The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the bone density of various regions of jaws and skeletal bones.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 110 patients with a mean age of 55.01 ± 10.77 years were selected for the purpose of the present descriptive study. Dual X-ray Energy Absorptiometry (DXA) was carried out to determine bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur and lumbar vertebrae. Then all the subjects underwent DXA of the jaw bones and BMD values were determined at four jaw regions. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 statistical software, and the correlation between the various BMD values was determined by Pearson's correlation coefficient.
The results showed that 42.7% of females had normal BMD values in the femur, and in vertebrae, 20% were osteopenic and 37.3% suffered from osteoporosis, with statistically significant differences in the BMD values of the jaws between the three above-mentioned groups (P < 0.001). There was an increasing tendency toward osteopenia and osteoporosis with age. There was a positive correlation between BMD values of the femur and lumbar vertebrae and those of all the jaw regions under study (P < 0.005). There was a negative correlation (P < 0.01) between age and the BMD values of the femur, lumbar vertebrae and anterior maxilla.
The bone density of the maxilla and mandible and presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia in these bones might reflect the same problem in skeletal bones.
Bone mineral density; dual X-ray energy absorptiometry; jaw bones; osteoporosis; skeletal bones
The repetitive micro traumatic stresses placed on the athletes shoulder joint complex during the throwing motion challenge the surrounding tissues. The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder rotational strength, range of motion and proprioception between the throwing athletes and non-athletic persons.
Fifteen throwing athletes and 15 non-athletes participated in a nonrandom case – control study. Strength of shoulder rotational movements was tested with a hand held dynamometer. The ranges of internal and external rotation of shoulder were measured by a standard goniometer. The ability of subjects to replicate the target position and kinesthetic sense was examined on the subjects’ right shoulder by using a continuous passive motion device. Independent and paired t tests were used to statistically analyze between and within group differences.
No significant difference was detected on the range of internal rotation between throwing athletes and non-athletic candidates (P=0.3). The range of external rotation was significantly more in athletic subjects (P=0.03). The results also showed that throwing athletes demonstrated a significantly higher isometric strength of shoulder external and internal rotation than the non-athletic group (P<0.05). However, the comparison of the internal and external rotation strength of dominant side in each group showed that throwing athletes showed a significant lower isometric strength of shoulder external rotation than internal rotation (P<0.001). It was also demonstrated higher joint position acuity in the throwing athletes than non athlete subjects (P=0.01).
The repetitive nature of overhead throwing and the high forces that it causes result in adaptive changes of the dominant extremity. Throwing can lead to mobility, strength and neural adaptation.
Throwing Athletes; Muscle Weakness; Mobility Impairment; Proprioception
Some degree rotation of the gravid uterus in the third trimester of pregnancy is not an abnormal finding. However, extreme uterine torsion of 180° around its cervical junction is a relatively rare event in obstetrical practice. We report here such a case that detected at laparotomy for an emergency cesarean section due to rapture of amniotic membrane.
Uterine torsion; Pregnancy; Caesarean; Uterus
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) (and NMO spectrum disorder) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the CNS primarily affecting spinal cord and optic nerves. Reliable and sensitive biomarkers for onset, relapse, and progression in NMO are urgently needed because of the heterogeneous clinical presentation, severity of neurologic disability following relapses, and variability of therapeutic response. Detecting aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies (AQP4-IgG or NMO-IgG) in serum supports the diagnosis of seropositive NMO. However, whether AQP4-IgG levels correlate with disease activity, severity, response to therapy, or long-term outcomes is unclear. Moreover, biomarkers for patients with seronegative NMO have yet to be defined and validated. Collaborative international studies hold great promise for establishing and validating biomarkers that are useful in therapeutic trials and clinical management. In this review, we discuss known and potential biomarkers for NMO.
Colonization of the human and animal intestinal tract with potential pathogenic bacteria is correlated with the risk of contamination of food products. The current study analyzed the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli O157H7 in ground meat in Ilam, Iran.
Both index organisms were identified following standard food microbiological methods. For E. faecalis, the susceptibility to vancomycin was tested, and PCR was used to check for the vanA gene.
E. faecalis was present in all 24 ground meat samples, with no E. coli O157H7 detected in samples. The analysis showed the presence of the vanA gene in 5/24 vancomycin resistant enterococci.
In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrates the presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in ground meat in Iran. This observation warrants further epidemiologic investigation and should be followed up in the future.
Enterococcus faecalis; VRE; Escherichia coli O157H7; ground meat; food; Iran
Objective: To determine the effects of Ramadan fasting on serum levels of stress neurohormones in Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Materials and methods: This study was a clinical trial and was performed during July 2011 (month of Ramadan) in Royan institute, Tehran. A total of 40 women who were aged 20-40 years and known cases of PCOS and had no other medical diseases were included in the study. They were divided into two groups as follows: (i) study group (n = 20) who participated in Ramadan fasting and (ii) control group (n = 20) who did not participate in fasting. For evaluating Ramadan’s effect on the level of neurohormones serum level of the following variables were evaluated before and after Ramadan: cortisol, adrenaline (A), noradrenalin (NA), beta-endorphin (β-End), insulin, as well as sex hormones including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone.
Results: In the study group after Ramadan serum cortisol and nor-adrenaline levels were significantly lower than the initial levels obtained at beginning of Ramadan (p < 0.05) as compared to control group.
Conclusion: This study indicates that Ramadan fasting decreases stress neurohormones in women with PCOS.
Ramadan Fasting; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS); Cortisol; Adrenaline; Noradrenaline
The survival rates of preterm infants has increased over the last years, but oral feeding difficulties are the most common problems encountered by them
This study aimed at comparing the effects of non-nutritive sucking (NNS) and pre-feeding oral stimulation on feeding skills, length of hospital stay and weight gain of 26-32 weeks gestational age preterm infants in NICU, to determine the more effective intervention.
Patients and Methods:
Thirty-two preterm infants were assigned randomly into three groups. One intervention group received pre-feeding oral stimulation program and the other received non-nutritive sucking stimulation, while the control group received a sham intervention. Gestational age of infants was calculated during 1, 4 and 8 oral feeding and discharge time from NICU. The infants’ weights were measured weekly from birth and at discharge time.
Mean gestational age on 8 time oral feeding per day, in 3 groups was not significant (P = 0.282). Although NNS and pre-feeding oral stimulation groups has fulfilled this criterion 7.55 and 6.07 days sooner than the control group, respectively (a result which is of great clinical and economic importance), but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Weight gaining at discharge time in NNS group was significantly higher than control and pre-feeding oral stimulation groups (P < 0.05).
This study revealed that pre-feeding oral stimulation and NNS programs both were effective on oral feeding skills and weight gaining of the immature newborns. Yet, it seems that NNS program was more effective than pre-feeding oral stimulation on weight gaining.
Infant, Premature; Length of Stay; Weights
Kaempferia galanga is an important medicinal plant and has been traditionally used to help restlessness, stress, anxiety, depression etc. in tropics and subtropics of Asia including Bangladesh, India, China, Japan and Indochina. Literature survey revealed that there are very less reports on neuropharmacological activity of this plant. Therefore, the present study investigated the sedative activity of different extracts of rhizome and leaf of Kaempferia galanga.
The sedative activity was evaluated by using thiopental sodium induced sleeping time, hole cross and open field tests in Swiss albino mice at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight per oral (p.o). The acetone extract of rhizome (ACR), as well as petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), methanol fraction (MEF) and acetone extract of leaf (ACL) were examined for sedative activity.
In the sedative activity study, all the extracts exhibited significant (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001) reduction of onset and duration of thiopental sodium induced sleeping time, reduction of locomotor and exploratory activities in the hole cross and open field tests. In thiopental sodium induced sleeping time test, the chloroform extract of rhizome (200 mg/kg) showed maximum 358.55 % effect in duration of loss of righting reflex, whereas the standard drug Diazepam (2 mg/kg) produced 231.42 % effect. In hole cross and open field tests, maximum 95.09 % and 95.58 % suppression of locomotor activity were observed with the acetonic leaf extract (200 mg/kg) whereas suppression of locomotor activity of the standard drug Diazepam were 71.70 % and 70.58 % respectively.
The present study indicates that the acetone extracts of rhizome and leaf of Kaempferia galanga including fractions possess central nervous system (CNS) depressant properties which supports its use in traditional medicine. So, the plant may be further investigated to find out for its pharmacological active natural products.
Kaempferia galanga; Zingiberaceae; Thiopental sodium induced sleeping time test; Hole cross test; Open field test
How to train nurses to provide spiritual care, as one of the basic competencies of nursing, based on patient's perception and culture has been considered highly important. Although nurses’ training is recommended in this area, few researches have studied the format of such programs. This study is conducted with the aim of introducing the training course of spiritual care and determining its effectiveness on nursing students’ self-efficacy in providing spiritual care.
Materials and Methods:
The method of this study was of a pre-post interventional research. Senior students (n = 30) of the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, passing the training course in the field, were chosen as the studied sample. Study intervention was the implementation of the designed curriculum based on nursing books, focusing on providing the spiritual care for patients. The dependent variable of the study was the students’ self-efficacy feeling in providing spiritual care to the patients. A researcher-madequestionnaire, as well as the pre-post interventional tests, was used, then, to assess this variable. By means of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, data were analyzed, and the level of significance was considered at P <0.05.
The findings of the study showed that self-efficacy mean score of nursing students in providing spiritual care in the pretest was 13.74, showing the average level of perceived self-efficacy. The students’ self-efficacy mean, after participating in the training spiritual care programs, however, changed to 21.1, indicating the increased level of self-efficacy. Results of paired t-test, also, showed that self-efficacy mean score of the study samples has significantly increased in the posttest, compared with the pretest.
Discussion and Conclusion:
According to these findings, it can be concluded that based on this designated curriculum, students have a chance of getting acquaintance with some concepts as: Spirituality and spiritual care, identifying the spiritual needs of patients, and designing a care plan to meet these requirements. These factors, therefore, have a great impact on students’ effectiveness in providing spiritual care for patients.
Curriculum; nursing students; self-efficacy; spiritual care
Diarrheal disease remains a leading cause of illness and death, particularly in low-income countries. Its burden, microbiological causes and risk factors were examined in children aged 0–59 months living in Manhiça, rural southern Mozambique.
Trends of diarrhea-related burden of disease were estimated during the period 2001–2012. A prospective, age-stratified and matched (by age, gender and geographical origin), case-control study was conducted during 2007–2011. Clinical, epidemiology, anthropometric measurement and fecal samples obtained from recruited children were used to estimate moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) weighted attributable fractions.
Over the last decade the incidence of acute diarrhea has dropped by about 80%. Incidence of MSD per 100 child years at risk for the period 2007–2011 was 9.85, 7.73 and 2.10 for children aged 0–11, 12–23 and 24–59 months respectively. By adjusted population attributable fractions, most cases of MSD were due to rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, ETEC ST (ST only or ST/LT), Shigella and Adenovirus 40/41. Washing hands and having facilities to dispose child’s stools were associated with a reduced risk of MSD, while giving stored water to the child was associated with an increased risk of MSD.
Despite the predominantly decreasing trends observed throughout the last decade, diarrheal diseases remain today a major cause of morbidity among children aged 0–59 months living in this rural Mozambican area. Rotavirus, cryptosporidium, Shigella, ETEC ST and Adenovirus 40/41 were the most important aetiologies of MSD. Thus, well-known preventive strategies such as washing hands, improving the treatment of stored water, having facilities to dispose children stools, and accelerating the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine should be promoted on a wider scale to reduce the current burden of diarrheal diseases.
In a recent cross-sectional investigation, we reported the intellectual function of adolescents (aged 14 and 15 years) in Bangladesh who had been exposed to arsenic (As). Here, we report a consecutive investigation on the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 408 children who are living in the Sonargoan Thana of Bangladesh (two age groups: 9 and 10 years; 4 and 5 years) were exposed to high levels of As in the groundwater.
Urine and water samples were collected to assess As exposure. The IQ of the children was estimated using the Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Information on parents’ socioeconomic status (SES) was collected as confounding factors.
The results indicate that As exposure was responsible for a lower IQ. The concentration of urinary As ([As]u) was associated with reduced intellectual function in a dose–response manner. A stronger association was found between reduced intellectual function (IQ) and [As]u than the level of As in the drinking water [As]w. There was no association between verbal IQ scores and [As]u of children in early childhood (aged 4 and 5 years).
Based on these results, we conclude that current levels of As in the urine ([As]u), which we considered to reflect recent exposure to As from all possible sources, including groundwater, food, among others, were negatively associated to the IQ of the children tested, and that this adverse effect of As may also gradually accumulate over time among the poor.
Arsenic; Children; Groundwater; Intelligence quotient
Glycemic control prevents microvascular complications in patients with type I diabetes mellitus such as retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy that influences quality of life. Some studies show the immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D in synthesis and secretion of insulin.
In this study we evaluate glycemic changes after vitamin D3 supplement in children with type I diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency.
Materials and Methods:
In children with type I diabetes mellitus, level of vitamin D and HbA1C was measured. Patients with type I diabetes mellitus who had vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 50 nmol/lit) treated with 300,000 units of vitamin D3. Calcium supplement (40mg/kg/day) divided in two doses in order to avoid hungry bone was also used. After three months, 25OHD and HbA1C were measured again. Differences, in mean ± SD HbA1C and 25OHD were evaluated before and after the study.
Mean ± SD HbA1C was 9.73±1.85 before the study which was diminished to 8.55±1.91 after vitamin D3 supplement treatment. This decline has a significant difference (p-value < 0.0001). Mean ± SD 25OHD was 17.33±8.97 nmol/lit before the study which is increased to 39.31±14.38 nmol/lit after treatment with vitamin D3 supplement. This increase also has a significant difference (p-value < 0.0001). Vitamin D3 supplement causes the improvement of HbA1C in all groups of glycemic control including HbA1C <7.8, 7.8-9.9, and >9.9. This supplement transfer patients toward better glycemic control for the entire group (p-value < 0.0001).
Vitamin D3 supplement improves HbA1C in pediatrics with type I diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency.
Children; Glycemic changes; HbA1C; 25OHD
Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed. Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%). However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320). Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively). Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001). Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004). Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts.
Suicide; Psychiatry; Suicide, Attempted; Iran
Preeclampsia is an important pregnancy disorder with serious maternal and fetal complications which its etiology has not been completely understood yet. Early diagnosis and management of disease could reduce its potential side effects. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family including VEGF-A is the most potent endothelial growth factor which induces angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation and has basic role in vasculogenesis. VEGF and its tyrosine kinase receptors (Flt1 and KDR) are major factors for fetal and placental angiogenic development. Finding mechanisms involved in expression of angiogenic factors may lead to new prognostic and therapeutic points in management of preeclampsia. Recent researches, has shown capability of some anti-angiogenic factors as potential candidate to be used as early predictors for preeclampsia. Soluble fms-like tyrosin kinase-1 (sFlt1) is a truncated splice variant of the membrane-bound VEGF receptor Flt1, that is produced by the placenta and it can bind to angiogenic growth factors and neutraliz, their effects. It is also observed that the ratio of sFlt1 to placental growth factor is valuable as prognostic marker. In this review, VEGF family member’s role in angiogenesis is evaluated as biomarkers to be used for prediction of preeclampsia.
Preeclampsia; Angiogenic proteins; Biomarker; Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A); Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1)
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AP183 expresses secondary metabolites that inhibit the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Here, we present a ~3.99-Mbp draft genome sequence of AP183 with the aims of providing insights into the genomic basis of its antibacterial mechanisms and exploring its potential use in preventing MRSA skin colonization.
This study was conducted to identify dietary patterns and evaluated their association with biochemical blood profiles and body weight among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
This was a cross sectional study conducted among 400 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran from March to August 2013. Biochemical blood profiles, socio-demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, and dietary data were obtained. Dietary data from food frequency questionnaire were used to derive dietary patterns. Factor analysis was conducted to ascertain the dietary patterns, and analysis of covariance was fitted to assess the relation between blood profiles, body weight and adherence to dietary patterns.
Three dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified, Vegetable & Poultry, Western and Semi-healthy. After control for potential confounders, body mass index (b = −0/03, p < 0.05) were negatively associated with vegetable and poultry dietary pattern. Conversely, total cholesterol (b = 0.004, p < 0.01) and fasting blood glucose (b = 0.014, p < 0.05) were positively associated with western dietary pattern. A dietary pattern labeled as semi-healthy pattern was found to be positively related to HDL-cholesterol (b = 0.006 p < 0.01). Associations between semi-healthy pattern, LDL-cholesterol (b = −0.120 p < 0.05) and waist circumference (b = −0.020, p < 0.05) were negative.
Adherence to Vegetable & Poultry dietary pattern was favorably related to body weight, semi healthy related to lower LDL and higher HDL cholesterol whereas western related to higher fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol. Further studies are necessary to confirm the benefits of the dietary patterns for diabetes.
Dietary pattern; Factor analysis; Diabetes mellitus; Food frequency questionnaire
To determine the efficacy of oral supplementation of the gut enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) in preventing antibiotic-associated infections from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Clostridium difficile.
Summary background data
The intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in human health and well-being. Antibiotics inherently cause dysbiosis, an imbalance in the number and composition of intestinal commensal bacteria, which leads to susceptibility to opportunistic bacterial infections. Previously, we have shown that IAP preserves the normal homeostasis of intestinal microbiota and that oral supplementation with calf IAP (cIAP) rapidly restores the normal gut flora. We hypothesized that oral IAP supplementation would protect against antibiotic-associated bacterial infections.
C57BL/6 mice were treated with antibiotic(s) +/− cIAP in the drinking water followed by oral gavage of S. Typhimurium or C. difficile. Mice were observed for clinical conditions and mortality. After a defined period of time mice were sacrificed and investigated for hematological, inflammatory and histological changes.
We observed that oral supplementation with cIAP during antibiotic treatment protects mice from infections with S. Typhimurium as well as C. difficile. Animals given IAP maintained their weight, had reduced clinical severity and gut inflammation, and improved survival.
Oral IAP supplementation protected mice from antibiotic-associated bacterial infections. We postulate that oral IAP supplementation could represent a novel therapy to protect against antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD), and other enteric infections in humans.
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea; bacterial pathogenesis; Clostridium difficile-associated disease; inflammation; microbiotal homeostasis; salmonellosis
Hypertrophic scar involves excessive amounts of collagen in dermal layer and
may be painful. Nowadays, we can’t be sure about effectiveness of procedure for hypertrophic scar management. The application of stem cells with natural scaffold has been the
best option for treatment of burn wounds and skin defect, in recent decades. Fibrin glue
(FG) was among the first of the natural biomaterials applied to enhance skin deformity in
burn patients. This study aimed to identify an efficient, minimally invasive and economical
transplantation procedure using novel FG from human cord blood for treatment of hypertrophic scar and regulation collagen synthesis.
Materials and Methods
In this case series study, eight patients were selected with hypertrophic scar due to full-thickness burns. Human keratinocytes and fibroblasts derived
from adult skin donors were isolated and cultured. They were tested for the expression of
cytokeratin 14 and vimentin using immunocytochemistry. FG was prepared from pooled
cord blood. Hypertrophic scars were extensively excised then grafted by simply placing
the sheet of FG containing autologous fibroblast and keratinocytes. Histological analyses
were performed using Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson’s Trichrome (MT) staining of the biopsies after 8 weeks.
Cultured keratinocytes showed a high level of cytokeratin 14 expression and
also fibroblasts showed a high level of vimentin. Histological analyses of skin biopsies
after 8 weeks of transplantation revealed re-epithelialization with reduction of hypertrophic
scars in 2 patients.
These results suggest may be the use of FG from cord blood, which is not
more efficient than previous biological transporters and increasing hypertrophic scar
relapse, but could lead to decrease pain rate.
Hypertrophic Scar; Fibrin Glue; Fibroblast; Keratinocyte; Scaffold
Millions of people in the world have diabetes mellitus and its prevalence is growing. Oxidative stress, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) play key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. New and safe strategies of remedy are needed for this disease.
We hypothesized that resveratrol may exert a renal protective effect on diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Male rats with diabetes were treated with or without resveratrol as 1, 5, 10 mg/kg of body weight for 30 days. The total AGEs and malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissues were determined by spectroﬂuorimetric method and the insulin level was assayed using ELISA. The total antioxidant capacity contents in kidney and the glucose in plasma were measured by a colorimetric assay. The expression of RAGE was assayed in kidneys of all animals using quantitative PCR.
In resveratrol-treated rats with diabetes, malondialdehyde levels, plasma glucose and expression of RAGE were significantly reduced compared with the untreated group. Moreover, the total antioxidant and insulin levels significantly increased in treated rats. There was no significant difference in the AGEs contents among all the groups.
These results revealed that resveratrol has beneficial effects on kidney by extenuating the oxidative stress and down-regulation of RAGE expression.
Resveratrol; Diabetes Mellitus; Advanced Glycation End-product; Oxidative Stress
Sex workers and HIV seropositive women are at high risk of abnormal cervical cytology. The objective of this study was to compare the cervical cytology among three groups of women: active sex workers, HIV-infected women, and general population in Iran.
This was a cross-sectional study performed in Hazrat Zeinab, Lavan clinics and drop in center (DIC) in Shiraz, Iran. This study was performed from October 2009 to October 2011. A total of 266 patients were assigned into three groups: sex-workers (85), HIV positive patients (100), and general population (81). Pap smear was performed for all participants from the exocervix and endocervix, using a plastic Ayres’s spatula and cytobrush. The samples were sent to a pathology center, using a liquid-based media.
The risk of cervical infection in sex workers and HIV positive women was greater than the general population (OR=5.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]:2.24, 13.40), (OR=3.71, 95% CI:1.52, 9.09), respectively. The frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in the HIV positive and sex worker groups was higher than the general population (OR=6. 76, 95% CI:2.25, 20.32), (OR=3. 80, 95% CI:1.19, 12.07), respectively. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were associated with CD4 cell count<200Í106/L, P=0.021 and P<0.001, respectively.
Vaginal infections were seen more often in the sex worker group, and abnormal cervical cytology was greater in the HIV positive group.
HIV/AIDs; Sex Worker; Pap smear; Iran
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) has been defined as two or more miscarriages before 20th week of gestation. It seems that IL-27 may reduce inflammatory responses and affect the survival of the embryo during human pregnancy. IL-27 polymorphisms may influence RPL by altering the levels or the activity of gene product.
We studied for the first time the association of IL-27 -964 A>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with RPL in Iranian women.
Materials and Methods:
A case-controlled study was performed on two groups consisting of 150 healthy women with at least one delivery (control group) and 150 women with two or more primary RPLs history (RPL group). The -964 A>G SNP in IL-27 gene was determined by PCR-RFLP technique. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared using 2 tests between two groups.
There was no difference between the two groups regarding age of women (29±4.4 [control] vs. 30.84±5.2 years [case]). In the RPL group, the genotype frequencies of -964 A>G polymorphism were AG (49.3%), AA (40%), and GG (10.7%), and in the control group, they were AG (43.3%), AA (48.7%), and GG (8%). There was no significant difference between the genotypes of AA, AG, and GG in two groups (p=0.23). As the frequency of allele A was 64.7% in the RPL group and 70.3% in the control group, the difference in frequency of allele A in -964 A>G between two groups was not significant (p=0.19).
Our findings indicate that SNP of -964 A>G in IL-27 gene is not a risk factor for RPL in Iranian women.
Cytokine; IL-27; Inflammation; Polymorphism; Recurrent abortion
Cystic Fibrosis; Failure to thrive; Iran
Since its initial reports in the 19th century, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) had been thought to involve only the optic nerves and spinal cord. However, the discovery of highly specific anti–aquaporin-4 antibody diagnostic biomarker for NMO enabled recognition of more diverse clinical spectrum of manifestations. Brain MRI abnormalities in patients seropositive for anti–aquaporin-4 antibody are common and some may be relatively unique by virtue of localization and configuration. Some seropositive patients present with brain involvement during their first attack and/or continue to relapse in the same location without optic nerve and spinal cord involvement. Thus, characteristics of brain abnormalities in such patients have become of increased interest. In this regard, MRI has an increasingly important role in the differential diagnosis of NMO and its spectrum disorder (NMOSD), particularly from multiple sclerosis. Differentiating these conditions is of prime importance because early initiation of effective immunosuppressive therapy is the key to preventing attack-related disability in NMOSD, whereas some disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis may exacerbate the disease. Therefore, identifying the MRI features suggestive of NMOSD has diagnostic and prognostic implications. We herein review the brain, optic nerve, and spinal cord MRI findings of NMOSD.
The present study aims to investigate the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure and intelligence quotient (IQ) or social competence (SC) of Bangladeshi adolescents (aged 14 or 15 years) in Sonargaon thana.
Information about socioeconomic status (SES) was collected as confounding factors. To evaluate the relative contribution of As sources to total As intake, the As concentrations in urine and drinking/cooking water, and the amount of water added in cooking, were assessed on site using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).
The results confirmed that As exposure was essential to lower adolescent IQ or SC because they were negatively associated with As exposure after controlling for SES (particularly household income). Except for cooking water, the amount of drinking water varied with season and appeared to be the major As source because the As concentration in water was generally correlated with the As concentration in urine, and they were related to lower IQ or SC (even after controlling for SES). The FFQ survey revealed that rice was consumed the most frequently (more than once daily), followed by daal (bean) soup and nonleafy vegetables, but fish, meat, and eggs were consumed approximately once a week. Water intake per meal from cooked rice was estimated to be 616 mL/person, followed by bean soup (258 mL/person) and cooked vegetables (82 mL/person).
Our results suggest that water used for cooking might be an important source of As, and the cooking process can affect the amount of As in cooked food.
Arsenic contamination; Groundwater; Adolescents; Intelligence; Social competence; Daily water intake