cells and the non-cancerous HEK293T kidney epithelial cells were treated with a wide range of RSV concentrations (10–100 μM) for 24–72 h. Cell growth was estimated by trypan blue staining, activities of the antioxidant enzymes were measured spectrophotometrically, expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes were quantified by digitalizing the protein band intensities on Western blots, and the percentage of apoptotic cells was determined by flow cytometry. Treatment with a low concentration of RSV (25 μM) significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in PC-3, HepG2 and MCF-7 cells, but not in HEK293T cells. Catalase (CAT) activity was increased in HepG2 cells, but no effect was found on glutathione peroxidase (GPX) upon RSV treatment. RSV-induced SOD2 expression was observed in cancer cells, although the expression of SOD1, CAT and GPX1 was unaffected. Apoptosis increased upon RSV treatment of cancer cells, especially in PC-3 and HepG2 cells. Together, our data demonstrated that RSV inhibits cancer cell growth with minimal effects on non-cancerous cells. We postulate that the disproportional up-regulation of SOD, CAT and GPX expression and enzymatic activity in cancer cells results in the mitochondrial accumulation of H2O2, which in turn induces cancer cell apoptosis.
doi:10.1007/s10059-013-2259-z
PMCID: PMC3887918  PMID: 23456297
Apoptosis; HepG2 cells; MCF-7 cells; PC-3 cells; resveratrol; superoxide dismutase
3.  ISG15 Inhibits IFN-α-Resistant Liver Cancer Cell Growth 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:570909.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent tumors worldwide. Interferon-α (IFN-α) has been widely used in the treatment of HCC, but patients eventually develop resistance. ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15) is a ubiquitin-like protein transcriptionally regulated by IFN-α which shows antivirus and antitumor activities. However, the exact role of ISG15 is unknown. In the present study, we showed that IFN-α significantly induced ISG15 expression but failed to induce HepG2 cell apoptosis, whereas transient overexpression of ISG15 dramatically increased HepG2 cell apoptosis. ISG15 overexpression increased overall protein ubiquitination, which was not observed in cells with IFN-α-induced ISG15 expression, suggesting that IFN-α treatment not only induced the expression of ISG15 but also inhibited ISG15-mediated ubiquitination. The tumor suppressor p53 and p21 proteins are the key regulators of cell survival and death in response to stress signals such as DNA damage. We showed that p53 or p21 is only up regulated in HepG2 cells ectopically expressing ISG15, but not in the presence of IFN-α-induced ISG15. Our results suggest that ISG15 overexpression could be developed into a powerful gene-therapeutic tool for treating IFN-α-resistant HCC.
doi:10.1155/2013/570909
PMCID: PMC3762208  PMID: 24024201

Results 1-3 (3)