Background and Purpose
PPAR-γ has been reported to be a protective regulator in ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) plays a major role in the innate immune response, and its expression is associated with PPAR-γ activation. Several angiotensin receptor blockers possess partial agonist activities towards PPAR-γ. Therefore, this study investigated the action of losartan, particularly with regard to PPAR-γ activation and RAGE signalling pathways during hepatic I/R.
Mice were subjected to 60 min of ischaemia followed by 6 h of reperfusion. Losartan (0.1, 1, 3 and 10 mg·kg−1) was administered 1 h prior to ischaemia and immediately before reperfusion. GW9662, a PPAR-γ antagonist, was administered 30 min prior to first pretreatment with losartan.
Losartan enhanced the DNA-binding activity of PPAR-γ in I/R. Losartan attenuated the increased serum alanine aminotransferase activity, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, and nuclear concentrations of NF-κB in I/R. GW9662 reversed these beneficial effects. Losartan caused a decrease in apoptosis as assessed by TUNEL assay, in release of cytochrome c and in cleavage of caspase-3, and these effects were abolished by GW9662 administration. Losartan attenuated not only I/R-induced RAGE overexpression, but also its downstream early growth response protein-1-dependent macrophage inflammatory protein 2 level; phosphorylation of p38, ERK and JNK; and subsequent c-Jun phosphorylation. GW9662 reversed these effects of losartan administration.
Conclusions and Implications
Our findings suggest that losartan ameliorates I/R-induced liver damage through PPAR-γ activation and down-regulation of the RAGE signalling pathway.