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author:("nasreen, S")
1.  Correlation between bone mineral density of jaws and skeletal sites in an Iranian population using dual X-ray energy absorptiometry 
Dental Research Journal  2013;10(4):460-466.
Background:
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the bone density of various regions of jaws and skeletal bones.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 110 patients with a mean age of 55.01 ± 10.77 years were selected for the purpose of the present descriptive study. Dual X-ray Energy Absorptiometry (DXA) was carried out to determine bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur and lumbar vertebrae. Then all the subjects underwent DXA of the jaw bones and BMD values were determined at four jaw regions. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 statistical software, and the correlation between the various BMD values was determined by Pearson's correlation coefficient.
Results:
The results showed that 42.7% of females had normal BMD values in the femur, and in vertebrae, 20% were osteopenic and 37.3% suffered from osteoporosis, with statistically significant differences in the BMD values of the jaws between the three above-mentioned groups (P < 0.001). There was an increasing tendency toward osteopenia and osteoporosis with age. There was a positive correlation between BMD values of the femur and lumbar vertebrae and those of all the jaw regions under study (P < 0.005). There was a negative correlation (P < 0.01) between age and the BMD values of the femur, lumbar vertebrae and anterior maxilla.
Conclusion:
The bone density of the maxilla and mandible and presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia in these bones might reflect the same problem in skeletal bones.
PMCID: PMC3793408  PMID: 24130580
Bone mineral density; dual X-ray energy absorptiometry; jaw bones; osteoporosis; skeletal bones
2.  A Comparative Study on Shoulder Rotational Strength, Range of Motion and Proprioception between the Throwing Athletes and Non-athletic Persons 
Purpose
The repetitive micro traumatic stresses placed on the athletes shoulder joint complex during the throwing motion challenge the surrounding tissues. The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder rotational strength, range of motion and proprioception between the throwing athletes and non-athletic persons.
Methods
Fifteen throwing athletes and 15 non-athletes participated in a nonrandom case – control study. Strength of shoulder rotational movements was tested with a hand held dynamometer. The ranges of internal and external rotation of shoulder were measured by a standard goniometer. The ability of subjects to replicate the target position and kinesthetic sense was examined on the subjects’ right shoulder by using a continuous passive motion device. Independent and paired t tests were used to statistically analyze between and within group differences.
Results
No significant difference was detected on the range of internal rotation between throwing athletes and non-athletic candidates (P=0.3). The range of external rotation was significantly more in athletic subjects (P=0.03). The results also showed that throwing athletes demonstrated a significantly higher isometric strength of shoulder external and internal rotation than the non-athletic group (P<0.05). However, the comparison of the internal and external rotation strength of dominant side in each group showed that throwing athletes showed a significant lower isometric strength of shoulder external rotation than internal rotation (P<0.001). It was also demonstrated higher joint position acuity in the throwing athletes than non athlete subjects (P=0.01).
Conclusion
The repetitive nature of overhead throwing and the high forces that it causes result in adaptive changes of the dominant extremity. Throwing can lead to mobility, strength and neural adaptation.
PMCID: PMC3685158  PMID: 23785574
Throwing Athletes; Muscle Weakness; Mobility Impairment; Proprioception
3.  Microbiota That Affect Risk for Shigellosis in Children in Low-Income Countries 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2015;21(2):242-250.
Co-infection with Shigella spp. and other microbes modifies diarrhea risk.
Pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract exist within a vast population of microbes. We examined associations between pathogens and composition of gut microbiota as they relate to Shigella spp./enteroinvasive Escherichia coli infection. We analyzed 3,035 stool specimens (1,735 nondiarrheal and 1,300 moderate-to-severe diarrheal) from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study for 9 enteropathogens. Diarrheal specimens had a higher number of enteropathogens (diarrheal mean 1.4, nondiarrheal mean 0.95; p<0.0001). Rotavirus showed a negative association with Shigella spp. in cases of diarrhea (odds ratio 0.31, 95% CI 0.17–0.55) and had a large combined effect on moderate-to-severe diarrhea (odds ratio 29, 95% CI 3.8–220). In 4 Lactobacillus taxa identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the association between pathogen and disease was decreased, which is consistent with the possibility that Lactobacillus spp. are protective against Shigella spp.–induced diarrhea. Bacterial diversity of gut microbiota was associated with diarrhea status, not high levels of the Shigella spp. ipaH gene.
doi:10.3201/eid2101.140795
PMCID: PMC4313639  PMID: 25625766
shigellosis; Shigella; bacteria; polymicrobial infection; Escherichia coli; enteroinvasive E. coli; EIEC; Lactobacillus; rotavirus; viruses; co-occurring pathogens; enteropathogens; microbiota; ipaH gene; diarrhea; children; low-income countries
4.  In Vitro Activity of AZD5847 against Geographically Diverse Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
The MIC of the novel antituberculosis (anti-TB) drug AZD5847 was determined against 146 clinical isolates from diverse geographical regions, including eastern Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia, using the automated Bactec Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system. These isolates originated from specimen sources such as sputum, bronchial alveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid, abscess material, lung biopsies, and feces. The overall MIC90 was 1.0 mg/liter (range, 0.125 to 4 mg/liter). The MICs of AZD5847 for isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were similar among drug-sensitive strains, multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains. The good in vitro activity of AZD5847 against M. tuberculosis and the lack of cross-resistance make this agent a promising anti-TB drug candidate.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02718-14
PMCID: PMC4068592  PMID: 24777103
5.  Antimicrobial Activities of Three Medicinal Plants and Investigation of Flavonoids of Tripleurospermum disciforme  
Rosa damascena, Tripleurospermum disciforme and Securigera securidaca were used as disinfectant agents and for treatment of some disease in folk medicine of Iran. The antimicrobial effects of different fractions of seeds extract of S. securidaca, petals extract of R. damascena and aerial parts extract of T. disciforme were examined against some gram positive, gram negative and fungi by cup plate diffusion method. The petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of S. securidaca showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while its methanol fraction had no antibacterial effects. R. damascena petals extract demonstrated antibacterial activities against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. T. disciforme aerial parts extract exhibited antimicrobial effects only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. None of the fractions had any antifungal activities. Therefore, present study confirmed utility of these plants as disinfectant agents. Six flavonoids were isolated from T. disciforme: Luteolin, Quercetin-7-O-glucoside, Kaempferol, Kaempferol-7-O-glucoside, Apigenin and Apigenin-7-O-glucoside. The flavonoids and the antimicrobial activity of T. disciforme are reported for the first time.
PMCID: PMC4277635  PMID: 25561928
Securigera securidaca; Rosa damascena; Tripleurospermum disciforme; antimicrobial activity; Flavonoids
6.  The Effect of Maternal Relaxation Training on Reactivity of Non-Stress Test, Basal Fetal Heart Rate, and Number of Fetal Heart Accelerations: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
Background: Relaxation-training, as an anxiety-reducer intervention, plays an important role in fetal health. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of maternal relaxation on stress test (NST), basal fetal heart rate, and number of fetal heart accelerations.
Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 84 pregnant women were randomly divided into two groups of teaching relaxation and control groups in 2012. In the intervention group, 60-90 minute classes were held every week lasting for 4 weeks. Besides, home practice charts were given to the mothers and researchers controlled the home practices by phone calls every week. The control group received routine prenatal care. In the 4th week, NST was performed in the intervention group 30 minutes before and after the 4th session. In the control group, NST was done in the 4th week. The quantitative variables in the two groups were compared through ANOVA and Chi-square test.
Results: The results of paired t-test showed that relaxation could improve the NST results (P=0.01). Mean and standard deviation of basal fetal heart rate was 138.95±8.18 before the intervention and 133.07±6.9 after the intervention. Paired t-test also showed that relaxation reduced the basal fetal heart rate (P=0.001). Mean and standard deviation of the number of fetal heart accelerations was 1.5±0.8 before the intervention and 2.2±0.9 after it. The results of paired t-test also showed that relaxation increased the number of fetal heart accelerations (P=0.001).
Conclusions: Relaxation could improve the NST results, reduce the basal fetal heart rate, and increase the number of fetal heart accelerations. Therefore, relaxation is recommended during pregnancy.
Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012072810418N1
PMCID: PMC4280557  PMID: 25553334
Accelerations; Fetal Heart; Heart Function Test; Relaxation
7.  Oligonucleotides conjugated with short chemically defined polyethylene glycol chains are efficient antisense agents 
Graphical abstract
Ligand conjugation is an attractive approach to rationally modify the poor pharmacokinetic behavior and cellular uptake properties of antisense oligonucleotides. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) attachment is a method to increase solubility of oligonucleotides and prevent the rapid elimination, thus increasing tissue distribution. On the other hand, the attachment of long PEG chains negatively influences the pharmacodynamic effect by reducing the hybridization efficiency. We examined the use of short PEG ligands on the in vitro effect of antisense agents. Circular dichroism showed that the tethering of PEG12-chains to phosphodiester and phosphorothioate oligonucleotides had no influence on their secondary structure and did not reduce the affinity to the counter strand. In an in vitro tumor model, a luciferase reporter assay indicated unchanged gene silencing activity compared to unmodified compounds, and even slightly superior target down regulation was found after treatment with a phosphorothioate modified conjugate.
doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.10.045
PMCID: PMC4263527  PMID: 25453815
Oligonucleotides; Antisense agents; Bioconjugation; Polyethylene glycol
8.  Association of Helicobacter pylori with central serous chorioretinopathy in Iranian patients 
Aim
This study was conducted to investigate a possible association between H. pylori infection and CSR.
Background
Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infections worldwide. Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSR) is a serious macular detachment that usually affects young people. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is still not completely understood.
Patients and methods
A prospective study was performed and we evaluated a total of 35 CSR patients and control group of138 patients who referred to gastroenterology research center of Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Central serous chorioretinopathy was diagnosed on the basis of findings in ophthalmic examinations and confirmed by fluoresce in angiogram. All patients underwent a 13C-urea breath test (UBT) to detect H. pylori infection. Patients were defined as H. pylori infected, if breath test was positive.
Results
The mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was8.3± 2.5 days. Overall, no statistically significant difference was found between left and right eyes, bilateral CSR was observed in 5 patients (14.2%).The incidence of H. pylori infection was 85.7% in CSR patients and 55.1% in control subjects (p=0.001). Odd's ratio was 4.895.
Conclusion
These results indicate that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is significantly higher in patients with CSR than in controls. No effect of age or sex was seen on H.pylori test results. Further multiple centers, randomized, case control trials are necessary to confirm the potential contributory role of the H. pylori infection in the pathogenesis of CSR as a possible association between infectious agents and endothelial dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC4017553  PMID: 25436099
Central cerouschorioretinopathy; Helicobacter Pylori; Macula; Retina
9.  Effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease on carotid artery intima-media thickness as a risk factor for atherosclerosis 
Aim
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of NAFLD on CIMT as a risk factor for atherosclerosis.
Background
The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide due to rise of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence. Non-invasive assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by high-resolution carotid B-mode ultrasonography is widely used for determining the atherosclerosis.
Patients and methods
In this case-control setting, 151 subjects were categorized in three groups: group I including 49 patients with NAFLD and DM; group II including 50 non-diabetic NAFLD patients; and the control including 52 normal subjects as group III. The right and left CIMTs and its maximum reading (CIMTmax) were measured by a skilled sonographist blind to the groups. The sonographic grading of the NAFLD was determined in group I and II.
Results
Median CIMTmax was significantly higher in group I comparing with group II and control group (p<0.001). This difference between group I and group II was not significant after adjusting for age and history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia (p=0.089). After controlling the confounders, there was statistical significant between group I and group II with the control group (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in median maximal thickness of intima-media in the carotid of group I compare to group II in patients with and without elevated liver enzymes (in both groups, 0.6 mm, p= 0.402).
Conclusion
Based on our findings, there is a significant association between the presence of NAFLD and atherosclerosis. This association was independent to the DM presence. The grade of NAFLD and elevated liver function tests had no effect on severity of atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC4017554  PMID: 25436098
Fatty Liver; Carotid Arteries; Atherosclerosis; Diabetes mellitus
10.  Neonatal Meningitis: Risk Factors, Causes, and Neurologic Complications 
Objective
Neonates are at greater risk for sepsis and meningitis than other ages and in spite of rapid diagnoses of pathogens and treatments, they still contribute to complications and mortality. This study determines risk factors, causes, and neurologic complications of neonatal meningitis in hospitalized neonates.
Material & Methods
In this descriptive, cross sectional study, we evaluated 415 neonates with sepsis and meningitis admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at our center between 2008 and 2012. The data that was recorded was age, sex, birth weight, prenatal risk factors, clinical features, blood and cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and brain sonographic findings and outcomes.
Results
Twenty patients had meningitis. Eleven cases (55%) were male. The mean age was 8. 41 days and mean birth weight was 2891.5±766 grams. Poor feeding, seizures, and tachypnea were detected in 12 (60%), 11 (55%), and 6 (30%) patients, respectively. Prenatal risk factors were prolonged rupture of membranes, maternal vaginitis, asymptomatic bacteriuria, prematurity, low birth weights, and asphyxia. Four patients had positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures with klebsiella pneumoniae 2 (50%), Enterococcus spp. 1 (25%), and Group B streptococcus 1 (25%) cases, respectively. Two cases had positive blood cultures with klebsiella pneumoniae. Neurologic complications were brain edema, subdural effusion, and brain abscesses with hydrocephaly. One neonate (5%) died.
Conclusion
Our study provides some information about risk factors, pathogens, and neurologic complications for neonatal meningitis. Prenatal assessments help to diagnose and reduce risk factors of this hazardous disease.
PMCID: PMC4307368  PMID: 25657770
Neonatal meningitis; Risk factor; Complication
11.  Lack of Nephroprotective Efficacy of Althaea Officinalis Flower Extract Against Gentamicin Renal Toxicity in Male Rats 
Background:
Gentamicin (GM) is used as antibiotic for Gram-negative infections, but its administration is limited due to a side-effect of nephrotoxicity. It was attempted to investigate the effect of Althaea officinalis flower extract (AOFE) against nephrotoxicity induced by GM in male rats.
Methods:
30-year-old male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group 1 as a negative control group received AOFE 250 mg/kg/day. Groups 2-5 received saline, AOFE 50 mg/kg/day, AOFE 250 mg/kg/day, and AOFE 500 mg/kg/day for 9 days, respectively, and GM (100 mg/kg/day) was added from the 3rd day on. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were obtained, animals were sacrificed, and the kidneys were removed immediately.
Results:
Gentamicin (in group 2) significantly increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine as well as the pathological damage score (P < 0.05) when compared with group 1. Low dose of AOFE did not decrease the nephrotoxicity induced by GM while the high dose of AOFE aggravated renal toxicity (P < 0.05).
Conclusions:
Although AOFE acts as an antioxidant, at the doses used in the current study did not ameliorate nephrotoxicity induced by GM.
PMCID: PMC4274541  PMID: 25538830
Gentamicin; Althaea officinalis; nephrotoxicity; rat
12.  Several food items and multiple sclerosis: A case-control study in Ahvaz (Iran) 
Background:
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Despite extensive research, its exact cause is unknown. One of the roles of nurses is discovery and prevention of factors related to the disease. This study aimed to investigate several food items concerning the etiology of MS in a population of Ahvaz (Iran).
Materials and Methods:
This case-control study was conducted on 113 MS patients and 113 healthy women. Food information was collected through interviews using a standard designed questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by adopting descriptive tests (mean, frequency, standard deviation) and inferential tests (Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, logistic regression, and multivariate conditional logistic regression with a significance level of 0.05 and 95% confidence interval) through SPSS version 19.
Results:
Univariate regression analysis showed a significant association between MS and consumption of solid vegetable oil (P = 0.004), fruits (P = 0.002), vegetables (P = 0.016), dates (P = 0.02), and low-fat dairy (P = 0.009) more than five times a week. According to multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, consumption of fruits (P = 0.03) and low-fat dairy (P = 0.04) more than five times a week had a protective role and solid vegetable oil consumption was significantly associated with a risk for MS (P = 0.01).
Conclusions:
This study suggests a protective role of consumption of fruits and low-fat dairy in MS and an increased risk of MS with solid vegetable oil consumption in Ahvaz (Iran).
PMCID: PMC4280733  PMID: 25558266
Case-control study; food items; Iran; multiple sclerosis; nursing
13.  HnRNP C, YB-1 and hnRNP L coordinately enhance skipping of human MUSK exon 10 to generate a Wnt-insensitive MuSK isoform 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:6841.
Muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK) is an essential postsynaptic transmembrane molecule that mediates clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR). MUSK exon 10 is alternatively skipped in human, but not in mouse. Skipping of this exon disrupts a cysteine-rich region (Fz-CRD), which is essential for Wnt-mediated AChR clustering. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of alternative splicing, we exploited block-scanning mutagenesis with human minigene and identified a 20-nucleotide block that contained exonic splicing silencers. Using RNA-affinity purification, mass spectrometry, and Western blotting, we identified that hnRNP C, YB-1 and hnRNP L are bound to MUSK exon 10. siRNA-mediated knockdown and cDNA overexpression confirmed the additive, as well as the independent, splicing suppressing effects of hnRNP C, YB-1 and hnRNP L. Antibody-mediated in vitro protein depletion and scanning mutagenesis additionally revealed that binding of hnRNP C to RNA subsequently promotes binding of YB-1 and hnRNP L to the immediate downstream sites and enhances exon skipping. Simultaneous tethering of two splicing trans-factors to the target confirmed the cooperative effect of YB-1 and hnRNP L on hnRNP C-mediated exon skipping. Search for a similar motif in the human genome revealed nine alternative exons that were individually or coordinately regulated by hnRNP C and YB-1.
doi:10.1038/srep06841
PMCID: PMC4213890  PMID: 25354590
14.  Prevalence of microcytosis in neonates: a cross-sectional study in Tehran 
Background: Identification of α thalassemia (α thal) a common cause of microcytosis during neonatal periods is an important step prevent unnecessary interventions. Thus, low the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) may consider as α-thalassemia key detection points. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of microcytosis among neonates who born in Tehran, Iran.
Methods: Cord blood samples were collected from 1001 newborns after birth in labor room and their red blood cell parameters were investigated.
Results: MCV was 114.2 fl (95% CI: 113.5-114.9) and twenty three neonates (2.3%) had MCV less than 94 fL that classified as microcytosis and 4 (0.40%) had both low MCH and MCV.
Conclusion: Low MCV especially in normal Hb newborns may hints for α thal detection.
PMCID: PMC4313453
Thalassemia; mean corpuscular hemoglobin; microcytosis; Hb Barts
15.  The risk of osteoporotic fractures and its associating risk factors according to the FRAX model in the Iranian patients: a follow-up cohort 
Background
The present study is designed to assess the incidence rate of osteoporotic fracture and its risk factors, particularly those used to predict the 10-year risk of osteoporotic fracture in FRAX based on the data gathered through a follow up cohort initiated in 2000.
Methods
The present retrospective cohort was conducted on men and women from 40 to 90 years of age enrolled in the IROSTEOPs study. A phone survey was conducted during 2013 and beginning of 2014 to assess the fractures (traumatic/osteoporotic) occurring at the time of inclusion until the date of the telephone survey, its type and mechanism, and the patient’s age at the time of accident. Survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was performed with the time of fracture as the study outcome.
Results
Final study population consisted of 1233 individuals, translated in to 9133 person years. The incidence rate of osteoporotic fracture was reported to be 359.1 cases in every 10,000 person years. The 10-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of any kind of major osteoporotic fractures for all the subcohort population was 10.75%. Osteoporosis (HR = 0.75), Discordance between femoral neck and spine (HR = 1.45), Diabetes (HR = 1.81), IBD (HR = 1.84), immobility more than 90 days (HR = 2.19), and personal history of fracture (HR = 7.75) had a considerable effect on the 10-year risk of major osteoporotic fractures.
Conclusions
Adding new clinical risk factors to FRAX® may help improve fracture prediction in the Iranian population.
doi:10.1186/s40200-014-0093-2
PMCID: PMC4209052  PMID: 25349839
Fracture; FRAX; Major osteoporotic fracture
16.  Cholestasis progression effects on long-term memory in bile duct ligation rats 
Background:
There is evidence that cognitive functions are affected by some liver diseases such as cholestasis. Bile duct ligation induces cholestasis as a result of impaired liver function and cognition. This research investigates the effect of cholestasis progression on memory function in bile duct ligation rats.
Materials and Methods:
Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, which include: control group for BDL-7, control group for BDL-21, sham group (underwent laparotomy without bile duct ligation), BDL-7 group (7 days after bile duct ligation), and BDL-21 group (21 days after bile duct ligation). Step-through passive avoidance test was employed to examine memory function. In all groups, short-term (7 days after foot shock) and long-term memories (21 days after foot shock) were assessed.
Results:
Our results showed that liver function significantly decreased with cholestasis progression (P < 0.01). Also our findings indicated BDL-21 significantly impaired acquisition time (P < 0.05). Memory retrieval impaired 7 (P < 0.05) and 21 days (P < 0.001) after foot shock in BDL-7 and BDL-21 groups, respectively.
Conclusion:
Based on these findings, liver function altered in cholestasis and memory (short-term and long-term memory) impaired with cholestasis progression in bile duct ligation rats. Further studies are needed to better insight the nature of progression of brain damage in cholestatic disease.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.143263
PMCID: PMC4219212  PMID: 25371872
Cholestasis; learning; memory; rat
17.  Tacrolimus ameliorates functional disturbances and oxidative stress in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction 
Background
The inflammatory responses play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Early inhibition of inflammation may improve post MI cardiac function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tacrolimus on cardiac function, hemodynamic parameters as well as histopathologic and electrocardiographic changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction.
Methods
Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of control, isoproterenol alone, tacrolimus alone, and isoproterenol plus tacrolimus (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg). Isoproterenol (100 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously for two consecutive days to induce myocardial infarction, and simultaneously tacrolimus was administered orally twice a day for three days.
Results and conclusions
Administration of isoproterenol resulted in myocardial edema and necrosis as well as a marked reduction in the left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular contractility (LVdP/dtmax) and relaxation (LVdP/dtmin) along with a severe elevation in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Isoproterenol also elevated the ST-segment and suppressed the R-amplitude and R-R interval on ECG. It was found that all doses of tacrolimus could amend the ECG pattern and ameliorated the isoproterenol induced disturbances in cardiac function. Acute and short term treatment with tacrolimus at dose of 2 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.001) improved LVdP/dtmax from 2712 ± 82 in myocardial infarcted rats to 4592 ± 149 mmHg/sec. Similarly, tacrolimus lowered LVEDP from 17.6 ± 0.68 in MI group to the value of 5.6 ± 0.22 mmHg (P < 0.001). Furthermore, tacrolimus was found to reduce malondialdehyde concentration in serum and myocardium by 50-70% (P < 0.001).
The results of this study showed that acute treatment with tacrolimus, coincided with the occurrence of myocardial infarction, strongly protected the myocardium against the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction; where this might be due to the anti-inflammatory properties of tacrolimus.
doi:10.1186/s40199-014-0068-3
PMCID: PMC4201681  PMID: 25312839
Tacrolimus; Myocardial infarction; Isoproterenol; Electrocardiography
18.  Attitudes of Obstetricians toward Cesarean Delivery in Challenging Cases 
Objective
To assess the behavior and preferred delivery method among Iranian obstetricians in challenging cases.
Method
Using the revised Jackson personality inventory questionnaire, the attitudes of obstetricians toward cesarean delivery were assessed in challenging childbirth cases. The study was conducted at the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in Mashhad, Iran.
Result
Seventy-five obstetricians answered each item reflecting varying levels of preference and risk attitudes. However, a significant number of respondents avoided the risk of requesting a cesarean because of legislation and legal issues.
Conclusion
Iranian obstetricians prefer low-risk behavior for managing ambiguous delivery cases. Fear of legislation and medicolegal issues appear to be of great importance in this cohort primarily comprising female physicians.
doi:10.1007/s13224-013-0401-7
PMCID: PMC3798444  PMID: 24431663
Cesarean delivery; Risk attitude; Ambiguous cases
19.  The Characteristics of Rare Codon Clusters in the Genome and Proteins of Hepatitis C Virus; a Bioinformatics Look 
BACKGROUND
Recent studies suggest that rare codon clusters are functionally important for protein activity.
METHODS
Here, for the first time we analyzed and reported rare codon clusters in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genome and then identified the location of these rare codon clusters in the structure of HCV protein. This analysis was performed using the Sherlocc program that detects statistically relevant conserved rare codon clusters.
RESULTS
By this program, we identified the rare codon cluster in three regions of HCV genome; NS2, NS3, and NS5A coding sequence of HCV genome. For further understanding of the role of these rare codon clusters, we studied the location of these rare codon clusters and critical residues in the structure of NS2, NS3 and NS5A proteins. We identified some critical residues near or within rare codon clusters. It should be mentioned that characteristics of these critical residues such as location and situation of side chains are important in assurance of the HCV life cycle.
CONCLUSION
The characteristics of these residues and their relative status showed that these rare codon clusters play an important role in proper folding of these proteins.
Thus, it is likely that these rare codon clusters may have an important role in the function of HCV proteins. This information is helpful in development of new avenues for vaccine and treatment protocols.
PMCID: PMC4208930  PMID: 25349685
HCV genome; NS2,NS3 and NS5A proteins; Rare codon cluster; Sherlocc program; Ribosomal pauses
20.  Assessment of Knee Proprioception in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Position in Healthy Subjects: A Cross-sectional Study 
Journal of Physical Therapy Science  2014;26(10):1515-1518.
[Purpose] Knee joint proprioception combines sensory input from a variety of afferent receptors that encompasses the sensations of joint position and motion. Poor proprioception is one of the risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Most studies have favored testing knee joint position sense in the sagittal plane and non-weight-bearing position. One of the most common mechanisms of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury is dynamic knee valgus. No study has measured joint position sense in a manner relevant to the mechanism of injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure knee joint position sense in the noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position and normal condition. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy male athletes participated in the study. Joint position sense was evaluated by active reproduction of the anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position and normal condition. The dominant knees of subjects were tested. [Results] The results showed less accurate knee joint position sense in the noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position rather than the normal condition. [Conclusion] The poorer joint position sense in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position compared with the normal condition may contribute to the increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury.
doi:10.1589/jpts.26.1515
PMCID: PMC4210385  PMID: 25364100
Anterior cruciate ligament; Proprioception; Injury risk position
21.  Comparison between Conventional Blind Embryo Transfer and Embryo Transfer Based on Previously Measured Uterine Length 
Background
Embryo transfer (ET) is one of the most important steps in assisted re- productive technology (ART) cycles and affected by many factors namely the depth of embryo deposition in uterus. In this study, the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injec- tion (ICSI) cycles after blind embryo transfer and embryo transfer based on previously measured uterine length using vaginal ultrasound were compared.
Materials and Methods
This prospective randomised clinical trial included one hun- dred and forty non-donor fresh embryo transfers during January 2010 to June 2011. In group I, ET was performed using conventional (blind) method at 5-6cm from the external os, and in group II, ET was done at a depth of 1-1.5 cm from the uterine fundus based on previously measured uterine length using vaginal sonography. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t test and Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. The software that we used was PASW statistics version 18. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results
Chemical pregnancy rate was 28.7% in group I and 42.1% in group II, while the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.105). Clinical pregnancy, ongoing preg- nancy and implantation rates for group I were 21.2%, 17.7%, and 12.8%, while for group II were 33.9%, 33.9%, and 22.1, respectively. In group I and group II, abortion rates were 34.7% and 0%, respectively, indicating a statistically significant difference (p<0.005). No ectopic pregnancy occurred in two groups.
Conclusion
The use of uterine length measurement during treatment cycle in order to place embryos at depth of 1-1.5cm from fundus significantly increases clinical and ongo- ing pregnancy and implantation rates, while leads to a decrease in abortion rate (Registra- tion Number: IRCT2014032512494N1).
PMCID: PMC4221510  PMID: 25379152
Ultrasound; Embryo Transfer; Uterine
22.  Content Analysis of Food Advertising in Iranian Children's Television Programs 
Background:
Advertisements can influence children's health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children's television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000.
Methods:
All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children's programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007-8. For each advertisement, type of product(s) and mode of presentation (s) were coded.
Results:
A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted. Food commercials were the most frequent group (31%) across the two channels. Among the food products advertised, calorie dense foods, including chocolate, soft drinks, extruded cereals, ice cream, cookies and candies were the most frequent. The appeal mainly used in television food advertisements was “stimulation of hunger/thirst” (38.5%). The advertisements were mostly presented as animations (54%) and the messages used were mainly directed to good taste.
Conclusion:
Although the total number of food advertisements during children's television programs has decreased but the consumption of high fat, high sugar, low nutrient dense foods continues to be promoted. Policies to address the issue should be scrutinized.
PMCID: PMC4223955  PMID: 25400894
Advertisements; child; food; television
23.  Treatment results of high dose cabergoline as an adjuvant therapy in six patients with established severe ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome 
Background: The beneficial role of cabergoline as a prophylactic agent to prevent ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS) among high-risk patients has been demonstrated in previous studies. But data for its role as a treatment for established severe OHSS is still limited. We represent the treatment results of high dose oral cabergoline in management of six patients after the syndrome is established.
Case: High-dose oral cabergoline (1 mg daily for eight days) was prescribed as an adjuvant to symptomatic treatment for six hospitalized patients with established severe OHSS following infertility treatment cycles. In two cases OHSS resolved rapidly despite the occurrence of ongoing pregnancy.
Conclusion: Considering the treatment outcomes of our patients, high dose cabergoline did not eliminate the need for traditional treatments, but it was a relatively effective and safe therapy in management of established severe OHSS, and prevented the increase in its severity following the occurrence of pregnancy.
PMCID: PMC4248158  PMID: 25469130
Ovarianhyperstimulationsyndrome; Cabergoline; Paracentesis; Ovulationinduction; Invitrofertilization
24.  Moral Distress in Physicians Practicing in Hospitals Affiliated to Medical Sciences Universities 
Background:
Researchers have regarded moral distress as a major concern in the health care system. Symptoms associated with moral distress may manifest as frustration, dissatisfaction, and anxiety and may lead to burnout, job leaving, and finally, failure to provide safe and competent care to patients. Proper management of this phenomenon can be fulfilled through study of its causes at different levels of health services and taking necessary measures to solve them.
Objectives:
This study aimed to determine the status of moral distress in physicians practicing in hospitals affiliated to Medical Sciences Universities in Tehran.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study was carried out using the Standard Hamric Scale to collect data after modification and evaluation of its reliability and validity. A total of 399 physicians responded to the scale. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and correlation statistics with respect to the variables.
Results:
Results showed that the frequency of moral distress of physicians was 1.24 ± 0.63 and the intensity of moral distress and composite score of moral distress were 2.14 ± 0.80 and 2.94 ± 2.38, respectively. A significant negative correlation existed between age and frequency and composite score (r = -0.15, P < 0.01 and r = -0.16, P < 0.01, respectively) as well as years of experience and composite score (r = -0.11, P = 0.04). Moral distress composite score in adults specialists was higher than pediatricians (P = 0.002), but lower in physicians participated in medical ethics training courses compared to those not participated.
Conclusions:
Physicians may encounter moral distress during their practice; therefore, the common causes of distress should be identified in order to prevent its occurrence.
doi:10.5812/ircmj.18797
PMCID: PMC4270679  PMID: 25558387
Physicians; Hospitals; Medical Ethics
25.  Characterization of Niphatenones that Inhibit Androgen Receptor N-Terminal Domain 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e107991.
Androgen ablation therapy causes a temporary reduction in tumor burden in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Unfortunately the malignancy will return to form lethal castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC). The androgen receptor (AR) remains transcriptionally active in CRPC in spite of castrate levels of androgens in the blood. AR transcriptional activity resides in its N-terminal domain (NTD). Possible mechanisms of continued AR transcriptional activity may include, at least in part, expression of constitutively active splice variants of AR that lack the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD). Current therapies that target the AR LBD, would not be effective against these AR variants. Currently no drugs are clinically available that target the AR NTD which should be effective against these AR variants as well as full-length AR. Niphatenones were originally isolated and identified in active extracts from Niphates digitalis marine sponge. Here we begin to characterize the mechanism of niphatenones in blocking AR transcriptional activity. Both enantiomers had similar IC50 values of 6 µM for inhibiting the full-length AR in a functional transcriptional assay. However, (S)-niphatenone had significantly better activity against the AR NTD compared to (R)-niphatenone. Consistent with niphatenones binding to and inhibiting transactivation of AR NTD, niphatenones inhibited AR splice variant. Niphatenone did not affect the transcriptional activity of the related progesterone receptor, but slightly decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity and covalently bound to GR activation function-1 (AF-1) region. Niphatenone blocked N/C interactions of AR without altering either AR protein levels or its intracellular localization in response to androgen. Alkylation with glutathione suggests that niphatenones are not a feasible scaffold for further drug development.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107991
PMCID: PMC4182434  PMID: 25268119

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