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1.  Antihypertensive potential of the aqueous extract which combine leaf of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae), stems and leaf of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf. (Poaceae), fruits of Citrus medical L. (Rutaceae) as well as honey in ethanol and sucrose experimental model 
Background
The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the aqueous extract obtained from the mixture of fresh leaf of Persea americana, stems and fresh leaf of Cymbopogon citratus, fruits of Citrus medica and honey on ethanol and sucrose induced hypertension in rats.
Methods
Rats were divided into eight groups of 6 rats each and daily treated for 5 weeks. The control group received distilled water (1 mL/kg) while rats of groups 2, 3 and 4 received ethanol 40 degrees (3 g/kg/day), 10% sucrose as drinking water and the two substances respectively. The remaining groups received in addition to sucrose and ethanol, the aqueous extract (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) or nifedipine (10 mg/kg) respectively. Many parameters including hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological were assessed at the end of the study.
Results
The concomitant consumption of ethanol and sucrose significantly (p < 0.001) increased the blood pressure and the heart rate compared to distilled water treated-rats. The levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, atherogenic index, glucose, proteins, AST, ALT, creatinin, potassium, sodium and albumin increased while the HDL-cholesterol decreased under ethanol and sucrose feeding. Chronic ethanol and sucrose intake significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrites whereas elevated the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Histological analysis revealed among other vascular congestion, inflammation, tubular clarification and thickening of the vessel wall in rats treated with alcohol and sucrose. Administration of the aqueous extract or nifedipine prevented the hemodynamic, biochemical, oxidative and histological impairments induced chronic ethanol and sucrose consumption.
Conclusion
Current results suggest that the aqueous extract used in this study possess antihypertensive activity against ethanol and sucrose induced hypertension in rats by the improvement of biochemical and oxidative status, and by protecting liver, kidney and vascular endothelium against damages induced by chronic consumption of ethanol and sucrose.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-507
PMCID: PMC4301628  PMID: 25519078
2.  Diuretic Activity of the Aqueous Extract Leaves of Ficus glumosa Del. (Moraceae) in Rats 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:693803.
Experiments were carried out to validate the use of F. glumosa extract as a diuretic in the treatment of hypertension as claimed by traditional healers. The experiments were performed under the same conditions with two synthetic pharmacological diuretics considered as check (Furosemide and Amiloride hydrochlorothiazide). The aqueous extract leaves of F. glumosa accelerated the elimination of overloaded fluid. At the maximum of diuretic response, urinary osmolarity decreased significantly when compared with controls. The single dose treatment of the aqueous extract leaves of F. glumosa has significantly increased urine volume 24 h after administration of the extract. The stability of aldosterone level, the absence of correlation with the plasma levels of sodium, and the increased clearance of free water in the animals receiving the extract show that increased diuresis and natriuresis moderate elevation are tubular in origin. The increase in Na+, K+, and Cl− induced by the extract caused alkalinization of the urine and showed a strong inhibitory effect of carbonic anhydrase and saluretic. These effects were mainly observed at the dose of 375 mg/kg. These observations confirm the traditional use in the treatment of hypertension and support the importance of the conservation of local knowledge as well as the conservation of Cameroonian biodiversity.
doi:10.1155/2014/693803
PMCID: PMC4212545  PMID: 25383375
3.  Memory-enhancing activities of the aqueous extract of Albizia adianthifolia leaves in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesion rodent model of Parkinson’s disease 
Background
Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach.) W. Wright (Fabaceae) is a traditional herb largely used in the African traditional medicine as analgesic, purgative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial and memory-enhancer drug. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the possible cognitive-enhancing and antioxidative effects of the aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesion rodent model of Parkinson’s disease.
Methods
The effect of the aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves (150 and 300 mg/kg, orally, daily, for 21 days) on spatial memory performance was assessed using Y-maze and radial arm-maze tasks, as animal models of spatial memory. Pergolide - induced rotational behavior test was employed to validate unilateral damage to dopamine nigrostriatal neurons. Also, in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed through the estimation of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents along with determination of free radical scavenging activity. Statistical analyses were performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were determined by Tukey’s post hoc test. F values for which p < 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and regression analysis were used in order to evaluate the association between behavioral parameters and net rotations in rotational behavior test.
Results
The 6-OHDA-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of spontaneous alternations percentage within Y-maze task and increase of working memory errors and reference memory errors within radial arm maze task. Administration of the aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves significantly improved these parameters, suggesting positive effects on spatial memory formation. Also, the aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves showed potent in vitro antioxidant activity. Furthermore, in vivo evaluation, the aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves attenuated the contralateral rotational asymmetry observed by pergolide challenge in 6-OHDA-treated rats.
Conclusions
Taken together, our results suggest that the aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves possesses antioxidant potential and might provide an opportunity for management neurological abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease conditions.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-142
PMCID: PMC4019966  PMID: 24884469
Albizia adianthifolia extract; Antioxidant activity; 6-hydroxydopamine-lesion rat; Memory; Parkinson disease
4.  Endothelium/Nitric Oxide Mediates the Vasorelaxant and Antihypertensive Effects of the Aqueous Extract from the Stem Bark of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae) 
This study evaluates the vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects of the aqueous extract from the stem bark of M. africana (AEMA). AEMA was tested in vitro on intact or endothelium-denuded rats' aorta rings precontracted with KCl or norepinephrine in absence or in presence of L-NAME or glibenclamide. The effect of a single concentration (300 μg/mL) of AEMA was also examined on the concentration-response curve of KCl. In vivo, the antihypertensive effects of AEMA (200 mg/kg/day) were evaluated in male Wistar rats treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. AEMA relaxed aorta rings precontracted with NE or KCl with respective EC50 values of 0.36 μg/mL and 197.60 μg/mL. The destruction of endothelium or pretreatment of aorta rings with L-NAME shifted the EC50 of AEMA from 0.36 μg/mL to 40.65 μg/mL and 20.20 μg/mL, respectively. The vasorelaxant activity of M. africana was significantly inhibited in presence of glibenclamide. AEMA also significantly inhibited the concentration-response curve of KCl. Administered orally, AEMA induced acute and chronic antihypertensive effects and normalized renal NO level. These results show that the vasorelaxant activity of AEMA might be mediated by the activation of the NO-cGMP-ATP-dependent potassium channels pathway and might predominantly account for its antihypertensive effect.
doi:10.1155/2012/961741
PMCID: PMC3447406  PMID: 23008745
5.  Antipyretic and antinociceptive effects of Nauclea latifolia root decoction and possible mechanisms of action 
Pharmaceutical Biology  2010;49(1):15-25.
Context
Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiacea) is a small tree, found in tropical areas in Africa. It is used in traditional medicine to treat malaria, epilepsy, anxiety, pain, fever etc.
Objective
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nauclea latifolia roots decoction on the peripheral and central nervous systems and its possible mechanisms of action.
Materials and methods
The analgesic investigation was carried out against acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced pain, hot-plate and tail immersion tests. The antipyretic activity was studied in Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. Rota-rod test and bicuculline-induced hyperactivity were used for the assessment of locomotor activity.
Results
Nauclea latifolia induced hypothermia and had antipyretic effects in mice. The plant decoction produced significant antinociceptive activity in all analgesia animal models used. The antinociceptive effect exhibited by the decoction in the formalin test was reversed by the systemic administration of naloxone, Nω-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester or glibenclamide. In contrast, theophylline did not reverse this effect. Nauclea latifolia (antinociceptive doses) did not exhibit significant effect on motor coordination of the mice in rota-rod performance. Nauclea latifolia protected mice against bicuculline-induced behavioural excitation.
Discussion and conclusion
Overall, these results demonstrate that the central and peripheral effects of Nauclea latifolia roots decoction might partially or wholly be due to the stimulation of peripheric opioid receptors through the action of the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-ATP-sensitive K+ (NO/cGMP/ATP)-channel pathway and/or facilitation of the GABAergic transmission.
doi:10.3109/13880209.2010.492479
PMCID: PMC3317381  PMID: 20822326
Nauclea latifolia; antipyretic; antinociceptive; mechanism; Analgesics; administration & dosage; pharmacology; Animals; Antipyretics; administration & dosage; pharmacology; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Fever; drug therapy; Male; Medicine, African Traditional; Mice; Motor Activity; drug effects; Pain; drug therapy; Plant Extracts; administration & dosage; pharmacology; Plant Roots; Receptors, Opioid; drug effects; metabolism; Rubiaceae; chemistry
6.  Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae) stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2010;42(4):208-213.
Objective:
The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats.
Material and Methods:
Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis.
Results:
M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME.
Conclusions:
The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.68418
PMCID: PMC2941609  PMID: 20927244
Antihypertensive; diuresis; glomerular filtration rate; L-NAME; Mammea africana
7.  Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Anacardium Occidentale Linn (Anacardiaceae) Leaves Hexane Extract in Mice 
These studies focus on the toxicity leaf hexane extract of A. occidentale L (Anacardiaceae) used in Cameroon traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. Previous findings on antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory have given support to the ethnopharmacological applications of the plant. After acute oral administration, it was found that doses of the extract less than 6 g/kg are not toxic. Signs of toxicity at high doses were asthenia, anorexia, diarrhoea, and syncope. The LD50 of the extract, determined in mice of both sexes after oral administration was 16 g/kg. In the subchronic study, mice received A. occidentale at doses of 6, 10 and 14 g/kg (by oral route) for 56 days. At doses of 2, 6 and 10 g/kg of extract, repeated oral administration to mice produced a reduction in food intake, weight gain, and behavioural effects. Liver or the kidney function tests were assessed by determining serum parameters like, creatinine, transaminases, and urea. All these parameters were significantly (p<0.01) abnormal. Histopatological studies revealed evidence of microcopic lesions either in the liver or in the kidney which may be correlated with biochemical disturbances. We conclude that toxic effects of A. occidentale L hexane leaf extract occurred at higher doses than those used in Cameroon folk medicine.
PMCID: PMC2816447  PMID: 20162085
Toxicity; Anacardum occidentale; Hexane extract; mice
8.  Antidiabetic Effect of Ceiba Pentandra Extract on Streptozo-tocin-induced Non-insulin-dependent Diabetic (NIDDM) Rats 
The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of daily oral administration of root bark methylene chloride/methanol extract of Ceiba pentandra (Linn) in streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetic rats, and the effect of this treatment on the physiological and metabolic parameters that are related in diabetic animals. The diabetic rats were separated into four groups and each given the following samples by gavage, daily for 28 days: vehicle (diabetic control), Ceiba pentandra extract at the dose of 40 mg/kg, Ceiba pentandra extract at the dose of 75 mg/kg and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). All the parameters were also determined in healthy (non diabetic) rats for comparison. The methylene chloride/methanol extract of Ceiba pentandra treatment significantly reduced the intake of both food and water as well as the levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and urea, in comparison with diabetic controls. The treatment also improves impaired glucose tolerance but no effect was observed in the level of hepatic glycogen. The effect of Ceiba pentandra (40 mg/kg) was more prominent when compared to glibenclamide in lowering blood glucose, with the added benefit of considerably reducing serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. The results of this experimental animal study indicated that Ceiba pentandra possesses antidiabetic activity; and thus is capable of ameliorating hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetic rats and is a potential source for isolation of new orally active agent(s) for anti-diabetic therapy.
PMCID: PMC2816421  PMID: 20162071
Ceiba pentandra; Plant extract; Type 2 diabetes; Streptozotocin

Results 1-8 (8)