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1.  Chlorogenic Acid Attenuates High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) and Enhances Host Defense Mechanisms in Murine Sepsis 
Molecular Medicine  2012;18(1):1437-1448.
Sepsis is a complex, multifactorial, rapidly progressive disease characterized by an overwhelming activation of the immune system and the countervailing antiinflammatory response. In the current study in murine peritoneal macrophages, chlorogenic acid suppressed endotoxin-induced high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of chlorogenic acid also attenuated systemic HMGB1 accumulation in vivo and prevented mortality induced by endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis. The mechanisms of action of chlorogenic acid included attenuation of the increase in toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 expression and suppression of sepsis-induced signaling pathways, such as c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB, which are critical for cytokine release. The protection conferred by chlorogenic acid was achieved through modulation of cytokine and chemokine release, suppression of immune cell apoptosis and augmentation of bacterial elimination. Chlorogenic acid warrants further evaluation as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis and other potentially fatal systemic inflammatory disorders.
doi:10.2119/molmed.2012.00279
PMCID: PMC3563707  PMID: 23168580
2.  Effect of GCSB-5, a Herbal Formulation, on Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats 
Therapeutic effects of GCSB-5 on osteoarthritis were measured by the amount of glycosaminoglycan in rabbit articular cartilage explants in vitro, in experimental osteoarthritis induced by intra-articular injection of monoiodoacetate in rats in vivo. GCSB-5 was orally administered for 28 days. In vitro, GCSB-5 inhibited proteoglycan degradation. GCSB-5 significantly suppressed the histological changes in monoiodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, as well as, the levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein, and mRNA expressions were attenuated by GCSB-5, whereas the level of interleukin-10 was potentiated. By GCSB-5, the level of nuclear factor-κB p65 protein expression was significantly attenuated but, on the other hand, the level of inhibitor of κB-α protein expression was increased. These results indicate that GCSB-5 is a potential therapeutic agent for the protection of articular cartilage against progression of osteoarthritis through inhibition of MMPs activity, inflammatory mediators, and NF-κB activation.
doi:10.1155/2012/730907
PMCID: PMC3303749  PMID: 22474519
3.  Genipin Attenuates Sepsis by Inhibiting Toll-Like Receptor Signaling 
Molecular Medicine  2012;18(1):455-465.
The pathogenesis of sepsis is characterized by overwhelming inflammatory responses that lead to tissue damage and organ failure. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is crucial for induction of hyperinflammatory responses and tissue injury during sepsis. Genipin, an aglycon of geniposide, has antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activities. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that genipin reduces multiple organ dysfunction and mortality during sepsis through inhibition of TLR signaling. Male ICR were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or endotoxemia by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Various doses of genipin (1, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg) or a vehicle were administered intravenously immediately after CLP or intraperitoneally after LPS treatment. In another set of survival tests, mice were treated with 2.5 mg/kg of genipin 0 and 24 h after CLP. Genipin was found to improve survival and to attenuate multiple organ dysfunction. Genipin attenuated production of proinflammatory cytokines and release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). Genipin prevented TLR2 and TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 and the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein, inducing interferon-β overexpression. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and interferon regulatory factor 3 and translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB were prevented by genipin. Moreover, genipin attenuated increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-α and HMGB1 in LPS-induced endotoxemia. Pam3CSK4- and LPS-mediated production of nitrites and proinflammatory cytokines was suppressed by genipin in RAW264.7 cells. Genipin attenuated mortality and organ injuries during sepsis through interference with TLR signaling. Therefore, genipin might be useful as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of sepsis.
doi:10.2119/molmed.2011.00308
PMCID: PMC3356434  PMID: 22252713
4.  Protective Effects of Chlorogenic Acid against Experimental Reflux Esophagitis in Rats 
Biomolecules & Therapeutics  2014;22(5):420-425.
Esophageal reflux of gastric contents causes esophageal mucosal damage and inflammation. Recent studies show that oxygen-derived free radicals mediate mucosal damage in reflux esophagitis (RE). Chlorogenic acid (CGA), an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is one of the most abundant polyphenols in the human diet and possesses anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anti-oxidant activities. In this context, we investigated the effects of CGA against experimental RE in rats. RE was produced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and covering the duodenum near the pylorus ring with a small piece of catheter. CGA (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) and omeprazole (positive control, 10 mg/kg) were administered orally 48 h after the RE operation for 12 days. CGA reduced the severity of esophageal lesions, and this beneficial effect was confirmed by histopathological observations. CGA reduced esophageal lipid peroxidation and increased the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio. CGA attenuated increases in the serum level of tumor necrosis factor-α, and expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein. CGA alleviates RE-induced mucosal injury, and this protection is associated with reduced oxidative stress and the anti-inflammatory properties of CGA.
doi:10.4062/biomolther.2014.066
PMCID: PMC4201226  PMID: 25414772
Chlorogenic acid; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Reflux esophagitis
5.  Protective Effects of Geniposide and Genipin against Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice 
Biomolecules & Therapeutics  2013;21(2):132-137.
Geniposide is an active product extracted from the gardenia fruit, and is one of the most widely used herbal preparations for liver disorders. This study examined the cytoprotective properties of geniposide and its metabolite, genipin, against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 6 h of reperfusion. Geniposide (100 mg/kg) and genipin (50 mg/kg) were administered orally 30 min before ischemia. In the I/R mice, the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic lipid peroxidation were elevated, whereas hepatic glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio was decreased. These changes were attenuated by geniposide and genipin administration. On the other hand, increased hepatic heme oxygenase-1 protein expression was potentiated by geniposide and genipin administration. The increased levels of tBid, cytochrome c protein expression and caspase-3 activity were attenuated by geniposide and genipin. Increased apoptotic cells in the I/R mice were also significantly reduced by geniposide and genipin treatment. Our results suggest that geniposide and genipin offer significant hepatoprotection against I/R injury by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis.
doi:10.4062/biomolther.2013.005
PMCID: PMC3762313  PMID: 24009871
Geniposide; Genipin; Ischemia; Reperfusion; Liver; Apoptosis
6.  A study on the model of homebound senior's meal satisfaction related to the quality of life 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2012;6(4):357-365.
This study was conducted to develop a construct model regarding the daily activities, emotional security provided by food, enjoyment of food, level of satisfaction with delivered food, and the quality of life of homebound seniors who benefitted from meal delivery programs. The data were analyzed by SAS 9.2 and the Structural Equation Model (SEM), which was created by Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) 5.0 packages. The reliability of the data was confirmed by an exploratory factor analysis and through a Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the measurement model proved to be appropriate by a confirmatory factor analysis of the measurement model in conjunction with AMOS. The results of the correlations between all the variables showed significant positive correlations (P < 0.05). The path analysis demonstrated that the daily activities (P < 0.01) and the emotional security created by food (P < 0.05) had positive correlations with the foodservice satisfaction (P < 0.05), while the daily activities (P < 0.05), the sense of emotional security made by food (P < 0.05), and food enjoyment (P < 0.05) also presented significant positive correlations with the quality of life. However, the food service satisfaction was shown to directly, but not significantly, affect the quality of life. This revealed that the current meal delivery programs needed to be improved in several directions.
doi:10.4162/nrp.2012.6.4.357
PMCID: PMC3439581  PMID: 22977691
Foodservice satisfaction; quality of life; factor analysis; SEM (Structural Equation Model)
7.  Isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside Protects against CCl4-Induced Hepatic Injury in Mice 
Biomolecules & Therapeutics  2012;20(4):406-412.
This study was performed to examine the hepatoprotective effect of isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside, a flavonoid glycoside isolated from Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Compositae), against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with vehicle or isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) 30 min before and 2 h after CCl4 (20 μl/kg) injection. Serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic level of malondialdehyde were significantly higher after CCl4 treatment, and these increases were attenuated by isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside. CCl4 markedly increased serum tumor necrosis factor-α level, which was reduced by isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- 2 (COX-2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and their mRNA expression levels were significantly increased after CCl4 injection. The levels of HO-1 protein and mRNA expression levels were augmented by isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside, while isorhamnetin- 3-O-galactoside attenuated the increases in iNOS and COX-2 protein and mRNA expression levels. CCl4 increased the level of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38, and isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside reduced these increases. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), activating protein-1, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were signifi cantly increased after CCl4 administration. Isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside attenuated the increases of NF-κB and c-Jun nuclear translocation, while it augmented the nuclear level of Nrf2. These results suggest that isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside ameliorates CCl4-induced hepatic damage by enhancing the anti-oxidative defense system and reducing the inflammatory signaling pathways.
doi:10.4062/biomolther.2012.20.4.406
PMCID: PMC3762273  PMID: 24009828
Carbon tetrachloride; Heme oxygenase-1; Hepatotoxicity; Inflammation; Isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside; Oxidative stress
8.  Characterization and Immunopotentiating Effects of the Glycoprotein Isolated from Dioscorea Batatas 
We demonstrate that glycoprotein isolated from Dioscorea batatas (GDB) has immunostimulatory effects including macrophage activation. Analysis of infiltration of inflammatory cells into peritoneal cavity showed GDB treatment significantly increased the recruitment of macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes into the peritoneal cavity. Treatment of spleen cells isolated from C57BL/6 mice with GDB significantly increased the proliferation of B cells and T cells induced by LPS and ConA, respectively. Treatment with GDB significantly increased the cytolytic capacity of NK cells and macrophages against YAC-1 and B16 cells, respectively. In order to further confirm and investigate the mechanism of GDB on macrophage activation, we analyzed the effects of GDB on the cytokine expression including iNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α in mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. RT-PCR and ELISA showed that GDB increased the expression of IL-1β, and TNF-α, whereas iNOS was not induced by GDB. Collectively, this series of experiments indicates that GDB stimulates immune system including macrophage activation.
doi:10.4196/kjpp.2011.15.2.101
PMCID: PMC3104198  PMID: 21660150
Glycoprotein; Macrophages; TNF-α; IL-1β

Results 1-8 (8)