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1.  Protective Effects of Geniposide and Genipin against Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice 
Biomolecules & Therapeutics  2013;21(2):132-137.
Geniposide is an active product extracted from the gardenia fruit, and is one of the most widely used herbal preparations for liver disorders. This study examined the cytoprotective properties of geniposide and its metabolite, genipin, against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 6 h of reperfusion. Geniposide (100 mg/kg) and genipin (50 mg/kg) were administered orally 30 min before ischemia. In the I/R mice, the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic lipid peroxidation were elevated, whereas hepatic glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio was decreased. These changes were attenuated by geniposide and genipin administration. On the other hand, increased hepatic heme oxygenase-1 protein expression was potentiated by geniposide and genipin administration. The increased levels of tBid, cytochrome c protein expression and caspase-3 activity were attenuated by geniposide and genipin. Increased apoptotic cells in the I/R mice were also significantly reduced by geniposide and genipin treatment. Our results suggest that geniposide and genipin offer significant hepatoprotection against I/R injury by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis.
doi:10.4062/biomolther.2013.005
PMCID: PMC3762313  PMID: 24009871
Geniposide; Genipin; Ischemia; Reperfusion; Liver; Apoptosis
2.  Cracking Down On Youth Tobacco May Influence Drug Use 
This study evaluated the influence of tobacco Possession-Use-Purchase (PUP) law enforcement and illicit drug use and offers. Twenty-four towns were randomly assigned into two conditions. Both conditions focused on reducing minors’ access to commercial sources of tobacco. The communities assigned to the experimental condition also increased their PUP law enforcement, whereas among communities in the control condition, PUP law enforcement remained at low levels. A Hierarchical Linear Modeling analytical approach was selected due to the multilevel data and nested design. The likelihood of a child currently using drugs, ever having used drugs, or illicit drug offers was lower in the experimental versus control conditions. These outcomes suggest that police efforts to reduce specific substance use behaviors (i.e., underage tobacco use) may have a positive spillover effect and help reduce teen drug use and illicit drug offers.
doi:10.1002/jcop.20347
PMCID: PMC3155958  PMID: 21850151
Drug use; sales of drugs; PUP laws; minors’ access to tobacco

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