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author:("nasreen, S")
1.  Correlation between bone mineral density of jaws and skeletal sites in an Iranian population using dual X-ray energy absorptiometry 
Dental Research Journal  2013;10(4):460-466.
Background:
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the bone density of various regions of jaws and skeletal bones.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 110 patients with a mean age of 55.01 ± 10.77 years were selected for the purpose of the present descriptive study. Dual X-ray Energy Absorptiometry (DXA) was carried out to determine bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur and lumbar vertebrae. Then all the subjects underwent DXA of the jaw bones and BMD values were determined at four jaw regions. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 statistical software, and the correlation between the various BMD values was determined by Pearson's correlation coefficient.
Results:
The results showed that 42.7% of females had normal BMD values in the femur, and in vertebrae, 20% were osteopenic and 37.3% suffered from osteoporosis, with statistically significant differences in the BMD values of the jaws between the three above-mentioned groups (P < 0.001). There was an increasing tendency toward osteopenia and osteoporosis with age. There was a positive correlation between BMD values of the femur and lumbar vertebrae and those of all the jaw regions under study (P < 0.005). There was a negative correlation (P < 0.01) between age and the BMD values of the femur, lumbar vertebrae and anterior maxilla.
Conclusion:
The bone density of the maxilla and mandible and presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia in these bones might reflect the same problem in skeletal bones.
PMCID: PMC3793408  PMID: 24130580
Bone mineral density; dual X-ray energy absorptiometry; jaw bones; osteoporosis; skeletal bones
2.  A Comparative Study on Shoulder Rotational Strength, Range of Motion and Proprioception between the Throwing Athletes and Non-athletic Persons 
Purpose
The repetitive micro traumatic stresses placed on the athletes shoulder joint complex during the throwing motion challenge the surrounding tissues. The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder rotational strength, range of motion and proprioception between the throwing athletes and non-athletic persons.
Methods
Fifteen throwing athletes and 15 non-athletes participated in a nonrandom case – control study. Strength of shoulder rotational movements was tested with a hand held dynamometer. The ranges of internal and external rotation of shoulder were measured by a standard goniometer. The ability of subjects to replicate the target position and kinesthetic sense was examined on the subjects’ right shoulder by using a continuous passive motion device. Independent and paired t tests were used to statistically analyze between and within group differences.
Results
No significant difference was detected on the range of internal rotation between throwing athletes and non-athletic candidates (P=0.3). The range of external rotation was significantly more in athletic subjects (P=0.03). The results also showed that throwing athletes demonstrated a significantly higher isometric strength of shoulder external and internal rotation than the non-athletic group (P<0.05). However, the comparison of the internal and external rotation strength of dominant side in each group showed that throwing athletes showed a significant lower isometric strength of shoulder external rotation than internal rotation (P<0.001). It was also demonstrated higher joint position acuity in the throwing athletes than non athlete subjects (P=0.01).
Conclusion
The repetitive nature of overhead throwing and the high forces that it causes result in adaptive changes of the dominant extremity. Throwing can lead to mobility, strength and neural adaptation.
PMCID: PMC3685158  PMID: 23785574
Throwing Athletes; Muscle Weakness; Mobility Impairment; Proprioception
3.  Smoking normalizes cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption after 12-hour abstention 
Acute nicotine administration stimulates [14C]deoxyglucose trapping in thalamus and other regions of rat brain, but acute effects of nicotine and smoking on energy metabolism have rarely been investigated in human brain by positron emission tomography (PET). We obtained quantitative PET measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in 12 smokers who had refrained from smoking overnight, and in a historical group of nonsmokers, testing the prediction that overnight abstinence results in widespread, coupled reductions of CBF and CMRO2. At the end of the abstention period, global grey-matter CBF and CMRO2 were both reduced by 17% relative to nonsmokers. At 15 minutes after renewed smoking, global CBF had increased insignificantly, while global CMRO2 had increased by 11%. Regional analysis showed that CMRO2 had increased in the left putamen and thalamus, and in right posterior cortical regions at this time. At 60 and 105 minutes after smoking resumption, CBF had increased by 8% and CMRO2 had increased by 11-12%. Thus, we find substantial and global impairment of CBF/CMRO2 in abstaining smokers, and acute restoration by resumption of smoking. The reduced CBF and CMRO2 during acute abstention may mediate the cognitive changes described in chronic smokers.
doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.246
PMCID: PMC4420887  PMID: 25605288
metabolism; nicotine; oxygen
4.  Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study 
Introduction
Oxidative stress or oxidant/antioxidant imbalance has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of some diseases like cancer. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates in the thyroid parafollicular cells and includes 3-4% of the malignant neoplasms that have an effect on this gland. The aetiology of MTC has not been clarified. However, oxidative stress may be one of the factors involved.
Aim
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant enzyme activity of catalase (CAT), Glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the levels of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) in blood samples of MTC patients as compared to healthy controls.
Materials and Methods
A case-control study was designed enrolling patients with confirmed MTC diagnosis and age-and sex group matched healthy volunteers referred to the clinic of the Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Tehran, Iran from April 2013 to July 2015. Fasting blood samples were taken for study. Catalase, GSH, MDA and TAC levels were measured by colorimetry using commercial kits (ZellBio GmbH, Germany). Data were analysed using SPSS 17 software, comparing mean±SD through t-test and difference between proportions through chi-square.
Results
No statistical difference was observed in the demographic characteristic between cases and controls. The final MTC group included 40 males and 45 females with a mean age of 30±12.9 year, and the control group 40 males and 47 females, with a mean age of 31.2±12.3 year. Anthropometric parameters, dietary and thyroid hormones levels (T3, T4 and TSH) were similar. Serum TAC (p=0.015), GSH (p=0.029) and CAT (p<0.001) levels were found to be significantly lower in the MTC patients, while serum MDA levels were significantly higher in MTC patients than controls (p<0.001).
Conclusion
These preliminary findings suggest that oxidant/antioxidant imbalance may be associated with or possibly indicate an increased risk to medullary thyroid carcinoma. Further studies are needed to explore these findings.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2016/17854.7202
PMCID: PMC4800508  PMID: 27042443
Catalase; Glutathione; Malondialdehyde; Total antioxidant capacity
5.  Prevalence of antibody to Hepatitis B core antigen and Hepatitis B virus DNA in HBsAg negative healthy blood donors 
Virology Journal  2016;13:36.
Background
Hepatitis B virus is one of the most important blood born viruses. Although the sensitivity of screening tests has been considerably increased, transmission may still occur due to window period or occult hepatitis B infections (OBIs). This study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence of the anti-HBc and identifying the HBV DNA in HBsAg negative blood donors.
Methods
The Blood samples from 2031 HBsAg-negative blood donors were divided into three aliquots and tested for anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBV DNA. Serologic screening including anti-HBc and anti-HBs was performed. As a confirmatory test, all positive results for anti-HBc were retested with another kit. Two positive results were considered for anti-HBc positivity. All HBsAg negative selected donations were tested by PCR assay on pooled specimens (five samples per pool), plasma samples found to be HBsAg negative but anti-HBc positive were selected for a single-unit specimen Real-Time assay.
Results
The study population had a mean age of 33.25 ± 10.09 years were mainly composed of males (94.8 %). The seroprevalance rate was 4.9 % for Anti-HBc and 31.9 % for HBsAb. The majority (58.6 %) of Anti-HBc positive cases were regular blood donors with 42–49 years being the largest age group (41.4 %). Neither individual NAT nor pooled NAT test detected any HBV DNA.
Conclusion
However, Screening of anti-HBc Ab is proposed as a method to identify previous contact with HBV, but there is controversy in literature data regarding the cost-benefit of exclusion of positive anti-HBc Ab in blood donors. Our data does not suggest HBc-Ab test as a screening tool in the study setting.
doi:10.1186/s12985-016-0492-8
PMCID: PMC4779215  PMID: 26944046
Hepatitis B virus; Blood Transfusion; Blood Donors; Occult hepatitis B virus; Blood safety
6.  Research on Climate and Dengue in Malaysia: A Systematic Review 
Background & Objectives
Dengue is a climate-sensitive infectious disease. Climate-based dengue early warning may be a simple, low-cost, and effective tool for enhancing surveillance and control. Scientific studies on climate and dengue in local context form the basis for advancing the development of a climate-based early warning system. This study aims to review the current status of scientific studies in climate and dengue and the prospect or challenges of such research on a climate-based dengue early warning system in a dengue-endemic country, taking Malaysia as a case study.
Method
We reviewed the relationship between climate and dengue derived from statistical modeling, laboratory tests, and field studies. We searched electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO (MEDLINE), Web of Science, and the World Health Organization publications, and assessed climate factors and their influence on dengue cases, mosquitoes, and virus and recent development in the field of climate and dengue.
Results & Discussion
Few studies in Malaysia have emphasized the relationship between climate and dengue. Climatic factors such as temperature, rainfall, and humidity are associated with dengue; however, these relationships were not consistent. Climate change projections for Malaysia show a mounting risk for dengue in the future. Scientific studies on climate and dengue enhance dengue surveillance in the long run.
Conclusion
It is essential for institutions in Malaysia to promote research on climate and vector-borne diseases to advance the development of climate-based early warning systems. Together, effective strategies that improve existing research capacity, maximize the use of limited resources, and promote local-international partnership are crucial for sustaining research on climate and health.
doi:10.1007/s40572-016-0078-z
PMCID: PMC4789198  PMID: 26931438
Dengue; DHF; Climate; Weather; Early warning; Malaysia
7.  The Prevalence of Job Stress and its Relationship with Burnout Syndrome among the Academic Members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences  
Journal of Caring Sciences  2016;5(1):75-84.
Introduction: Burnout syndrome is one of the consequences and the results of occupational or job stress emerged in the form of emotional exhaustion feeling, depersonalization and decrement personal accomplishment. The aim of this study was to determine the occupational stress and its relationship with burnout syndrome in the academic members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences.
Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on 111 of the faculty members via multistage sampling. Data were collected by the questionnaire of Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Osipow Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI- R). Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics as well as analytical statistics such as chi square, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney tests and Pearson correlation coefficient.
Results: The results showed that the most of the participants had a low level of burnout three dimensions including emotional burnout (72.1%), depersonalization (81.1%), and the decrement of personal accomplishment (56.8%). Moreover 79.3% of samples had a low occupational stress, but there was a meaningful relationship between occupational stress and dimensions of burnout syndrome with an exception for the intensity of decrement of personal accomplishment.
Conclusion: Academic members were in an appropriate condition concerning burnout syndrome and occupational stress. However by applying some strategies to decrease stress and determining stress resources, we can improve their psychological health of academic members.
doi:10.15171/jcs.2016.008
PMCID: PMC4794547  PMID: 26989668
Workplace; Professional burnout; Faculty; Stress; Psychological
8.  Effect of Cichorium intybus L. on the expression of hepatic NF-κB and IKKβ and serum TNF-α in STZ− and STZ+ niacinamide-induced diabetes in rats 
Background
Inflammation is an early event in the development of diabetes type 2 (T2D). Cichorium intybus L. (chicory) possesses anti-inflammatory action. We compared the anti-inflammatory aspect of aqueous chicory seed extract (CSE) in early and late stage T2D in rats.
Methods
Wistar albino rats were divided into nine final groups (n = 6). Three main groups consisted of non-diabetic (Control), early stage diabetes (ET2D; niacinamide/streptozotocin, i.e., NIA/STZ), and late stage diabetes (LT2D; STZ). Within each main group, a subgroup was treated with CSE (125 mg/kg; i.p.); within each diabetic group (STZ and NIA/STZ) a subgroup received metformin (100 mg/kg; i.p.); another subgroup in STZ group received aspirin (120 mg/kg; oral). After 21 days, fasting blood glucose (FBS), insulin, and TNF-α level were measured in serum; IKKβ and NF-κB (p65) mRNA and protein expression were evaluated by real time PCR and Western blotting; p65 DNA binding activity was determined by ELISA, in liver tissue.
Results
The mRNA and protein expression levels of IKKβ, and P65 genes increased in both stages of T2D (p < 0.01); CSE decreased their expression (p < 0.001, mRNAs; p < 0.05, proteins). The increased DNA-binding capacity of NF-κB (p < 0.0001) in diabetes was lowered by CSE (p < 0.001). The effect of CSE was limited to ET2D requiring insulin.
Conclusions
The anti-inflammatory action of CSE is due to a direct modulation of cytokine expression. The dependency of chicory action on the presence of insulin indicates its usefulness in the early stages of diabetes and for the purpose of preventing and delaying diabetes onset.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13098-016-0128-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13098-016-0128-6
PMCID: PMC4752748  PMID: 26877773
Chicory; Diabetes type 2; Inflammatory cytokines; TNF-α; IKKβ; NF-κB
9.  Easily doped p-type, low hole effective mass, transparent oxides 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:20446.
Fulfillment of the promise of transparent electronics has been hindered until now largely by the lack of semiconductors that can be doped p-type in a stable way, and that at the same time present high hole mobility and are highly transparent in the visible spectrum. Here, a high-throughput study based on first-principles methods reveals four oxides, namely X2SeO2, with X = La, Pr, Nd, and Gd, which are unique in that they exhibit excellent characteristics for transparent electronic device applications – i.e., a direct band gap larger than 3.1 eV, an average hole effective mass below the electron rest mass, and good p-type dopability. Furthermore, for La2SeO2 it is explicitly shown that Na impurities substituting La are shallow acceptors in moderate to strong anion-rich growth conditions, with low formation energy, and that they will not be compensated by anion vacancies VO or VSe.
doi:10.1038/srep20446
PMCID: PMC4745066  PMID: 26854336
10.  An siRNA-based functional genomics screen for the identification of regulators of ciliogenesis and ciliopathy genes 
Wheway, Gabrielle | Schmidts, Miriam | Mans, Dorus A. | Szymanska, Katarzyna | Nguyen, Thanh-Minh T. | Racher, Hilary | Phelps, Ian G. | Toedt, Grischa | Kennedy, Julie | Wunderlich, Kirsten A. | Sorusch, Nasrin | Abdelhamed, Zakia A. | Natarajan, Subaashini | Herridge, Warren | van Reeuwijk, Jeroen | Horn, Nicola | Boldt, Karsten | Parry, David A. | Letteboer, Stef J.F. | Roosing, Susanne | Adams, Matthew | Bell, Sandra M. | Bond, Jacquelyn | Higgins, Julie | Morrison, Ewan E. | Tomlinson, Darren C. | Slaats, Gisela G. | van Dam, Teunis J. P. | Huang, Lijia | Kessler, Kristin | Giessl, Andreas | Logan, Clare V. | Boyle, Evan A. | Shendure, Jay | Anazi, Shamsa | Aldahmesh, Mohammed | Al Hazzaa, Selwa | Hegele, Robert A. | Ober, Carole | Frosk, Patrick | Mhanni, Aizeddin A. | Chodirker, Bernard N. | Chudley, Albert E. | Lamont, Ryan | Bernier, Francois P. | Beaulieu, Chandree L. | Gordon, Paul | Pon, Richard T. | Donahue, Clem | Barkovich, A. James | Wolf, Louis | Toomes, Carmel | Thiel, Christian T. | Boycott, Kym M. | McKibbin, Martin | Inglehearn, Chris F. | Stewart, Fiona | Omran, Heymut | Huynen, Martijn A. | Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I. | Alkuraya, Fowzan S. | Parboosingh, Jillian S. | Innes, A Micheil | Willoughby, Colin E. | Giles, Rachel H. | Webster, Andrew R. | Ueffing, Marius | Blacque, Oliver | Gleeson, Joseph G. | Wolfrum, Uwe | Beales, Philip L. | Gibson, Toby | Doherty, Dan | Mitchison, Hannah M. | Roepman, Ronald | Johnson, Colin A.
Nature cell biology  2015;17(8):1074-1087.
Defects in primary cilium biogenesis underlie the ciliopathies, a growing group of genetic disorders. We describe a whole genome siRNA-based reverse genetics screen for defects in biogenesis and/or maintenance of the primary cilium, obtaining a global resource. We identify 112 candidate ciliogenesis and ciliopathy genes, including 44 components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, 12 G-protein-coupled receptors, and three pre-mRNA processing factors (PRPF6, PRPF8 and PRPF31) mutated in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. The PRPFs localise to the connecting cilium, and PRPF8- and PRPF31-mutated cells have ciliary defects. Combining the screen with exome sequencing data identified recessive mutations in PIBF1/CEP90 and C21orf2/LRRC76 as causes of the ciliopathies Joubert and Jeune syndromes. Biochemical approaches place C21orf2 within key ciliopathy-associated protein modules, offering an explanation for the skeletal and retinal involvement observed in individuals with C21orf2-variants. Our global, unbiased approaches provide insights into ciliogenesis complexity and identify roles for unanticipated pathways in human genetic disease.
doi:10.1038/ncb3201
PMCID: PMC4536769  PMID: 26167768
cilia; ciliopathies; reverse genetics; whole-genome siRNA screen; Jeune syndrome; Joubert syndrome
11.  Associations between diabetes self-management and microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes 
Epidemiology and Health  2016;38:e2016004.
OBJECTIVES:
Diabetes is a major public health problem that is approaching epidemic proportions globally. Diabetes self-management can reduce complications and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between diabetes self-management and microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes.
METHODS:
In this cross-sectional study, 562 Iranian patients older than 30 years of age with type 2 diabetes who received treatment at the Diabetes Research Center of the Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences were identified. The participants were enrolled and completed questionnaires between January and April 2014. Patients’ diabetes self-management was assessed as an independent variable by using the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire translated into Persian. The outcomes were the microvascular complications of diabetes (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy), identified from the clinical records of each patient. A multiple logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between diabetes self-management and the microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for potential confounders.
RESULTS:
After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between the diabetes self-management sum scale and neuropathy (adjusted OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.92, p=0.01). Additionally, weak evidence was found of an association between the sum scale score of diabetes self-management and nephropathy (adjusted OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.05, p=0.09).
CONCLUSIONS:
Among patients with type 2 diabetes, a lower diabetes self-management score was associated with higher rates of nephropathy and neuropathy.
doi:10.4178/epih/e2016004
PMCID: PMC4789607  PMID: 26883737
Diabetes self-management; Type 2 diabetes; Microvascular complications; Neuropathy; Retinopathy; Nephropathy
12.  Fracture Forces of Dentin after Surface Treatment with High Speed Drill Compared to Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Irradiation 
Dental tooth restorative procedures may weaken the structural integrity of the tooth, with the possibility of leading to fracture. In this study we present findings of coronal dentin strength after different techniques of surface modification. The fracture strength of dentin beams after superficial material removal with a fine diamond bur high speed drill hand piece, Er:YAG (2.94 μm, 8 J/cm2), and Er,Cr:YSGG (2.78 μm, 7.8 J/cm2) laser irradiation slightly above the ablation threshold was measured by a four-point bending apparatus. Untreated dentin beams served as a control. A total of 58 dentin beams were manufactured from sterilized human extracted molars using the coronal part of the available dentin. Mean values of fracture strength were calculated as 82.0 ± 27.3 MPa for the control group (n = 10), 104.5 ± 26.3 MPa for high speed drill treatment (n = 10), 96.1 ± 28.1 MPa for Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (n = 20), and 89.1 ± 36.3 MPa for Er:YAG laser irradiation (n = 18). Independent Student's t-tests showed no significant difference between each two groups (p > 0.05). Within the parameter settings and the limits of the experimental setup used in this study, both lasers systems as well as the high speed drill do not significantly weaken coronal dentin after surface treatment.
doi:10.1155/2016/8517947
PMCID: PMC4745301  PMID: 26962473
13.  The pacemaker-twiddler’s syndrome: an infrequent cause of pacemaker failure 
BMC Research Notes  2016;9:32.
Background
The pacemaker-twiddler’s syndrome is an uncommon cause of pacemaker malfunction. It occurs due to unintentional or deliberate manipulation of the pacemaker pulse generator within its skin pocket by the patient. This causes coiling of the lead and its dislodgement, resulting in failure of ventricular pacing. More commonly reported among elderly females with impaired cognition, the phenomenon usually occurs in the first year following pacemaker implantation. Treatment involves repositioning of the dislodged leads and suture fixation of the lead and pulse generator within its pocket.
Case presentation
An 87 year old Bangladeshi lady who underwent a single chamber ventricular pacemaker (VVI mode: i.e. ventricle paced, ventricle sensed, inhibitory mode) implantation with the indication of complete heart block, and presented to us again 7 weeks later, with syncopal attacks. She admitted to repeatedly manipulating the pacemaker generator in her left pectoral region. Physical examination revealed a heart rate of 42 beats/minute, blood pressure 140/80 mmHg and bilateral crackles on lung auscultation. She had no cognitive deficit.
An immediate electrocardiogram showed complete heart block with pacemaker spikes and failure to capture. Chest X-ray showed coiled and retracted right ventricular lead and rotated pulse generator. An emergent temporary pace maker was set at a rate of 60 beats per minute. Subsequently, she underwent successful lead repositioning with strong counselling to avoid further twiddling.
Conclusion
Twiddler’s syndrome should be considered as a cause of pacemaker failure in elderly patients presenting with bradyarrythmias following pacemaker implantation. Chest X-ray and electrocardiograms are simple and easily-available first line investigations for its diagnosis. Lead repositioning is required, however proper patient education and counselling against further manipulation is paramount to long-term management.
doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1818-0
PMCID: PMC4721019  PMID: 26790626
Twiddler’s syndrome; Pacemaker failure; Lead dislodgement
14.  Explaining nutritional habits and behaviors of low socioeconomic status women in Sanandaj: a qualitative content analysis 
Electronic Physician  2016;8(1):1733-1739.
Introduction
Health and behavior are closely related subjects because disease is typically rooted in individuals’ unhealthy behaviors and habits. This study aims to identify women’s nutritional habits and behaviors in order to design interventions to promote nutritional literacy.
Methods
This qualitative research is part of a mixed method (quantitative-qualitative) study, conducted based on content analysis. Data were collected using semistructured interviews, group discussions, and in-depth interviews with married women, aged 18–50 years, who were referred to four health care centers in Sanandaj in 2013–2014.
Results
Nutritional habits and behaviors of participants were classified into two categories: representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption pattern and representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption method. For the former, eight consumption pattern subcategories were formed: meat, dairy, fast food, local foods, fruits and vegetables, soft drinks, and oils. The latter (representation of nutritional behavior based on consumption method), included two subcategories: consumption method in line with health and consumption method inconsistent with health.
Conclusion
Results of this qualitative study provide a solid foundation for development and designing interventions to nutritional literacy promotion based on needs. The designed intervention to healthy nutritional behavior should be based on empowering women and providing facilitator factors of a healthy diet. While designing this study, with a holistic perspective, individual and social aspects of a healthy diet should be taken into account.
doi:10.19082/1733
PMCID: PMC4768921  PMID: 26955443
nutritional behavior; nutritional habits; qualitative study
15.  Accuracy of Inferior Vena Cava Ultrasound for Predicting Dehydration in Children with Acute Diarrhea in Resource-Limited Settings 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(1):e0146859.
Introduction
Although dehydration from diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five, existing methods of assessing dehydration status in children have limited accuracy.
Objective
To assess the accuracy of point-of-care ultrasound measurement of the aorta-to-IVC ratio as a predictor of dehydration in children.
Methods
A prospective cohort study of children under five years with acute diarrhea was conducted in the rehydration unit of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b). Ultrasound measurements of aorta-to-IVC ratio and dehydrated weight were obtained on patient arrival. Percent weight change was monitored during rehydration to classify children as having “some dehydration” with weight change 3–9% or “severe dehydration” with weight change > 9%. Logistic regression analysis and Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the accuracy of aorta-to-IVC ratio as a predictor of dehydration severity.
Results
850 children were enrolled, of which 771 were included in the final analysis. Aorta to IVC ratio was a significant predictor of the percent dehydration in children with acute diarrhea, with each 1-point increase in the aorta to IVC ratio predicting a 1.1% increase in the percent dehydration of the child. However, the area under the ROC curve (0.60), sensitivity (67%), and specificity (49%), for predicting severe dehydration were all poor.
Conclusions
Point-of-care ultrasound of the aorta-to-IVC ratio was statistically associated with volume status, but was not accurate enough to be used as an independent screening tool for dehydration in children under five years presenting with acute diarrhea in a resource-limited setting.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146859
PMCID: PMC4713074  PMID: 26766306
16.  Vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in pork and their relationship to vitamin D status in pigs 
The content of vitamin D in pork produced in conventional systems depends on the vitamin D concentration in the pig feed. Both vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) are essential sources of dietary vitamin D; however, bioavailability assessed by serum 25(OH)D3 concentration is reported to be different between the two sources. Furthermore, the relationship between serum 25(OH)D3 level and the tissue content of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of increasing the content of vitamin D in different pig tissues by increasing the levels of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 in the pig feed for 49 d before slaughter. Concurrently, the 25(OH)D3 level in serum was investigated as a biomarker to assess the content of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 in pig tissues. Adipose tissue, white and red muscle, the liver and serum were sampled from pigs fed feed containing either vitamin D3 or 25(OH)D3 at 5, 20, 35 or 50 µg/kg feed for 7 weeks before slaughter. The tissue 25(OH)D3 level was significantly higher in the pigs fed 25(OH)D3 compared with those fed vitamin D3, while the tissue vitamin D3 level was higher in the pigs fed vitamin D3 compared with those fed 25(OH)D3. The content of 25(OH)D3 in the different tissues fully correlated with the serum 25(OH)D3 level, whereas the correlation between the tissue content of vitamin D3 and serum 25(OH)D3 was dependent on the source of the ingested vitamin D3.
doi:10.1017/jns.2015.28
PMCID: PMC4709834  PMID: 26793309
Vitamin D3; 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3; Biofortification; Bioavailability; 25(OH)D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3
17.  Simultaneous Analysis of Wnt and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in Doxorubicin Sensitive and Methotrexate Resistant PLC/ PRF/5 Cells 
Cell Journal (Yakhteh)  2016;17(4):730-739.
Objective
Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a controversial issue in traditional chemo- therapy of aggressive cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The major cause of MDR is suggested to be the aberrant activation of the main signaling pathways such as Wnt and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF- κB) which have key roles in the maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Therefore, the evaluation of their alterations could be essential in chemo-resistant cancers such as Hepatocellular carcinoma. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the alteration of the mentioned pathways in the chemotherapy resistant cancer cells by assessing their major molecular parameters.
Materials and Methods
In this experimental study, methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) and Hoechst 33342 staining, DNA fragmentation and colony formation methods were employed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of methotrexate (MTX) and doxorubicin (DOX) on PLC/PRF/5 cells. Moreover, the expression of 11 important genes involved in MDR was performed by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Results
PLC/PRF/5 cells (Alexander) were sensitive to DOX and normally resist- ant to MTX. In addition, the results obtained from RT-PCR analysis revealed that β-catenin expression was significantly reduced and ABCG2 significantly overex- pressed 4.85 and 3.34 times (P value<0.05) in DOX and MTX treated cells, respec- tively. Furthermore, a considerable expression of HIF-1α and p65 were detected only in MTX-resistant cells.
Conclusion
Anti-cancer drugs may have more than one target in tumor cells. They not only participate in deregulation of Wnt but also alter NF-κB activation. Moreover, HIF-1α was the only anti-apoptotic protein that was significantly induced in the chem- oresistant cells.
PMCID: PMC4746423  PMID: 26862532
Doxorubicin; MDR; Methotrexate; NF-κB; Wnt
18.  Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study 
Background:
To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers.
Materials and Methods:
This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews.
Results:
As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business.
Conclusions:
The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity.
doi:10.4103/1735-9066.174749
PMCID: PMC4776560  PMID: 26985222
Barriers; content analysis; entrepreneurship; nursing; Iran
19.  KIAA0556 is a novel ciliary basal body component mutated in Joubert syndrome 
Genome Biology  2015;16:293.
Background
Joubert syndrome (JBTS) and related disorders are defined by cerebellar malformation (molar tooth sign), together with neurological symptoms of variable expressivity. The ciliary basis of Joubert syndrome related disorders frequently extends the phenotype to tissues such as the eye, kidney, skeleton and craniofacial structures.
Results
Using autozygome and exome analyses, we identified a null mutation in KIAA0556 in a multiplex consanguineous family with hallmark features of mild Joubert syndrome. Patient-derived fibroblasts displayed reduced ciliogenesis potential and abnormally elongated cilia. Investigation of disease pathophysiology revealed that Kiaa0556-/- null mice possess a Joubert syndrome-associated brain-restricted phenotype. Functional studies in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes and cultured human cells support a conserved ciliary role for KIAA0556 linked to microtubule regulation. First, nematode KIAA0556 is expressed almost exclusively in ciliated cells, and the worm and human KIAA0556 proteins are enriched at the ciliary base. Second, C. elegans KIAA0056 regulates ciliary A-tubule number and genetically interacts with an ARL13B (JBTS8) orthologue to control cilium integrity. Third, human KIAA0556 binds to microtubules in vitro and appears to stabilise microtubule networks when overexpressed. Finally, human KIAA0556 biochemically interacts with ciliary proteins and p60/p80 katanins. The latter form a microtubule-severing enzyme complex that regulates microtubule dynamics as well as ciliary functions.
Conclusions
We have identified KIAA0556 as a novel microtubule-associated ciliary base protein mutated in Joubert syndrome. Consistent with the mild patient phenotype, our nematode, mice and human cell data support the notion that KIAA0556 has a relatively subtle and variable cilia-related function, which we propose is related to microtubule regulation.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-015-0858-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13059-015-0858-z
PMCID: PMC4699358  PMID: 26714646
Joubert syndrome; Cilia; KIAA0556; K04F10.2; Microtubule; Katanin; Basal body
20.  Amniotic fluid embolism: an Australian-New Zealand population-based study 
Background
Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a major cause of direct maternal mortality in Australia and New Zealand. There has been no national population study of AFE in either country. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of amniotic fluid embolism in Australia and New Zealand and to describe risk factors, management, and perinatal outcomes.
Methods
A population-based descriptive study using the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System (AMOSS) carried out in 263 eligible sites (>50 births per year) covering an estimated 96 % of women giving birth in Australia and all 24 New Zealand maternity units (100 % of women giving birth in hospitals) between January 1 2010-December 31 2011. A case of AFE was defined either as a clinical diagnosis (acute hypotension or cardiac arrest, acute hypoxia and coagulopathy in the absence of any other potential explanation for the symptoms and signs observed) or as a post mortem diagnosis (presence of fetal squames/debris in the pulmonary circulation).
Results
Thirty-three cases of AFE were reported from an estimated cohort of 613,731women giving birth, with an estimated incidence of 5.4 cases per 100 000 women giving birth (95 % CI 3.5 to 7.2 per 100 000). Two (6 %) events occurred at home whilst 46 % (n = 15) occurred in the birth suite and 46 % (n = 15) in the operating theatre (location not reported in one case). Fourteen women (42 %) underwent either an induction or augmentation of labour and 22 (67 %) underwent a caesarean section. Eight women (24 %) conceived using assisted reproduction technology.
Thirteen (42 %) women required cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 18 % (n = 6) had a hysterectomy and 85 % (n = 28) received a transfusion of blood or blood products. Twenty (61 %) were admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), eight (24 %) were admitted to a High Dependency Unit (HDU) and seven (21 %) were transferred to another hospital for further management. Five woman died (case fatality rate 15 %) giving an estimated maternal mortality rate due to AFE of 0.8 per 100 000 women giving birth (95 % CI 0.1 % to 1.5 %). There were two deaths among 36 infants.
Conclusions
A coordinated emergency response requiring resource intense multi-disciplinary input is required in the management of women with AFE. Although the case fatality rate is lower than in previously published studies, high rates of hysterectomy, resuscitation, and admission to higher care settings reflect the significant morbidity associated with AFE. Active, ongoing surveillance to document the risk factors and short and long-term outcomes of women and their babies following AFE may be helpful to guide best practice, management, counselling and service planning. A potential link between AFE and assisted reproductive technology warrants further investigation.
doi:10.1186/s12884-015-0792-9
PMCID: PMC4690249  PMID: 26703453
Amniotic fluid embolism; Maternal mortality; Postpartum hemorrhage; Blood transfusion; Reproductive techniques; Assisted
21.  Comparison of Gated SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging with Echocardiography for the Measurement of Left Ventricular Volumes and Ejection Fraction in Patients With Severe Heart Failure 
Background:
Gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is known as a feasible tool for the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and volumes, which are of great importance in the management and follow-up of patients with coronary artery diseases. However, considering the technical shortcomings of SPECT in the presence of perfusion defect, the accuracy of this method in heart failure patients is still controversial.
Objectives:
The aim of the present study was to compare the results from gated SPECT MPI with those from echocardiography in heart failure patients to compare echocardiographically-derived left ventricular dimension and function data to those from gated SPECT MPI in heart failure patients.
Patients and Methods:
Forty-one patients with severely reduced left ventricular systolic function (EF ≤ 35%) who were referred for gated SPECT MPI were prospectively enrolled. Quantification of EF, end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) was performed by using quantitative gated spect (QGS) (QGS, version 0.4, May 2009) and emory cardiac toolbox (ECTb) (ECTb, revision 1.0, copyright 2007) software packages. EF, EDV, and ESV were also measured with two-dimensional echocardiography within 3 days after MPI.
Results:
A good correlation was found between echocardiographically-derived EF, EDV, and ESV and the values derived using QGS (r = 0.67, r = 0.78, and r = 0.80 for EF, EDV, and ESV, respectively; P < 0.001) and ECTb (r = 0.68, 0.79, and r = 0.80 for EF, EDV, and ESV, respectively; P < 0.001). However, Bland-Altman plots indicated significantly different mean values for EF, 11.4 and 20.9 using QGS and ECTb, respectively, as compared with echocardiography. ECTb-derived EDV was also significantly higher than the EDV measured with echocardiography and QGS. The highest correlation between echocardiography and gated SPECT MPI was found for mean values of ESV different.
Conclusions:
Gated SPECT MPI has a good correlation with echocardiography for the measurement of left ventricular EF, EDV, and ESV in patients with severe heart failure. However, the absolute values of these functional parameters from echocardiography and gated SPECT MPI measured with different software packages should not be used interchangeably.
doi:10.5812/cardiovascmed.29005
PMCID: PMC4750009  PMID: 26889455
Left Ventricular; Echocardiography; Cardiac-Gated Single-Photon Emission Computer-Assisted Tomography
22.  In search of evidence-based treatment for concussion: characteristics of current clinical trials 
Brain Injury  2014;29(3):300-305.
Abstract
Objective: To assess the characteristics of current clinical trials investigating the treatment of concussion.
Background: Recent systematic literature reviews have concluded that there is minimal evidence to support any specific treatment for concussion, including the principles of return-to-activity protocols such as type or duration of rest.
Design/methods: Clinical trial data was extracted from Clinicaltrials.gov and seven additional World Health Organization primary registries. The trial databases were accessed up until 3 October 2013. This study used search terms of ‘concussion’ or ‘mild traumatic brain injury’ (mTBI) and filtered for interventional trials. Trials that were terminated, already published or not interventional trials of concussion/mTBI were excluded.
Results: Of the 142 concussion/mTBI interventional clinical trials identified, 71 met inclusion criteria. Trials had a median estimated enrolment of 60 participants. There was a wide-range of treatments studied, including cognitive/behavioural therapies (28.2%), medications (28.2%), devices (11.3%), dietary supplements (8.5%), return-to-activity/rest (1.4%) and others (22.4%). Heterogeneity among trials for concussion identification/diagnosis and primary outcomes utilized was evident. Symptom-based questionnaires (39.4%) and neuropsychological tests (28.2%) were the most common outcome measures.
Conclusions: Diverse, potentially promising therapeutics are currently being studied for the treatment of concussion. However, several deficiencies were identified including a paucity of trials addressing return-to-activity principles. Also, small sample size and trial heterogeneity may threaten scientific evaluation and subsequent clinical application.
doi:10.3109/02699052.2014.974673
PMCID: PMC4673567  PMID: 25383510
Brain concussion; brain injuries; clinical trials; post-concussion syndrome; therapeutics
23.  Highly Heterogeneous Probiotic Lactobacillus Species in Healthy Iranians with Low Functional Activities 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(12):e0144467.
Background
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been considered as potentially probiotic organisms due to their potential human health properties. This study aimed to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo, the potential probiotic properties of Lactobacillus species isolated from fecal samples of healthy humans in Iran.
Methods and Results
A total of 470 LAB were initially isolated from 53 healthy individual and characterized to species level. Of these, 88 (86%) were Lactobacillus species. Biochemical and genetic fingerprinting with Phene-Plate system (PhP-LB) and RAPD-PCR showed that the isolates were highly diverse consisted of 67(76.1%) and 75 (85.2%) single types (STs) and a diversity indices of 0.994 and 0.997, respectively. These strains were tested for production of adhesion to Caco-2 cells, antibacterial activity, production of B12, anti-proliferative effect and interleukin-8 induction on gut epithelial cell lines and antibiotic resistance against 9 commonly used antibiotics. Strains showing the characteristics consistent with probiotic strains, were further tested for their anti-inflammatory effect in mouse colitis model. Only one L. brevis; one L. rhamnosus and two L. plantarum were shown to have significant probiotic properties. These strains showed shortening the length of colon compared to dextran sulfate sodium and disease activity index (DAI) was also significantly reduced in mouse.
Conclusion
Low number of LAB with potential probiotic activity as well as high diversity of lactobacilli species was evident in Iranian population. It also suggest that specific strains of L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. rhamnosus with anti-inflammatory effect in mouse model of colitis could be used as a potential probiotic candidate in inflammatory bowel disease to decrease the disease activity index.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144467
PMCID: PMC4672925  PMID: 26645292
24.  Maternal super-obesity and perinatal outcomes in Australia: a national population-based cohort study 
Background
Super-obesity is associated with significantly elevated rates of obstetric complications, adverse perinatal outcomes and interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors, management and perinatal outcomes of super-obese women giving birth in Australia.
Methods
A national population-based cohort study. Super-obese pregnant women (body mass index (BMI) >50 kg/m2 or weight >140 kg) who gave birth between January 1 and October 31, 2010 and a comparison cohort were identified using the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System (AMOSS). Outcomes included maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Prevalence estimates calculated with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression.
Results
370 super-obese women with a median BMI of 52.8 kg/m2 (range 40.9–79.9 kg/m2) and prevalence of 2.1 per 1 000 women giving birth (95 % CI: 1.96–2.40). Super-obese women were significantly more likely to be public patients (96.2 %), smoke (23.8 %) and be socio-economically disadvantaged (36.2 %). Compared with other women, super-obese women had a significantly higher risk for obstetric (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.42, 95 % CI: 1.77–3.29) and medical (AOR: 2.89, 95 % CI: 2.64–4.11) complications during pregnancy, birth by caesarean section (51.6 %) and admission to special care (HDU/ICU) (6.2 %). The 372 babies born to 365 super-obese women with outcomes known had significantly higher rates of birthweight ≥4500 g (AOR 19.94, 95 % CI: 6.81–58.36), hospital transfer (AOR 3.81, 95 % CI: 1.93–7.55) and admission to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) (AOR 1.83, 95 % CI: 1.27–2.65) compared to babies of the comparison group, but not prematurity (10.5 % versus 9.2 %) or perinatal mortality (11.0 (95 % CI: 4.3–28.0) versus 6.6 (95 % CI: 2.6- 16.8) per 1 000 singleton births).
Conclusions
Super-obesity in pregnancy in Australia is associated with increased rates of pregnancy and birth complications, and with social disadvantage. There is an urgent need to further address risk factors leading to super-obesity among pregnant women and for maternity services to better address pre-pregnancy and pregnancy care to reduce associated inequalities in perinatal outcomes.
doi:10.1186/s12884-015-0693-y
PMCID: PMC4667490  PMID: 26628074
Super-obesity; Obesity; Perinatal outcomes; Pregnancy; Maternal socio-economic disadvantage; Obstetric complications
25.  Reduced Short Interval Cortical Inhibition Correlates with Atomoxetine Response in Children with ADHD 
Journal of child neurology  2014;29(12):1672-1679.
Clinical trials in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) show variability in behavioral responses to the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine (ATX). The objective of this study was to determine whether Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)-evoked Short Interval Cortical Inhibition (SICI) might be a biomarker predicting, or correlating with, clinical ATX response. At baseline and after 4 weeks of ATX treatment in 7–12 year old children with ADHD, TMS-SICI was measured, blinded to clinical improvement. Primary analysis was by multivariate ANCOVA. Baseline SICI did not predict clinical responses. However, paradoxically, after 4 weeks of ATX, mean SICI was reduced 31.9% in responders and increased 6.1% in non-responders (ANCOVA t41=2.88; p = .0063). Percent reductions in SICI correlated with reductions in ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHDRS) (r = .50; p = .0005). In children ages 7–12 years with ADHD treated with ATX, improvements in clinical symptoms are correlated with reductions in motor cortex SICI.
doi:10.1177/0883073813513333
PMCID: PMC4092054  PMID: 24413361
Clinical Pharmacology / Clinical Trials; Psychopharmacology; Neuropharmacology; Biological Psychiatry; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation; Atomoxetine; Short Interval Cortical Inhibition

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