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1.  Bhaishajya Kalpanaa - The Ayurvedic Pharmaceutics - An Overview 
In Ayurvedic therapeutics, drug therapy is given prime importance. There is a very well developed sub-discipline entirely devoted to drug formulations known as “Bhaisajya Kalpanaa”. Considering its importance, different aspects of this discipline have been presented in this review to familiarize the readers, especially those who have just started studying Ayurveda, with concept of ayurvedic pharmaceutics. The Ayurvedic drug formulation is based on what is known as “Pancavidha Kasaaya” concept. According to this concept there are five basic forms of formulation known as 1-‘Swarasa’ the expressed juice, 2-‘Kalka’, a fine paste obtained by grinding fresh or wet grinding dried plant material 3- ‘Kwaatha’, the decoction, 4- ‘Sheeta’ or ‘Hima’, the cold water infusion and 5- ‘Faanta’, the hot water infusion. Different aspects of their preparation and use have been discussed. Further from the above basic forms, a number of other formulations are derived; a brief description of each of them has been given along with brief outlines of drug formulations meant for specific routes. The third part of the review is devoted to discussion of influence of different factors on the expression of pharmacological activity.
PMCID: PMC3025621  PMID: 21461144
Ayurvedic pharmaceutics; Bhaisajya Kalpanaa; Pancavidha Kasaaya; Ayurvedic formulations Traditional systems of medicine
2.  A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats 
This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced–swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity.
doi:10.4103/0974-7788.64399
PMCID: PMC2924986  PMID: 20814518
Ayurveda; adaptogenic activity; 'Guduchi ghrita'; 'rasaayana'; Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers
3.  Study of Preparation and Standardization of ‘Maadhutailika Basti’ with special reference to Emulsion Stability 
Ayu  2010;31(1):1-6.
‘Basti’ is compared with conventional enema due to its similarity in procedure of administration. But in effect enema is a simple evacuation technique, whereas ‘Basti’ is a therapeutic measure considered as ‘Ardha Chikitsa’ i.e half therapy in the disease management. Constitution of ‘Basti dravya’ formulation specifically ‘Aasthaapana Basti’ has a direct impact on the end result of ‘Basti’ therapy. A systematic stepwise procedure of preparation of ‘Aasthaapana Basti’ is described in Ayurvedic Classics. The present study evaluates the significance of this procedure through standardization of ‘Maadhutailika Basti’, a type and standard of ‘Aasthaapana Basti’. Four samples of ‘Aasthaapana Basti’ including the classical one were prepared for this study by replacement, exclusion and supplementation of honey in the formulation. A comparative study of physico-chemical characteristics of these samples was carried out. The stability of the constitution of ‘Maadhutailika Basti’ was also studied to assess the role of honey as a natural emulsifying agent. The study underlines the significance of the procedure described in the classics emphasizing the role of honey as a natural emulsifying agent in standardization of ‘Maadhutailika Basti’.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.68190
PMCID: PMC3215309  PMID: 22131675
Enema; Aasthaapana Basti; Basti dravya;  Emulsion stability; Emulsifying agent

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