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Advances in Virology (1)
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Rosenkilde, Mette Marie (2)
Davis-Poynter, Nicholas (1)
Hartmann, Bolette (1)
Holst, Jens Juul (1)
Jensen, Ann-Sofie Mølleskov (1)
Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander Hovard (1)
Toräng, Signe (1)
Veedfald, Simon (1)
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author:("roskilde, Mette Marie")
Structural Diversity in Conserved Regions Like the DRY-Motif among Viral 7TM Receptors—A Consequence of Evolutionary Pressure?
Jensen, Ann-Sofie Mølleskov
Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander Hovard
Advances in Virology
Several herpes- and poxviruses have captured chemokine receptors from their hosts and modified these to their own benefit. The human and viral chemokine receptors belong to class A 7 transmembrane (TM) receptors which are characterized by several structural motifs like the DRY-motif in TM3 and the C-terminal tail. In the DRY-motif, the arginine residue serves important purposes by being directly involved in G protein coupling. Interestingly, among the viral receptors there is a greater diversity in the DRY-motif compared to their endogenous receptor homologous. The C-terminal receptor tail constitutes another regulatory region that through a number of phosphorylation sites is involved in signaling, desensitization, and internalization. Also this region is more variable among virus-encoded 7TM receptors compared to human class A receptors. In this review we will focus on these two structural motifs and discuss their role in viral 7TM receptor signaling compared to their endogenous counterparts.
The anorexic hormone Peptide YY3–36 is rapidly metabolized to inactive Peptide YY3–34 in vivo
Holst, Jens Juul
Peptide YY (PYY) is a 36 amino acid peptide hormone released from enteroendocrine cells. An N-terminally degraded metabolite, PYY3–36, has anorexigenic effects, which makes the PYY system a target for obesity treatment. However, little is known about the kinetics and degradation products of PYY. A related peptide, Neuropeptide Y (NPY), may be degraded from the C-terminus. We therefore investigated PYY degradation after in vitro incubations in porcine plasma and blood and in vivo by infusing PYY3–36 into multicatheterized pigs (n = 7) (2 pmol/kg/min). Plasma samples were analyzed by region-specific radioimmunoassays (RIA) and HPLC analysis. A metabolite, corresponding to PYY3–34 was formed after incubation in plasma and blood and during the infusion study. When taking the C-terminal degradation into account, the half-life (T½) of PYY in blood and plasma amounted to 3.4 ± 0.2 and 6.2 ± 0.2 h, respectively. After PYY3–36 infusion in pigs, the peptide was degraded with a T½ of 3.6 ± 0.5 min. Significant extraction (20.5 ± 8.0%) compatible with glomerular filtration was observed across the kidneys and significant C-terminal degradation (26.5 ± 4.8%) was observed across the liver. Net balances across the hind limb, splanchnic bed, and lungs were not significantly different from zero. PYY3–34 was unable to activate the Y2 receptor in a transfected cell line. In conclusion, PYY3–36 is extensively degraded to PYY3–34 in the pig, a degradation that renders the peptide inactive on the Y2 receptor. Currently used assays are unlikely to be able to detect this degradation and therefore measure falsely elevated levels of PYY3–36, leading to underestimation of its physiological effects.
Degradation; kinetics; Peptide YY
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