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1.  Inhibition of Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in Glioblastoma Cells by Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus 
Advances in Virology  2012;2012:815465.
Successful oncolytic virus treatment of malignant glioblastoma multiforme depends on widespread tumor-specific lytic virus replication and escape from mitigating innate immune responses to infection. Here we characterize a new HSV vector, JD0G, that is deleted for ICP0 and the joint sequences separating the unique long and short elements of the viral genome. We observed that JD0G replication was enhanced in certain glioblastoma cell lines compared to HEL cells, suggesting that a vector backbone deleted for ICP0 may be useful for treatment of glioblastoma. The innate immune response to virus infection can potentially impede oncolytic vector replication in human tumors. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed in response to interferon γ (IFNγ) and has been linked to both antiviral functions and to the immune escape of tumor cells. We observed that IFNγ treatment of human glioblastoma cells induced the expression of IDO and that this expression was quelled by infection with both wild-type and JD0G viruses. The role of IDO in inhibiting virus replication and the connection of this protein to the escape of tumor cells from immune surveillance suggest that IDO downregulation by HSV infection may enhance the oncolytic activity of vectors such as JD0G.
PMCID: PMC3424635  PMID: 22924042
2.  K13 Blocks KSHV Lytic Replication and Deregulates vIL6 and hIL6 Expression: A Model of Lytic Replication Induced Clonal Selection in Viral Oncogenesis 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(10):e1067.
Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulated expression of lytic genes plays an important role in KSHV (Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus) tumorigenesis. However, the molecular events leading to the dysregulation of KSHV lytic gene expression program are incompletely understood.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We have studied the effect of KSHV-encoded latent protein vFLIP K13, a potent activator of the NF-κB pathway, on lytic reactivation of the virus. We demonstrate that K13 antagonizes RTA, the KSHV lytic-regulator, and effectively blocks the expression of lytic proteins, production of infectious virions and death of the infected cells. Induction of lytic replication selects for clones with increased K13 expression and NF-κB activity, while siRNA-mediated silencing of K13 induces the expression of lytic genes. However, the suppressive effect of K13 on RTA-induced lytic genes is not uniform and it fails to block RTA-induced viral IL6 secretion and cooperates with RTA to enhance cellular IL-6 production, thereby dysregulating the lytic gene expression program.
Our results support a model in which ongoing KSHV lytic replication selects for clones with progressively higher levels of K13 expression and NF-κB activity, which in turn drive KSHV tumorigenesis by not only directly stimulating cellular survival and proliferation, but also indirectly by dysregulating the viral lytic gene program and allowing non-lytic production of growth-promoting viral and cellular genes. Lytic Replication-Induced Clonal Selection (LyRICS) may represent a general mechanism in viral oncogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2020437  PMID: 17957251

Results 1-2 (2)