Jumonji domain containing 2A (JMJD2A) is a potential cancer-associated gene that may be involved in human breast cancer. The present study aimed to investigate suppressive effects on the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line by transfection with JMJD2A-specific siRNA. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression levels of JMJD2A. Flow cytometric (FCM) analysis and WST-8 assay were used to evaluate cell proliferation. Boyden chambers were used in cell migration and invasion assays to evaluate the cell exercise capacity. Expression levels of JMJD2A mRNA and protein in the siRNA group were both downregulated successfully by transfection. FCM results showed that the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase in the siRNA group was significantly greater than that in the blank (P<0.05) and negative control groups (P<0.05). Additionally, the mean absorbance in the siRNA group was significantly lower (P<0.05), as observed by WST-8 assay. Moreover, a decreased number of migrated cells in the siRNA group was observed (P<0.05) using a cell migration and invasion assay. These data indicated that knockdown of JMJD2A may cause inhibition of proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells. This study provides a new perspective in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of breast cancer and offers a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer.
jumonji domain containing 2A; transfection; invasion; proliferation; migration
Previous data demonstrate that JMJD2A is a cancer-associated gene and may be involved in human breast cancer by demethylation of H3K9me3. The aim of this study was to investigate depressive effects on JMJD2A by transfection with JMJD2A-sepcific siRNA in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and effects on cell proliferation, invasion and migration. JMJD2A-specific siRNA was chemically synthesised and transfected into human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Expression levels of JMJD2A were detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Cells proliferation was evaluated by using flow cytometric anlysis and MTT assay. The abilities of invasion and migration were evaluated by cell migration and invasion assay with Boyden chambers. The results showed that the transfection was successful and expression levels of JMJD2A mRNA and protein in siRNA group were both down-regulated. By MTT assay, the mean actual absorbance in siRNA group was significantly lower than that in blank control group (P < 0.05) and negative control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase in siRNA group was significantly more than that in blank control group (P < 0.05) and negative control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, by cell invasion and migration assay, the decreased number of migrated cells in siRNA group was observed (P < 0.05). These data imply that silencing JMJD2A gene could result in cell cycle change and proliferation inhibition, and lead to suppress tumor cell invasion and migration. It provides a new perspective in understanding the pleiotropic functions of JMJD2A and its contribution to human breast cancer.
JMJD2A; transfection; proliferation; invasion; migration
Compartmentalized cAMP signaling regulates mitochondrial dynamics, morphology, and oxidative phosphorylation. However, regulators of the mitochondrial cAMP pathway, and its broad impact on organelle function, remain to be explored. Here, we report that Drosophila Prune is a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase that localizes to the mitochondrial matrix. Knocking down prune in cultured cells reduces mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels. Our data suggest that Prune stabilizes TFAM and promotes mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication through downregulation of mitochondrial cAMP signaling. In addition, our work demonstrates the prevalence of mitochondrial cAMP signaling in metazoan and its new role in mitochondrial biogenesis.
cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate; cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase; mitochondrial DNA; mitochondrial transcription factor A; neurodegeneration
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: BALB/c nude mice were randomized into four groups 24 h before subcutaneous injection of hepatocarcinoma BEL7402 cells suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) into the right flank. The control group (n = 10) was fed a standard diet while treatment groups (n = 10 each) were fed a standard daily diet supplemented with different concentrations of UDCA (30, 50 and 70 mg/kg per day) for 21 d. Tumor growth was measured once each week, and tumor volume (V) was calculated with the following equation: V = (L × W2) × 0.52, where L is the length and W is the width of the xenograft. After 21 d, mice were killed under ether anesthesia, and tumors were excised and weighed. Apoptosis was evaluated through detection of DNA fragmentation with gel electrophoresis and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression of apoptosis-related proteins BAX, BCL2, APAF1, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3.
RESULTS: UDCA suppressed tumor growth relative to controls. The mean tumor volumes were the following: control, 1090 ± 89 mm3; 30 mg/kg per day, 612 ± 46 mm3; 50 mg/kg per day, 563 ± 38 mm3; and 70 mg/kg per day, 221 ± 26 mm3. Decreased tumor volumes reached statistical significance relative to control xenografts (30 mg/kg per day, P < 0.05; 50 mg/kg per day, P < 0.05; 70 mg/kg per day, P < 0.01). Increasing concentrations of UDCA led to increased DNA fragmentation observed on gel electrophoresis and in the TUNEL assay (control, 1.6% ± 0.3%; 30 mg/kg per day, 2.9% ± 0.5%; 50 mg/kg per day, 3.15% ± 0.7%, and 70 mg/kg per day, 4.86% ± 0.9%). Western blot analysis revealed increased expression of BAX, APAF1, cleaved-caspase-9 and cleaved-caspase-3 proteins, which induce apoptosis, but decreased expression of BCL2 protein, which is an inhibitor of apoptosis, following administration of UDCA.
CONCLUSION: UDCA suppresses growth of BEL7402 hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vivo, in part through apoptosis induction, and is thus a candidate for therapeutic treatment of HCC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Inhibitory effects; Mechanisms; Ursodeoxycholic acid; Xenografts
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause a variety of deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems, especially the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense, which poses a serious threat to marine economic and human health based on releasing paralytic shellfish poison into the environment. The algicidal bacterium Deinococcus sp. Y35 which can induce growth inhibition on A. tamarense was used to investigate the functional mechanism. The growth status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, photosynthetic system and the nuclear system of algal cells were determined under algicidal activity. A culture of strain Y35 not only induced overproduction of ROS in algal cells within only 0.5 h of treatment, also decrease the total protein content as well as the response of the antioxidant enzyme. Meanwhile, lipid peroxidation was induced and cell membrane integrity was lost. Photosynthetic pigments including chlorophyll a and carotenoid decreased along with the photosynthetic efficiency being significantly inhibited. At the same time, photosynthesis-related gene expression showed down-regulation. More than, the destruction of cell nuclear structure and inhibition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) related gene expression were confirmed. The potential functional mechanism of the algicidal bacterium on A. tamarense was investigated and provided a novel viewpoint which could be used in HABs control.
reactive oxygen species; response of antioxidant enzyme; photosynthetic inhibition; nucleus damage; harmful algal bloom species
Ovarian injury because of chemotherapy can decrease the levels of sexual hormones and potentia generandi of patients, thereby greatly reducing quality of life. The goal of this study was to investigate which transplantation method for human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) can recover ovarian function that has been damaged by chemotherapy. A rat model of ovarian injury was established using an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide. Membrane-labelled HUMSCs were subsequently injected directly into ovary tissue or tail vein. The distribution of fluorescently labelled HUMSCs, estrous cycle, sexual hormone levels, and potentia generandi of treated and control rats were then examined. HUMSCs injected into the ovary only distributed to the ovary and uterus, while HUMSCs injected via tail vein were detected in the ovary, uterus, kidney, liver and lung. The estrous cycle, levels of sex hormones and potentia generandi of the treated rats were also recovered to a certain degree. Moreover, in some transplanted rats, fertility was restored and their offspring developed normally. While ovary injection could recover ovarian function faster, both methods produced similar results in the later stages of observation. Therefore, our results suggest that transplantation of HUMSCs by tail vein injection represents a minimally invasive and effective treatment method for ovarian injury.
umbilical cord; human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell; ovarian function
AIM: To investigate biological mechanisms underlying pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) regulation of cell migration and invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
METHODS: HepG2 and Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were stably transfected and cultured in DMEM (HyClone, Logan, UT, United States). To investigate the effects of PKM2 on cellular proliferation, hepatocellular carcinoma cells were subjected to the Cell Counting Kit-8 (Dojindo, Kamimashiki-gun, Kumamoto, Japan). And investigate the effects of PKM2 on cell signal pathway related with migration and invasion, Western immunoblotting were used to find out the differential proteins. All the antibody used was purchaseed from Cell Signal Technology. In order to explore cell motility used Transwell invasion and wound healing assays. The transwell plate with 0.5 mg/mL collagen type I (BD Bioscience, San Jose, CA)-coated filters. The wound-healing assay was performed in 6-well plates. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, CA, United States) and then reverse transcription was conducted. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was performed with the ABI 7500 real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems). We further use digital gene expression tag profiling and identification of differentially expressed genes.
RESULTS: The cells seeded in four 96-well plates were measured OD450 by conducted Cell Counting Kit-8. From this conduction we observed that both HepG2 and Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells with silenced PKM2 turn on a proliferate inhibition; however, cell migration and invasion were enhanced compared with the control upon stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Our results indicate that the knockdown of PKM2 decreased the expression of E-cadherin and enhanced the activity of the EGF/EGFR signaling pathway, furthermore up-regulate the subsequent signal molecular the PLCγ1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 expression in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2 and Huh-7, which regulates cell motility. These variations we observed were due to the activation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway after PKM2 knockdown. We also found that the expression of TGFBRI was increased and the phosphorylation of Smad2 was enhanced. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PKM2 can regulate cell motility through the EGF/EGFR and TGFβ/TGFR signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
CONCLUSION: PKM2 play different roles in modulating the proliferation and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and this finding could help to guide the future targeted therapies.
Pyruvate kinase; Migration; Epidermal growth factor/EGFR signaling pathway; Transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway; Hepatocellular carcinoma
Highly luminescent quantum dot beads
(QBs) were synthesized by
encapsulating CdSe/ZnS and used for the first time as immunochromatographic
assay (ICA) signal amplification probe for ultrasensitive detection
of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in maize. The challenges
to using high brightness QBs as probes for ICA are smooth flow of
QBs and nonspecific binding on nitrocellulose (NC) membrane, which
are overcome by unique polymer encapsulation of quantum dots (QDs)
and surface blocking method. Under optimal conditions, the QB-based
ICA (QB-ICA) sensor exhibited dynamic linear detection of AFB1 in maize extract from 5 to 60 pg mL–1,
with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 13.87
± 0.16 pg mL–1, that is significantly (39-fold)
lower than those of the QD as a signal probe (IC50 = 0.54
± 0.06 ng mL–1). The limit of detection (LOD)
for AFB1 using QB-ICA sensor was 0.42 pg mL–1 in maize extract, which is approximately 2 orders of magnitude better
than those of previously reported gold nanoparticle based immunochromatographic
assay (AuNP-ICA) and is even comparable with or better than the conventional
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The performance
and practicability of our QB-ICA sensor were validated with a commercial
ELISA kit and further confirmed with liquid chromatography tandem
mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Given its efficient signal amplification
performance, the proposed QB-ICA offers great potential for rapid,
sensitive, and cost-effective quantitative detection of analytes in
food safety monitoring.
quantum dot; beads; immunochromatographic assay; quantitative
detection; aflatoxin B1
Both albuminuria and kidney dysfunction may affect circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm, while exacerbating each other's effects. We investigated associations and interactions of these two risk factors with circadian BP rhythm variation and non-dipper pattern progression in community-dwelling older men.
This was a cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses in the third and fourth cycles of the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, including 1051 men (age 71 years) with assessments on urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and cystatin-C-estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of these, 574 men attended re-examination after 6 years. Study outcomes were ABMP changes and non-dipping BP pattern (prevalence and progression).
UAER associated with circadian BP rhythm both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Longitudinally, significant interactions were observed between UAER and kidney dysfunction (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) in its association with the changes of both night-time systolic BP (SBP) and night–day SBP ratio. After stratification, UAER strongly predicted night–day SBP ratio change only in those with concurrent kidney dysfunction. At re-examination, 221 new cases of non-dipper were identified. In multivariable logistic models, high UAER associated with increased likelihood of non-dipper progression, but more strongly so among individuals with concurrent kidney dysfunction. These associations were evident also in the subpopulation of non-diabetics and in participants with normal range UAER.
UAER associates with circadian BP rhythm variation and non-dipper progression in elderly men. Concurrent renal dysfunction modifies and exacerbates these associations.
albuminuria; ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; circadian BP rhythm; kidney dysfunction; non-dipper pattern
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an emerging class of highly ordered porous polymers with many potential applications. They are currently designed and synthesized through hexagonal and tetragonal topologies, limiting the access to and exploration of new structures and properties. Here, we report that a triangular topology can be developed for the rational design and synthesis of a new class of COFs. The triangular topology features small pore sizes down to 12 Å, which is among the smallest pores for COFs reported to date, and high π-column densities of up to 0.25 nm−2, which exceeds those of supramolecular columnar π-arrays and other COF materials. These crystalline COFs facilitate π-cloud delocalization and are highly conductive, with a hole mobility that is among the highest reported for COFs and polygraphitic ensembles.
Covalent organic frameworks are currently arousing considerable interest due to their desirable properties for a wide range of applications. Here, Jiang et al. report two such materials with triangular topologies which exhibit high hole mobility arising from extensive π-cloud delocalisation.
Viral encephalitis is a serious complication of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but characteristics of cytokines response in enterovirus 71 (EV-71) and/or coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) associated HFMD with or without viral encephalitis remained unclear.
We performed a multigroup retrospective study and compared the serum cytokines concentrations among 16 encephalitis patients infected with EV-71 and CV-A16, 24 encephalitis patients with single EV-71 infection, 34 mild HFMD patients with EV-71 infection, 18 mild HFMD patients with CV-A16 infection, and 39 healthy control subjects.
Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-22, and IL-23 were significantly higher in encephalitis patients than in HFMD-alone patients when adjusting for age and sex; IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4, IL-22, and IL-1β were significantly higher in HFMD-alone patients of EV-71 infection than in CV-A16 infected HFMD patients; cerebrospinal fluid level of IL-6 was lower in the EV-71/CV-A16 associated encephalitis than that in the EV-71 alone associated encephalitis patients.
Over or low expression of the cytokines cascade in HFMD patients appears to play an important role in the elicitation of the immune response to EV-71 and CV-A16. These data will be used to define a cytokine profile, which might help to recognize HFMD patients with the high risk of developing encephalitis.
Variants in the axis inhibition 2 (AXIN2) gene might alter the protein’s structure or function or create a multiprotein destruction complex in the Wnt signaling pathway and thus affect an individual’s susceptibility to cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate broadly the evidence available for the AXIN2 rs2240308 polymorphism and risk of cancer.
A comprehensive literature search was undertaken for eligible studies in Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library up to Nov 30, 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure the strength of the models.
Eight articles (10 case-control studies with 1,502 cases and 1,590 controls) were included in this analysis. Overall, the AXIN2 rs2240308 polymorphism was associated with a significant increase in the risk of cancer (G allele vs. A allele: OR = 1.21, 95 % CI = 1.05–1.40, I2 = 39.5 % and PQ = 0.094 for heterogeneity; GG vs. AA: OR = 1.30, 95 % CI = 1.04–1.63, I2 = 35.9 % and PQ = 0.121 for heterogeneity; GG vs. GA + AA: OR = 1.36, 95 % CI = 1.17–1.58, I2 = 19.5 % and PQ = 0.263 for heterogeneity). Asian populations showed similar results. Stratified analysis by cancer types indicated that the AXIN2 rs2240308 polymorphism increases the risk of lung cancer (G allele vs. A allele: OR = 1.36, 95 % CI = 1.17–1.59; GA vs. AA: OR = 1.43, 95 % CI = 1.01–2.02; GG vs. AA: OR = 1.93, 95 % CI = 1.36–2.75; GG + GA vs. AA: OR = 1.65, 95 % CI = 1.18–2.30; GG vs. GA + AA: OR = 1.45, 95 % CI = 1.18–1.79. All I2 < 50 % and PQ > 0.100 for heterogeneity).
This study showed that the AXIN2 rs2240308 polymorphism contribute to increasing the risk of cancer, especially lung cancer in Asian populations.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12935-015-0219-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
AXIN2; Polymorphism; Cancer; Risk; Meta-analysis
Bispecific antibodies (BsAb) have proven to be useful targeting vectors for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT). We sought to overcome key PRIT limitations such as high renal radiation exposure and immunogenicity (e.g. of streptavidin-antibody fusions), to advance clinical translation of this PRIT strategy for diasialoganglioside GD2-positive (GD2(+)) tumors.
For this purpose, a IgG-scFv BsAb was engineered using the sequences for the anti-GD2 humanized monoclonal antibody hu3F8 (1) and C825, a murine scFv antibody with high affinity for the chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) complexed with beta-particle emitting radiometals such as 177Lu and 90Y (2, 3). A three-step regimen including hu3F8-C825, a dextran-based clearing agent, and p-aminobenzyl-DOTA radiolabeled with 177Lu (as 177Lu-DOTA-Bn; t1/2 = 6.71 days (d)) was optimized in immunocompromised mice carrying subcutaneous (s.c.) human GD2(+) neuroblastoma (NB) xenografts. Absorbed doses for tumor and normal tissues were ∼85 cGy/MBq and ≤3.7 cGy/MBq, respectively, with therapeutic indicies (TI) of 142 for blood and 23 for kidney. A therapy study (n = 5 per group; tumor volume: 240 ± 160 mm3) with three successive PRIT cycles (total 177Lu: ∼33 MBq; tumor dose ∼3400 cGy), revealed complete tumor response in 5/5 animals, with no recurrence up to 28 d post-treatment. Tumor ablation was confirmed histologically in 4/5 mice, and normal organs showed minimal overall toxicities. All non-treated mice required sacrifice within 12 d (>1.0 cm3 tumor volume). We conclude that this novel anti-GD2 PRIT approach has sufficient TI to successfully ablate s.c. GD2(+)–NB in mice while sparing kidney and bone marrow.
multistep targeting; bispecific antibodies; GD2; radioimmunotherapy; pretargeting
Shen-Qi-Jie-Yu-Fang (SJ Fang) is a herbal preparation used in traditional Chinese medicine, and is a potentially important new therapeutic agent in postpartum depression (PPD). Previously, we have elucidated the effects of SJ Fang on hormone receptors and monoamine neurotransmitters involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes in PPD rats. However, the immune-modulating effects of SJ Fang in PPD are still unknown. In this study, we explored the effects of SJ Fang on the immune organs and subsets of T lymphocytes in PPD rats.
PPD was created in Sprague-Dawley rats by inducing hormone-simulated pregnancy followed by hormone withdrawal. After hormone withdrawal, the PPD rats were then treated with fluoxetine at 1, 2, and 4 weeks, and the SJ Fang rats were also treated at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Depressive behavior in the rats was evaluated by the forced swim test, sucrose consumption test, and open field test. The thymus index and spleen index were calculated. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to identify pathological features in the thymus and spleen. CD3, CD4, and CD8 lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry.
Both fluoxetine and SJ Fang decreased immobility time, increased sucrose consumption, an horizontal and vertical movement. After 4 weeks of treatment with fluoxetine or SJ Fang, the thymus index and spleen index were significantly higher than at baseline, and the morphology of the thymus and spleen were returning to normal. Two weeks after hormone withdrawal, subsets of T lymphocytes indicated a shift from immune activation to immune suppression, which was reversed by 4 weeks of treatment with fluoxetine or SJ Fang.
It is suggested that T-cell mediate immune responses which may play a role in the etiopathology of postpartum depression. SJ Fang had an antidepressant effect on the immune system in rats with PPD.
spleen index; thymus index; Hematoxylin and eosin staining; CD4+; CD8+ ratio; immune activation; immune suppression
Treatment of adult tibiofibular fractures, especially severely comminuted fractures, is technically challenging due to the lack of reduction markers and difficulty in restoring the alignment. Fixation of the fibula can facilitate reduction of the tibia fracture and restoration of the lower-extremity alignment. However, there are few literatures mentioned using intramedullary nail fixation for fibular fractures. Twenty-three cases of tibiofibular fractures were treated with elastic nails fixation fibular fractures and intramedullary nail or plate stabilization tibial fractures between January 2012 and December 2012. Adult tibiofibular fractures with fibular neck fractures or fibular fracture line apart from the ankle joint surface within 8 cm was ruled out. There were 19 males and 4 females with an average age of 41 years (range, 21-59 years). The injury causes included 11 falls and 12 traffic accidents. The left side was involved in 11 cases and the right side was involved in 12 cases. Seventeen cases were closed fractures and 6 cases were open fractures, all were Gustilo type I and II fractures. According to the AO classification, six fractures were defined as type 42A, 11 as type 42B, and 6 as type 42C. The average interval between injury and surgery was 5.8 d (range, 3-22 d). The operation time of elastic nails fixation fibular fractures was 24 minutes (range, 15-42 minutes). Primary wound healing was achieved in all patients. No complications such as infection and wound necrosis occurred. Twenty-one patients were followed up for a mean follow-up period of 16.3 months (range, 12-26 months). The mean duration of fracture healing in the radiographs was 4.1 months (range, 3-8 months). No recurrent fracture dislocation and breakage of implant were observed. At the last follow-up visit, the lower-extremity alignment was excellent. Two degrees of varus deformity was found in 3 cases, and 2 degrees of valgus deformity was observed in 2 cases, but there were no serious varus or valgus deformity affecting the lower-extremity function or causing pain. The results of Tornetta’s ankle function scoring were excellent in 17 cases, good in 3 cases, and fair in 1 case; and the good-to-excellent rate was 95.2%. In the case of adult tibiofibular fractures, elastic nails fixed fibular fracture is helpful to maintain and adjust the lower limbs axis, help tibial fracture reduction, and increase stability.
Tibiofibular fracture; elastic nail; intramedullary nail; internal fixation
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a highly specific anticancer treatment modality for various cancers, particularly for recurrent cancers that no longer respond to conventional anticancer therapies. PDT has been under development for decades, but light-associated toxicity limits its clinical applications. To reduce the toxicity of PDT, we recently developed a targeted nanoparticle (NP) platform that combines a second-generation PDT drug, Pc 4, with a cancer targeting ligand, and iron oxide (IO) NPs. Carboxyl functionalized IO NPs were first conjugated with a fibronectin-mimetic peptide (Fmp), which binds integrin β1. Then the PDT drug Pc 4 was successfully encapsulated into the ligand-conjugated IO NPs to generate Fmp-IO-Pc 4. Our study indicated that both nontargeted IO-Pc 4 and targeted Fmp-IO-Pc 4 NPs accumulated in xenograft tumors with higher concentrations than nonformulated Pc 4. As expected, both IO-Pc 4 and Fmp-IO-Pc 4 reduced the size of HNSCC xenograft tumors more effectively than free Pc 4. Using a 10-fold lower dose of Pc 4 than that reported in the literature, the targeted Fmp-IO-Pc 4 NPs demonstrated significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth than nontargeted IO-Pc 4 NPs. These results suggest that the delivery of a PDT agent Pc 4 by IO NPs can enhance treatment efficacy and reduce PDT drug dose. The targeted IO-Pc 4 NPs have great potential to serve as both a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agent and PDT drug in the clinic.
iron-oxide nanoparticle; Fmp-IO-Pc 4; photodynamic therapy; head and neck cancer; magnetic resonance imaging; integrin β1
The whitefly Bemisia tabaci contains more than 35 cryptic species. The higher adaptability of Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) cryptic species has been recognized as one important factor for its invasion and displacement of other indigenous species worldwide. Here we compared the performance of the invasive MEAM1 and the indigenous Asia II 3 whitefly species following host plant transfer from a suitable host (cotton) to an unsuitable host (tobacco) and analyzed their transcriptional responses. After transfer to tobacco for 24 h, MEAM1 performed much better than Asia II 3. Transcriptional analysis showed that the patterns of gene regulation were very different with most of the genes up-regulated in MEAM1 but down-regulated in Asia II 3. Whereas carbohydrate and energy metabolisms were repressed in Asia II 3, the gene expression and protein metabolisms were activated in MEAM1. Compared to the constitutive high expression of detoxification genes in MEAM1, most of the detoxification genes were down-regulated in Asia II 3. Enzymatic activities of P450, GST and esterase further verified that the detoxification of MEAM1 was much higher than that of Asia II 3. These results reveal obvious differences in responses of MEAM1 and Asia II 3 to host transfer.
The role of livestock grazing in regulating woody cover and biomass in grass-dominant systems is well recognized. However, the way in which woody plant populations in respond when livestock are removed from grazing in the absence of other disturbances, such as fire, remains unclear.We conducted a 10-year, replicated fencing experiment in a sandy semiarid rangeland in northern China (which has a mean annual rainfall of 365 mm), where fires have been actively suppressed for decades.Fencing dramatically influenced the growth and age structure of the native tree species, Ulmus pumila, which is the sole dominant tree in the area. After a decade, the density of the U. pumila tree population in the fencing plots increased doubly and canopy cover increased triply. The proportion of both saplings (U2) and young trees (U3) increased in fencing plots but decreased in grazing plots after the 10-year treatment period. The effects of fencing on U. pumila trees varied by age class, with potential implications for the future structure of the U. pumila tree community. Decadal fencing led to approximately 80-fold increase in recruitment and a nearly 2.5-fold decrease in the mortality of both U2 and U3. Further, livestock grazing generated a “browsing trap” to the recruitment of both U2 and U3, and had a small impact on the mortality of old trees. A long-term, fencing-driven shift in woody species composition was mediated via its effects on both recruitment and mortality rates.Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate that in the long-term absence of both fire and livestock, native woody plant encroachment tends to occur in sandy rangelands, transforming the woody plant demography in the process. The feasibility of full livestock exclusion in sandy rangelands requires further discussion. A balanced amount of livestock grazing may provide critical ecosystem services by regulating woody cover and mediating woody plant encroachment.
Fencing; Hunshandake; livestock exclusion; livestock grazing; semiarid rangeland; Ulmus pumila; woody plant encroachment
Neointimal proliferation after vascular injury is a key mechanism of restenosis, a major cause of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty failure and artery bypass occlusion. Emodin, an anthraquinone with multiple physiological activities, has been reported to inhibit proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that might cause intimal arterial thickening. Thus, in this study, we established a rat model of balloon-injured carotid artery and investigated the therapeutic effect of emodin and its underlying mechanism. Intimal thickness was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Expression of Wnt4, dvl-1, β-catenin and collagen was determined by immunohistochemistry and/or western blotting. The proliferation of VSMC was evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and electron microscopy. MicroRNA levels were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Emodin relieved injury-induced artery intimal thickness. Results of western blots and immunohistochemistry showed that emodin suppressed expression of signaling molecules Wnt4/Dvl-1/β-catenin as well as collagen protein in the injured artery. In addition, emodin enhanced expression of an artery injury-related microRNA, miR-126. In vitro, MTT assay showed that emodin suppressed angiotensin II (AngII)-induced proliferation of VSMCs. Emodin reversed AngII-induced activation of Wnt4/Dvl-1/β-catenin signaling by increasing expression of miR-126 that was strongly supported by transfection of mimic or inhibitor for miR-126. Emodin prevents intimal thickening via Wnt4/Dvl-1/β-catenin signaling pathway mediated by miR-126 in balloon-injured carotid artery of rats.
Objective: This study aimed to characterize the miR-21 and evaluated its clinical significance. Methods: Total RNA was extracted from 30 pairs of fresh specimens of cervical cancer and normal tissues. The expression levels of the miR-21-3p and miR-21-5p were detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, with U6 as the internal reference gene. We compared the expression of miR-21-3p and miR-21-5p between study group and control groups, the association between miRNA expression level and clinicopathological factors was investigated. Results: The expression of miR-21-3p and miR-21-5p in HPV positive cervical cancer samples was significantly upregulated compared to that in the paired normal samples (P < 0.05); A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the expression of miR-21 was associated with clinicopathological parameters, including depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions: MiR-21 upregulation is associated with aggressive progression and poor prognosis in cervical cancer, which suggests that miR-21 might be identified as an independent marker for predicting the clinical outcome of cervical cancer patients.
miRNA-21; cervical cancer; biomarker
Previous studies have highlighted the role of genetic predispositions in disease, and several genes had been identified as important in Crohn’s disease (CD). However, many of these genes are likely rare and not associated with susceptibility in Chinese CD patients. We found 294 shared identical variants in the CD patients of which 26 were validated by Sanger sequencing. Two heterozygous IFN variants (IFNA10 c.60 T > A; IFNA4 c.60 A > T) were identified as significantly associated with CD susceptibility. The single-nucleotide changes alter a cysteine situated before the signal peptide cleavage site to a stop code (TGA) in IFNA10 result in the serum levels of IFNA10 were significantly decreased in the CD patients compared to the controls. Furthermore, the IFNA10 and IFNA4 mutants resulted in an impairment of the suppression of HCV RNA replication in HuH7 cells, and the administration of the recombinant IFN subtypes restored DSS-induced colonic inflammation through the upregulation of CD4+ Treg cells. We identified heterozygous IFNA10 and IFNA4 variants as a cause of impaired function and CD susceptibility genes in Chinese patients from multiple center based study. These findings might provide clues in the understanding of the genetic heterogeneity of CD and lead to better screening and improved treatment.
Phaeocystis globosa blooms in eutrophication waters can cause severely damage in marine ecosystem and consequently influence human activities. This study investigated the effect and role of an algicidal actinomycete (Streptomyces sp. JS01) on the elimination process of P. globosa. JS01 supernatant could alter algal cell membrane permeability in 4 h when analyzed with flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were 7.2 times higher than that at 0 h following exposure to JS01 supernatant for 8 h, which indicated that algal cells suffered from oxidative damage. The Fv/Fm value which could reflect photosystem II (PS II) electron flow status also decreased. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of the photosynthesis related genes psbA and rbcS were suppressed by JS01 supernatant, which might induce damage to PS II. Our results demonstrated that JS01 supernatant can change algal membrane permeability in a short time and then affect photosynthesis process, which might block the PS II electron transport chain to produce excessive ROS. This experiment demonstrated that Streptomyces sp. JS01 could eliminate harmful algae in marine waters efficiently and may be function as a harmful algal bloom controller material.
Phaeocystis globose; algicidal actinomycetes; membrane permeability; photosynthetic activity; gene expression
AIM: To study the cost-effectiveness of high-resolution microendoscopy (HRME) in an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) screening program in China.
METHODS: A decision analytic Markov model of ESCC was developed. Separate model analyses were conducted for cohorts consisting of an average-risk population or a high-risk population in China. Hypothetical 50-year-old individuals were followed until age 80 or death. We compared three different strategies for both cohorts: (1) no screening; (2) standard endoscopic screening with Lugol’s iodine staining; and (3) endoscopic screening with Lugol’s iodine staining and an HRME. Model parameters were estimated from the literature as well as from GLOBOCAN, the Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide cancer database. Health states in the model included non-neoplasia, mild dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, intramucosal carcinoma, operable cancer, inoperable cancer, and death. Separate ESCC incidence transition rates were generated for the average-risk and high-risk populations. Costs in Chinese currency were converted to international dollars (I$) and were adjusted to 2012 dollars using the Consumer Price Index.
RESULTS: The main outcome measurements for this study were quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). For the average-risk population, the HRME screening strategy produced 0.043 more QALYs than the no screening strategy at an additional cost of I$646, resulting in an ICER of I$11808 per QALY gained. Standard endoscopic screening was weakly dominated. Among the high-risk population, when the HRME screening strategy was compared with the standard screening strategy, the ICER was I$8173 per QALY. For both the high-risk and average-risk screening populations, the HRME screening strategy appeared to be the most cost-effective strategy, producing ICERs below the willingness-to-pay threshold, I$23500 per QALY. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that, for the average-risk population, higher specificity of Lugol’s iodine (> 40%) and lower specificity of HRME (< 70%) could make Lugol’s iodine screening cost-effective. For the high-risk population, the results of the model were not substantially affected by varying the follow-up rate after Lugol’s iodine screening, Lugol’s iodine test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity), or HRME specificity.
CONCLUSION: The incorporation of HRME into an ESCC screening program could be cost-effective in China. Larger studies of HRME performance are needed to confirm these findings.
Cost-effectiveness analysis; Diagnostic imaging; Endoscopy; Esophageal squamous cell cancer; Simulation disease model
Prior study indicates that abnormal protein expression and functional changes in the development and progression of colorectal cancer is related to gene expression. The aim of this study was to construct an interference plasmid targeting the Ep-CAM gene and to investigate its effects on the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.
In this study, HT-29 and HCT-116 colorectal cancer cell lines were selected as cell models. The double-stranded micro (mi)RNA oligo was inserted into the pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR vector, which is an expression of miRNA. Lipofectamine™ 2000 was used to transfer plasmid into the empty plasmid group (transfected pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR-neg) and the interference group (transfected pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR-Ep-CAM-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the nontransferred HT-29 and HCT-116 acts as the blank control group. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the transfection efficiency. Western blot was used to detect Ep-CAM protein expression. The cell proliferation in each group was detected by using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
The results indicated that the Ep-CAM messenger (m)RNA expression in the interference group was lower significantly compared with that of the empty plasmid group and control group (P<0.01). Western blot analysis results showed that Ep-CAM protein expression was significantly lower in interference group compared with that of the empty plasmid group and the control group (P<0.01). MTT assay results demonstrated that the proliferation ability of cells in the interference group was significantly inhibited compared with the two other groups (P<0.05).
Silencing of Ep-CAM can significantly inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.
epidermal growth factor; Ep-CAM; colorectal cancer; vector construction
While the intrauterine environment is essential for the health of offspring, the impact of high maternal serum estradiol (E2) on lipid metabolism in offspring and the mechanisms are unknown. We found that ovarian stimulation (OS) could result in high E2 levels in women throughout pregnancy. Strikingly, their newborns showed elevated total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels that were positively related with E2 in newborns. In vitro, E2 dose-dependently stimulated TC and LDL-C secretion, and increased expression of the cholesterol synthesis rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) in HepG2 cells and mouse fetal hepatocytes. In vivo, high maternal E2 was detected and fetal livers also showed significantly higher HMGCR expression in an OS mouse model. Notably, an estrogen response element (ERE) was identified in the HMGCR promoter, indicating that high maternal serum E2 could up-regulate HMGCR expression in fetal hepatocytes via an ERE that in turn induces elevated levels of TC and LDL-C in offspring. Conclusion: OS can induce a high maternal E2 environment, which up-regulates HMGCR expression in fetal hepatocytes via an ERE in the promoter, and induces elevated levels of TC and LDL-C in newborns that may be related to increased risk of metabolic disease in adulthood.