The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the bone density of various regions of jaws and skeletal bones.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 110 patients with a mean age of 55.01 ± 10.77 years were selected for the purpose of the present descriptive study. Dual X-ray Energy Absorptiometry (DXA) was carried out to determine bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur and lumbar vertebrae. Then all the subjects underwent DXA of the jaw bones and BMD values were determined at four jaw regions. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 statistical software, and the correlation between the various BMD values was determined by Pearson's correlation coefficient.
The results showed that 42.7% of females had normal BMD values in the femur, and in vertebrae, 20% were osteopenic and 37.3% suffered from osteoporosis, with statistically significant differences in the BMD values of the jaws between the three above-mentioned groups (P < 0.001). There was an increasing tendency toward osteopenia and osteoporosis with age. There was a positive correlation between BMD values of the femur and lumbar vertebrae and those of all the jaw regions under study (P < 0.005). There was a negative correlation (P < 0.01) between age and the BMD values of the femur, lumbar vertebrae and anterior maxilla.
The bone density of the maxilla and mandible and presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia in these bones might reflect the same problem in skeletal bones.
Bone mineral density; dual X-ray energy absorptiometry; jaw bones; osteoporosis; skeletal bones
The repetitive micro traumatic stresses placed on the athletes shoulder joint complex during the throwing motion challenge the surrounding tissues. The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder rotational strength, range of motion and proprioception between the throwing athletes and non-athletic persons.
Fifteen throwing athletes and 15 non-athletes participated in a nonrandom case – control study. Strength of shoulder rotational movements was tested with a hand held dynamometer. The ranges of internal and external rotation of shoulder were measured by a standard goniometer. The ability of subjects to replicate the target position and kinesthetic sense was examined on the subjects’ right shoulder by using a continuous passive motion device. Independent and paired t tests were used to statistically analyze between and within group differences.
No significant difference was detected on the range of internal rotation between throwing athletes and non-athletic candidates (P=0.3). The range of external rotation was significantly more in athletic subjects (P=0.03). The results also showed that throwing athletes demonstrated a significantly higher isometric strength of shoulder external and internal rotation than the non-athletic group (P<0.05). However, the comparison of the internal and external rotation strength of dominant side in each group showed that throwing athletes showed a significant lower isometric strength of shoulder external rotation than internal rotation (P<0.001). It was also demonstrated higher joint position acuity in the throwing athletes than non athlete subjects (P=0.01).
The repetitive nature of overhead throwing and the high forces that it causes result in adaptive changes of the dominant extremity. Throwing can lead to mobility, strength and neural adaptation.
Throwing Athletes; Muscle Weakness; Mobility Impairment; Proprioception
Children affected by Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have diminished intra-hemispheric inhibition (Short Interval Cortical Inhibition) as measured by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. This study’s objective is to determine whether inter-hemispheric inhibition (Ipsilateral Silent Period Latency) correlates with clinical behavioral rating and motor control deficits of affected children. In 114 8–12 year old, right-handed children (age/sex-matched, 50 affected, 64 controls), we performed comprehensive assessments of behavior, motor skills and cognition. Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, we reliably elicited Ipsilateral Silent Period in 54 children (23 affected) - all were on average older than those who had unobtainable measures. Mean Ipsilateral Silent Period latency was 5 milliseconds longer in the affected group (p=0.007). Longer latencies correlated with more severe behavioral symptom scores (r=0.38, p=0.007), particularly hyperactivity (r=0.39, p=0.006), as well as with worse motor ratings on the Physical and Neurological Examination for Soft Signs (r=0.27, p=0.05). Longer latency also correlated with Short Interval Cortical Inhibition (r=0.36, p=0.008). In conclusion, longer Ipsilateral Silent Period latencies suggest interhemispheric inhibitory signaling is slower in affected children. The deficit in this inhibitory measure may underlie developmental, behavioral and motor impairments in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) is a relatively new form of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) used to probe neuroplasticity in the human cortex. Thirty-Hz TBS, a variation of the originally described 50 Hz TBS, has been shown to induce cortical changes in several nonmotor regions. However, its effects over the primary motor cortex have not been examined. Due to TMS device mechanical properties, 30 Hz TBS is advantageous over 50 Hz TBS in that it can be delivered at higher stimulation intensities. The goal of this pilot study is to examine the neurophysiologic effects of 30 Hz TBS on the primary motor cortex (M1) of healthy adults. Eighteen right-handed adults (33 ± 9.0 years; M:F = 8:10) completed intermittent TBS (iTBS) or continuous TBS (cTBS) over left M1. TBS was performed with Magstim® SuperRapid2 with stimulation bursts (3 pulses at 30 Hz) repeating every 200 milliseconds. For iTBS, each 2-second stimulation train was separated by 8 seconds but there was no pause between trains for cTBS. Each TBS consisted of a total of 600 pulses delivered at an intensity of 90%*Resting Motor Threshold. Motor-Evoked Potentials (MEP) in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle were measured before, and one and ten minutes after TBS. Pre/post-TBS MEP amplitudes were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA. MEP amplitudes increased after 30 Hz iTBS and decreased after 30 Hz cTBS (TBS-Type*Time effect p=0.009). In conclusion, 30 Hz TBS induced similar neurophysiologic effects over M1 as conventional 50 Hz TBS.
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation; Theta Burst Stimulation; Neuroplasticity; Motor Cortex
Diarrheal disease causes ∼1.34 million deaths per year among children under 5 years of age globally. We conducted a Health Care Utilization and Attitudes Survey of 1,012 primary caregivers of children aged 0–11, 12–23, and 24–59 months randomly selected from a Demographic Surveillance population in rural Gambia. Point prevalence of diarrhea was 7.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.1–9.8); 23.3% had diarrhea within the previous 2 weeks. Caregivers of 81.5% of children with diarrhea sought healthcare outside their home, but only 48.4% of them visited a health center. Only 17.0% (95% CI = 12.1–23.2) of children with diarrhea received oral rehydration solution (ORS) at home. Abbreviated surveys conducted on six occasions over the subsequent 2 years showed no change in prevalence or treatment-seeking behavior. Diarrhea remains a significant problem in rural young Gambian children. Encouraging care-seeking behavior at health centers and promoting ORS use can reduce mortality and morbidity in this population.
We performed serial Health Care Utilization and Attitudes Surveys (HUASs) among caretakers of children ages 0–59 months randomly selected from demographically defined populations participating in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), a case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in seven developing countries. The surveys aimed to estimate the proportion of children with MSD who would present to sentinel health centers (SHCs) where GEMS case recruitment would occur and provide a basis for adjusting disease incidence rates to include cases not seen at the SHCs. The proportion of children at each site reported to have had an incident episode of MSD during the 7 days preceding the survey ranged from 0.7% to 4.4% for infants (0–11 months of age), from 0.4% to 4.7% for toddlers (12–23 months of age), and from 0.3% to 2.4% for preschoolers (24–59 months of age). The proportion of MSD episodes at each site taken to an SHC within 7 days of diarrhea onset was 15–56%, 17–64%, and 7–33% in the three age strata, respectively. High cost of care and insufficient knowledge about danger signs were associated with lack of any care-seeking outside the home. Most children were not offered recommended fluids and continuing feeds at home. We have shown the utility of serial HUASs as a tool for optimizing operational and methodological issues related to the performance of a large case-control study and deriving population-based incidence rates of MSD. Moreover, the surveys suggest key targets for educational interventions that might improve the outcome of diarrheal diseases in low-resource settings.
In the predominantly rural Manhiça district, in southern Mozambique, diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death among children under 5 years. Caretakers randomly selected from the Demographic Surveillance Database were invited to participate in a community-based survey on use of healthcare services for gastroenteritis. Of those caretakers reporting an episode of diarrhea during the recall period, 65.2% in the first survey and 43.8% in the second survey reported seeking care at a health facility. Independent risk factors for seeking care in health facilities in the first survey included the presence of diarrhea with fever and not knowing any sign of dehydration; having a television at home was related with an independent decreased use of the health facilities. In the second survey, the use of health services was significantly associated with diarrhea with fever and vomiting. Establishment of continuous prospective monitoring allows accounting for changes in healthcare use that may occur because of seasonality or secular events.
Diarrhea causes 16% of all child deaths in Pakistan. We assessed patterns of healthcare use among caretakers of a randomly selected sample of 959 children ages 0–59 months in low-income periurban settlements of Karachi through a cross-sectional survey. A diarrheal episode was reported to have occurred in the previous 2 weeks among 298 (31.1%) children. Overall, 280 (80.3%) children sought care. Oral rehydration solution and zinc were used by 40.8% and 2%, respectively; 11% were admitted or received intravenous rehydration, and 29% sought care at health centers identified as sentinel centers for recruiting cases of diarrhea for a planned multicenter diarrheal etiology case-control study. Odds ratios for independent predictors of care-seeking behavior were lethargy, 4.14 (95% confidence interval = 1.45–11.77); fever, 2.67 (1.27–5.59); and stool frequency more than six per day, 2.29 (1.03–5.09). Perception of high cost of care and use of home antibiotics were associated with reduced care seeking: odds ratio = 0.28 (0.1–0.78) and 0.29 (0.11–0.82), respectively. There is a need for standardized, affordable, and accessible treatment of diarrhea as well as community education regarding appropriate care in areas with high diarrheal burden.
Maternal practices regarding children's health care have been recognized as an important factor associated with mortality rates among children < 5 years of age. We focused on health care-seeking practices of primary caretakers of children < 5 years of age with diarrheal disease in Kolkata. We interviewed caretakers of 1,058 children in a baseline survey and 6,077 children on six subsequent surveys. The prevalence of diarrhea during the preceding 2 weeks was 7.9% in the baseline survey and 5.7% (lowest 3.5% to highest 7.8%) in subsequent surveys. Multivariate logistic regression showed that formal education of primary caretakers was associated with seeking care outside the home (odds ratio [OR] = 15.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.5–85.7]; P = 0.002). Multinomial logistic regression showed that formal education of the primary caretaker (OR = 21.4; 95% CI [3.2–139.0]; P = 0.002) and presence of dry mouth during diarrhea (OR = 17.3; 95% CI [2.7–110.9]; P = 0.003) were associated with seeking care from licensed providers compared with the children for whom care was not sought outside of the home. This health care utilization and attitudes survey (HUAS) can serve as a tool to identify the factors that influence a better health care-seeking pattern in urban slums of Kolkata.
We evaluated patterns of health care use for diarrhea among children 0–59 months of age residing in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, using a baseline survey conducted during May–June 2007 to inform the design of a planned diarrheal etiology case/control study. Caretakers of 7.4% of 1,128 children reported a diarrheal illness in the preceding 14 days; among 95 children with diarrhea, 24.2% had blood in the stool, 12.2% received oral rehydration solution, 27.6% received homemade fluids, and none received zinc at home. Caretakers of 87.9% sought care outside the home; 49.9% from a pharmacy, and 22.1% from a hospital or health center. The primary reasons for not seeking care were maternal perception that the illness was not serious enough (74.0%) and the high cost of treatment (21.9%). To improve management of childhood diarrhea in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, it will be important to address knowledge gaps in caretakers' assessment of illness severity, appropriate home management, and when to seek care in the formal sector. In addition, consideration should be given to inclusion of the diverse care-giving settings in clinical training activities for diarrheal disease management.
Patients with Alzheimer’s disease show age-related cognitive decline. Post-mortem autopsy of their brains shows the presence of large numbers of senile plaques, whose major component is the β-amyloid peptide. The β-amyloid peptide is a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). In addition to the neurodegeneration associated with β-amyloid aggregation in Alzheimer’s disease patients, mutations in APP in mammalian model organisms have also been shown to disrupt several behaviors independent of visible amyloid plaque formation. However, the pathways in which APP function are unknown and difficult to unravel in mammals. Here we show that pan-neuronal expression of APL-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue of APP, disrupts several behaviors, such as olfactory and gustatory learning behavior and touch habituation. These behaviors are mediated by distinct neural circuits, suggesting a broad impact of APL-1 on sensory plasticity in C. elegans. Furthermore, we found that disruption of these three behaviors requires activity of the insulin and TGFβ pathways. These results suggest pathways and molecular components that may underlie behavioral plasticity in mammals and in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
C. elegans; apl-1; Alzheimer’s disease; habituation; chemotaxis; memory; avoidance plasticity; learning
The use of plants and their derived substances increases day by day for the discovery of therapeutic agents owing to their versatile applications. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants having anticancer properties from plant origin since oxidants play a crucial role in developing various human diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer properties of Sygygium fruticosum (Roxb.) (abbreviated as SF).
The dried coarse powder of seeds of SF was exhaustively extracted with methanol and the resulting crude methanolic extract (CME) was successively fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate to get petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and lastly aqueous (AQF) fraction. The antioxidant activities were determined by several assays: total antioxidant capacity assay, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The in vivo anticancer activity of SF was determined on Ehrlich’s Ascite cell (EAC) induced Swiss albino mice.
All the extractives showed strong antioxidant activities related to the standard. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the fractions was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>PEF>CHF. The TAC of EAF at 320 μg/mL was 2.60±0.005 which was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of standard catechin (1.37 ± 0.005). The ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity of the extracts was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>AA>CHF>PEF. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the IC50 value of EAF was 4.85 μg/mL, whereas that of BHT was 9.85 μg/mL. In hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, the EAF showed the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 of 43.3 and 68.11 μg/mL, respectively. The lipid peroxidation inhibition assay was positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with both DPPH free radical scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic contents of SF were also positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with DPPH free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. Based on antioxidant activity, EAF was selected for cytotoxic assay and it was found that EAF inhibited 67.36% (p < 0.01) cell growth at a dose of 50 mg/kg (ip) on day six of EAC cell incubation.
Our results suggest that EAF of seeds of SF possess significant antioxidant and moderate anticancer properties. Seeds of SF may therefore be a good source for natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement.
Syzygium fruticosum Roxb; Myrtaceae; Free radicals; Polyphenolics; Antioxidant activity; Anticancer activity
Shigella infections are a public health problem in developing and transitional countries because of high transmissibility, severity of clinical disease, widespread antibiotic resistance and lack of a licensed vaccine. Whereas Shigellae are known to be transmitted primarily by direct fecal-oral contact and less commonly by contaminated food and water, the role of the housefly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector of transmission is less appreciated. We sought to assess the contribution of houseflies to Shigella-associated moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) among children less than five years old in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, a site where shigellosis is hyperendemic, and to model the potential impact of a housefly control intervention.
Stool samples from 843 children presenting to Kumudini Hospital during 2009–2010 with new episodes of MSD (diarrhea accompanied by dehydration, dysentery or hospitalization) were analyzed. Housefly density was measured twice weekly in six randomly selected sentinel households. Poisson time series regression was performed and autoregression-adjusted attributable fractions (AFs) were calculated using the Bruzzi method, with standard errors via jackknife procedure.
Dramatic springtime peaks in housefly density in 2009 and 2010 were followed one to two months later by peaks of Shigella-associated MSD among toddlers and pre-school children. Poisson time series regression showed that housefly density was associated with Shigella cases at three lags (six weeks) (Incidence Rate Ratio = 1.39 [95% CI: 1.23 to 1.58] for each log increase in fly count), an association that was not confounded by ambient air temperature. Autocorrelation-adjusted AF calculations showed that a housefly control intervention could have prevented approximately 37% of the Shigella cases over the study period.
Houseflies may play an important role in the seasonal transmission of Shigella in some developing country ecologies. Interventions to control houseflies should be evaluated as possible additions to the public health arsenal to diminish Shigella (and perhaps other causes of) diarrheal infection.
Whereas previous researchers have noted that seasonal peaks in the numbers of houseflies and patients suffering from Shigella diarrheal infection seemed to coincide, this is the first research to quantify the association using time-series statistical methods. The results show that houseflies could account for approximately 37% of all cases of shigellosis in an area in rural Bangladesh. This research adds to the existing published experimental and observational evidence from other parts of the world implicating houseflies as mechanical transmission vectors for Shigella. The results can be used to advocate for cluster-randomized intervention trials that can demonstrate how much control of housefly density can diminish Shigella disease incidence. This question should be answered because there are currently no licensed Shigella vaccines, and rising antibiotic resistance is limiting treatment options. Control of houseflies using methods such as baited fly traps could be an affordable, effective intervention to add to the public health arsenal for routine use and in the context of disaster response.
Hormone therapies for advanced prostate cancer target the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain (LBD), but these ultimately fail and the disease progresses to lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The mechanisms that drive CRPC are incompletely understood, but may involve constitutively active AR splice variants that lack the LBD. The AR N-terminal domain (NTD) is essential for AR activity, but targeting this domain with small-molecule inhibitors is complicated by its intrinsic disorder. Here we investigated EPI-001, a small-molecule antagonist of AR NTD that inhibits protein-protein interactions necessary for AR transcriptional activity. We found that EPI analogs covalently bound the NTD to block transcriptional activity of AR and its splice variants and reduced the growth of CRPC xenografts. These findings suggest that the development of small-molecule inhibitors that bind covalently to intrinsically disordered proteins is a promising strategy for development of specific and effective anticancer agents.
Background and Objectives
Recently, nosocomial infections have been discussed as a critical issue among intubated patients leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, the pattern of microbiological colonization and antibiotic resistance are much valuable in this regard. We aimed to investigate the pattern of microorganism colonization and antibiotic resistance in patients with endotracheal tube or tracheostomy to propose a proper empirical antibiotic therapy in this setting.
Materials and Methods
This cross sectional study was conducted among 880 patients admitted in Imam Khomeini hospital between 2008 and 2011 who were subsequently intubated or underwent tracheostomy due to insufficient self ventilation. Samples for microbiological cultures were obtained after extubation and then sent to the central laboratory for further assessment. Antibiograms and microbiological cultures were obtained for each sample.
Of 880 patients enrolled in this study, 531 (60.3%) were male and 349 (39.7%) were female. Nineteen different organisms were isolated including Acinetobacter (213, 24.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (147, 16.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (106, 12%), Proteus mirabilis (90, 10.2%), and other organisms (324, 36.8%). Antibiotic resistance was mainly seen in Acinetobacter (ciprofloxacin, ceftazidim, cefepim, and penicillin), S. aureus (imipenem) and Klebsiella (pipracillintazobactam and ampicillin-sulbactam).
This study represents the most common microorganisms colonizing tracheal tube of hospitalized patients and their pattern of antibiotic resistance. Acinetobacter was the most common microorganism isolated from endotracheal tube. Hence, it may be possible to initiate the empiric antibiotic treatment before the results of culture are become available. Ciprofloxacin was also the most prevalent antibiotic revealing resistant pattern. Moreover, most of the microorganisms were sensitive to imipenem and pipracillin-tazobactam.
Nosocomial Infection; Microorganism Colonization; Antibiotic Resistance; Tracheal Intubation
The main purpose of physiologic delivery is to rely on mother's body for childbirth. In physiologic delivery method pregnant women attend delivery preparation classes and they learn how to overcome fear and pain. This study compares delivery outcomes among women who participated in physiologic delivery with those who had undergone non-physiologic delivery.
All patients referred for physiologic delivery were assessed. Exclusion criteria were lack of PROM, post date, cephalopelvic disproportion, multi-fetal pregnancy, Meconium stain, blood pressure above 90/140, placenta previa and previous record of cesarean. Data was entered in SPSS 16 software and Fisher and Chi-square tests were used to compare vaginal laceration, episiotomy and Apgar score between two groups.
Twelve out of 73 pregnant women (16.4%) in physiologic delivery group and 27 out of 69 pregnant women (39.1%) in non-physiologic delivery group needed episiotomy (P = 0.002). Ten patients (13.7%) in physiologic delivery group and seven persons (10.1%) in the non-physiologic delivery group were suffering from vaginal laceration (P = 0.51). There was no significant statistical difference between newborns’ Apgar score in two groups.
Physiologic delivery can reduce the need for episiotomy without any further complications.
Episiotomy; natural vaginal delivery; physiologic delivery
This study aimed to determine the impact of an empowerment program on maternal stress.
Materials and Methods:
During May 2009–May 2010, this quasi-experimental study was performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Shahid Akbarabadi, Rasoul-e-Akram, and Aliasghar Hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran). The program consists of an educational CD along with written information and reinforcing activities for parents in the intervention group, and routine education was performed in the control group. We evaluated 140 mothers who were aged 18-37 years, had a gestational age of 28-37 weeks with singleton pregrancy, and with the birth weight of the newborn being less than 2500 g. The participants did not have chronic mental or physical illnesses. They were randomly assigned to two groups of intervention and control.
A statistically significant difference was observed between mean (SD) stress scores of mothers before and after the intervention in the intervention group [123.00 (97.24) vs. 75.00 (7.16); P < 0.01)].
This study showed the importance of training mothers in reducing their stress and enabling them to appropriately communicate with and care for their premature newborn.
Iran; mothers; neonatal intensive care unit; premature infants; stress
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) includes transverse myelitis, optic neuritis and brain lesions. Recent studies have indicated that the brainstem is an important site of attack in NMO. Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is an important component of the clinical diagnosis of NMO. The frequency of brainstem and LETM lesions, changes over time of LETM and the clinical consequences in the course of NMO have only been sparsely studied.
The study was a population-based retrospective case series with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up of 35 patients with definite NMO and a relapsing-remitting course.
Brainstem lesions were observed in 25 patients, 18 in medulla oblongata (11 in area postrema). Lesions in the pons, mesencephalon and diencephalon occurred in 10, 7 and 7 patients, respectively. Lesions were symptomatic in medulla oblongata and pons, asymptomatic in mesencephalon and diencephalon. Brainstem lesions were observed significantly more often in anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) antibody positive than in seronegative patients (p < 0.002).
LETM was demonstrated by MRI of the spinal cord in 30/36 patients, 23/30 of whom had follow-up MRI of the spinal cord. Recurrent LETM was observed in five patients. In nine patients the LETM changed into multiple lesions during remission or treatment. Spinal cord atrophy was observed in 12/23 (52%) patients, correlating to Expanded Disability Status Scale (r = 0.88, p < 0.001).
NMO patients had frequent occurrence of brainstem lesions and LETM. Brainstem lesions were associated with anti-AQP4 antibody positivity. LETM lesions differentiated over time and the outcome included relapses, fragmentation and atrophy. Correlation was observed between spinal cord atrophy and neurological disability.
Neuromyelitis optica; Brainstem lesions; Area postrema; Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis; Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody; Magnetic resonance imaging
The EGFR 3′ untranslated region (UTR) harbors a polyadenine repeat which is polymorphic (A13/A14) and undergoes somatic deletions in microsatellite instability (MSI) colorectal cancer (CRC). These mutations could be oncogenic in colorectal tissue since they were shown to result into increased EGFR mRNA stability in CRC cell lines.
First, we determined in a case control study including 429 CRC patients corresponding to different groups selected or not on age of tumor onset and/or familial history and/or MSI, whether or not, the germline EGFR A13/A14 polymorphism constitutes a genetic risk factor for CRC; second, we investigated the frequency of somatic mutations of this repeat in 179 CRC and their impact on EGFR expression.
No statistically significant difference in allelic frequencies of the EGFR polyA repeat polymorphism was observed between CRC patients and controls. Somatic mutations affecting the EGFR 3′UTR polyA tract were detected in 47/80 (58.8%) MSI CRC versus 0/99 microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors. Comparative analysis in 21 CRC samples of EGFR expression, between tumor and non malignant tissues, using two independent methods showed that somatic mutations of the EGFR polyA repeat did not result into an EGFR mRNA increase.
Germline and somatic genetic variations occurring within the EGFR 3′ UTR polyA tract have no impact on CRC genetic risk and EGFR expression, respectively. Genotyping of the EGFR polyA tract has no clinical utility to identify patients with a high risk for CRC or patients who could benefit from anti-EGFR antibodies.
Colorectal cancer; EGFR; Polymorphism; Microsatellite instability; Targeted therapy
Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that metformin lowers the risk of several types of cancer in diabetic patients. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a crucial role in the degradation of the vascular basement membrane extracellular matrix proteins, thereby promoting endothelial cell invasion, migration and angiogenesis in the incidence and progression of tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of metformin on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and migration, as well as on MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Cell proliferation was determined by cell counting and MTT colorimetric assays. Cell migration was assessed by the wound repair method. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR was performed to quantify the mRNA expression of MMPs. Metformin at concentrations of 0.5–3.0 mM effectively reduced the number of endothelial cells by 5.5–55%, without being cytotoxic to the cells. Similarly, cell proliferation and migration were markedly inhibited by metformin. In addition, treatment with metformin demonstrated a strong (P<0.001) suppressive effect on the mRNA levels of MMP-2 and -9 in the endothelial cells. The inhibitory effects of metformin on endothelial cell number, migration, and MMP expression were reversed partially by compound C, which is an inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The present study reports that metformin considerably inhibited the proliferation, migration, and MMP-2 and -9 expression of HUVECs, and the effect was partially AMPK-dependent. The obtained findings provide a molecular rationale, whereby metformin can exert anticancer effects.
metformin; matrix metalloproteinase; migration; proliferation; endothelial cells
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a universal health problem with a global prevalence of 1.3%. India is known as the “Diabetes capital of the world” as it harbours the largest number of diabetes patients. There is lack of awareness about the existing interventions for preventing diabetes and for the management of the complications. One of the barriers in the way of seeking health care advice is the misconception about the disease, which revolves around all the aspects of diabetes, which include its prevention, control and treatment.
To determine the various misconceptions about the management of Diabetes mellitus in the study area.To find out the association of various misconceptions with the socio-demographic factors.
Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Urban Health Centre (UHC) Ariankuppam, Pondicherry. A total of 406 adult patients were interviewed. A pretested, semi-structured interview schedule was developed in the local language, and it was utilized to collect the data. The collected interview schedules were scrutinized for the accuracy of the information which was provided and for any lacunae. The compilation and analysis were carried out with the help of the Epi- Info software. The T test and the Chi-square test were used according to the distribution of the data, to see the associations of the different factors.
Results: The commonest misconceptions were “Diabetes can be cured by herbal treatment” (46.6%) and “Bitter foods reduce the elevated blood sugar levels” (46.6%). The misconception, “The treatment should be stopped if the diabetes is controlled for few months” significantly decreased with advancing age. There were no significant differences between females and males when the various misconceptions were compared. The commonest misconception among females was “Bitter foods reduce the elevated blood sugar levels” (49.4%) and among males, it was “Diabetes can be cured by herbal treatment” (47.9%). When the misconceptions were compared, it was found that there were significant differences between the subjects who belonged to different religions.
Conclusion: The misconceptions regarding the diabetes management in the general population, irrespective of the education and particularly among the Muslim community, were widespread. A majority of these misconceptions were diet and drug related.
Different stressors induce learning and memory impairment and physical activity influence learning and memory enhancement. In this research, we investigated the effect of synchronized running activity with stress on acquisition and retention time of passive avoidance test.
Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups as follows: Control (Co), Sham (Sh), Exercise (Ex), Stress (St), synchronized exercise with stress (St and Ex) groups. Chronic restraint stress was applied by 6 h/day for 21 days and treadmill running 1 h/day for 21 days. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial and step-through latency were determined at the end of study by using passive avoidance learning test.
Our results showed that: (1) Exercise under no stress provides beneficial effects on memory acquisition and retention time compared to Control group; especially retention time had significantly (P < 0.05) increased in exercised group. (2) Chronic stress with and without synchronized exercise significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively) impaired acquisition and retention time. (3) Body weight differences were significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001) lower than Control group in exercise, stress and synchronized exercise with stress groups, respectively. (4) Adverse effects of restraint stress (psychical stress) were probably greater than physical activity effects on learning, memory and weight loss.
The data confirmed that synchronized exercise with stress had not significantly protective role in improvement of passive avoidance acquisition and retention time; hence it did not significantly improve learning and memory deficit in stressed rats; whereas exercise alone could improve memory deficit in rats.
Body weight; learning; passive avoidance; physical activity; stress
Building materials, collected from different sites in Ramsar, a northern coastal city in Iran, were analyzed for their natural radionuclide contents. The measurements were carried out using a high resolution high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bqkg-1, 187 Bqkg-1, and 1350 Bqkg-1, respectively. The radiological hazards incurred from the use of these building materials were estimated through various radiation hazard indices. The result of this survey shows that values obtained for some samples are more than the internationally accepted maximum limits and as such, the use of them as a building material pose significant radiation hazard to individuals.
Ramsar; building materials; gamma spectrometry; hazard indices
Despite reports on association between overweight/obesity among women and household food insecurity (FI) in developed countries, such association is not evident in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the association between household FI and weight status in adult females in Tehran, Iran.
In this cross-sectional study, 418 households were selected through systematic cluster sampling from 6 districts of Tehran. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Socio-economic status of the household was assessed by a questionnaire. Three consecutive 24-hour diet recalls were completed. FI was measured using adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Logistic regression was used to test the effects of SES and food security on weight status, simultaneously. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) potential causal relationships between FI and weight status was explored.
Only 1.0% of women were underweight, while 40.3% were overweight and 33% were obese, respectively. Severe, moderate, and mild food insecurity was observed in 11.5, 14.7, and 17.8%, respectively. Among women in moderately food insecure households, the possibility of overweight was lower than those of food secure households (OR 0.41; CI95%:0.17–0.99), while in severely food insecure households, the risk of abdominal obesity for women was 2.82 times higher than food secures (CI95%:1.12–7.08) (P<0.05). SEM detected no causal relationship between FI and weight status.
Association of severe food insecurity with abdominal obesity in adult females of households may indicate their vulnerability and the need for tailoring programs to prevent further health problems in this group.
Overweight; Abdominal obesity; Women; Food security; Household; Iran