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1.  Antidepressant Properties of Aqueous Macerate from Gladiolus Dalenii Corms 
Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel (Iridaceae) has been used for the treatment of depression and psychotic disorders in African traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the aqueous extract from the corm of Gladiolus dalenii and its possible mechanisms of action.
Materials and Methods
We assessed the antidepressant properties of G. dalenii corm aqueous extract in mice, using the open field, forced swimming, and tail suspension tests. Spontaneous locomotor activity of mice given various doses of G. dalenii extract (per os) was determined in the open field, whereas immobility was evaluated in the other two tests.
Extract maximal effect was observed at 15 mg/kg, as mice displayed a marked reduction in immobility time in both the forced swimming test (80%) and the tail suspension test (66%). In further studies aimed at investigating the mechanism of action of G. dalenii extract, the latter significantly antagonized the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, 75 mg/kg) at both the doses 15 mg/kg (p<0.001) and 150 mg/kg (p=0.004). A significant reduction in immobility time was also observed following treatment with combinations of a sub-effective dose of extract (7.5 mg/kg) with either the NMDA receptor antagonist D-(−)-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (D-AP7, 50 mg/kg, P< 0.001), the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (5 and 10 mg/kg, P< 0.001and P< 0.001 respectively), and the multi-target antidepressant imipramine (5 and 10 mg/kg, P< 0.001 and P< 0.001 respectively). Moreover, neither G. dalenii extract alone nor its combinations with NMDA ligands imipramine and fluoxetine enhanced mouse spontaneous locomotor activity.
Altogether, these results suggest that G. dalenii has antidepressant properties, probably mediated through interactions with NMDA, serotonin and/ or noradrenergic systems, and may justify its use in traditional medicine.
PMCID: PMC3957241  PMID: 24653553
Gladiolus dalenii; depression; forced swimming test; tail suspension test; open field test; therapy
2.  Antipyretic and antinociceptive effects of Nauclea latifolia root decoction and possible mechanisms of action 
Pharmaceutical Biology  2010;49(1):15-25.
Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiacea) is a small tree, found in tropical areas in Africa. It is used in traditional medicine to treat malaria, epilepsy, anxiety, pain, fever etc.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nauclea latifolia roots decoction on the peripheral and central nervous systems and its possible mechanisms of action.
Materials and methods
The analgesic investigation was carried out against acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced pain, hot-plate and tail immersion tests. The antipyretic activity was studied in Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. Rota-rod test and bicuculline-induced hyperactivity were used for the assessment of locomotor activity.
Nauclea latifolia induced hypothermia and had antipyretic effects in mice. The plant decoction produced significant antinociceptive activity in all analgesia animal models used. The antinociceptive effect exhibited by the decoction in the formalin test was reversed by the systemic administration of naloxone, Nω-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester or glibenclamide. In contrast, theophylline did not reverse this effect. Nauclea latifolia (antinociceptive doses) did not exhibit significant effect on motor coordination of the mice in rota-rod performance. Nauclea latifolia protected mice against bicuculline-induced behavioural excitation.
Discussion and conclusion
Overall, these results demonstrate that the central and peripheral effects of Nauclea latifolia roots decoction might partially or wholly be due to the stimulation of peripheric opioid receptors through the action of the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-ATP-sensitive K+ (NO/cGMP/ATP)-channel pathway and/or facilitation of the GABAergic transmission.
PMCID: PMC3317381  PMID: 20822326
Nauclea latifolia; antipyretic; antinociceptive; mechanism; Analgesics; administration & dosage; pharmacology; Animals; Antipyretics; administration & dosage; pharmacology; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Fever; drug therapy; Male; Medicine, African Traditional; Mice; Motor Activity; drug effects; Pain; drug therapy; Plant Extracts; administration & dosage; pharmacology; Plant Roots; Receptors, Opioid; drug effects; metabolism; Rubiaceae; chemistry

Results 1-2 (2)