We performed a comparative analysis of the plasma levels of antithrombin (AT) III, plasminogen, fibrinogen, and D-dimer among patients with and without clinically localized prostate cancer to investigate the clinical significance of the coagulation profile in prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods
A prospective study was performed in which plasma levels of AT III, plasminogen, fibrinogen, and D-dimer were assessed in patients before they underwent prostate biopsy. According to the results of the biopsy, the patients were categorized into the cancer group or the control group. Levels of the four coagulation factors were then compared between the cancer and control groups. Also, levels of the four coagulation factors were correlated with tumor stage and grade in the cancer group.
The cancer group had significantly lower levels of AT III activity and higher plasma D-dimer levels than did the control group (p=0.007 and p=0.018, respectively). Within the cancer group, no significant differences were observed in the levels of AT III, plasminogen, fibrinogen, or D-dimer between those with a pathological Gleason score of ≥7 and otherwise. Regarding pathologic stage of prostate cancer, the subjects with organ-confined disease and those with extraprostatic extension of a tumor demonstrated no significant differences in the preoperative levels of the four coagulation factors analyzed.
Our results suggest that plasma levels of AT III and D-dimer are altered in patients with prostate cancer. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanism and clinical significances of such a phenomenon among patients with clinically localized prostate cancer.